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PROCEEDINGS 






OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



WASHINGTON 





Volume XXI 



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1919 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXI 

Page 

ALDRICH, J. M.: Two new genera of A ntlwmyidae (Dipt.). . Klii 

BAKER, A. C.: The identity of Smynthurodes betae Westwood (Horn.). :;ii 
An undescribed species of Dryopea injurious to Phyl- 

lostachys (Aphididae Horn.) 104 

BARBER, H. S. : Avocado seed weevils ~<:\ 

Bovixo, ADAM G., BUSCK, A., and CAUDELL, A. N.: Captain Allan 

Hinson Jen- 
nings 61 

BURKE, H. E.: Notes on a cocoon making Colydiid (Coleopt.) 128 

Notes on the California oak worm, Phryganidia ctili- 

fornica (Lepid.) 124 

BUSCK, AUGUST : Two Microlepideptera injurious to strawberry 52 

A Microlepidopteron injurious to Avocado 128 

On some generic synonomy in the family Gelechiidae 

(Lep.) 94 

A new species of BucculairiK injurious to Holly- 
hock (Lep.) 109 

BUSCK, A., with CAUDELL, A. N., and HOWARD, L. O.: Frederick 

Knab.. 41 

BUSCK, A., with BOVING, ADAM G., and PIERCE, W. DWIGHT: Captain 

Allan 
Hinson 

^ Jennings 61 

BUSCK, AUGUST, HUNTER, W. D., and HEINRICH, CARL: Emerson Lis- 

cum Diven 177 

CAUDELL, A. N. : Palmodes Praestans and its prey (Orth.) 40 

CAUDELL, A. N., with BUSCK, A., and HOWARD, L. O.: Frederick Knab 41 
CRAMPTON, G. C.: The genitalia and terminal abdominal structures of 

males, and the terminal abdominal structures of 
the larvae of " Chalastogastrous" Hymenoptera. . . 129 

CUSHMAN, R. A.: New genera and species of Ichneumon flies (Hym.) 112 
FISHER, W. S. : A new genus and species of Cerambycidae from Colo- 
rado (Coleo.) 38 

Descriptions of a new genus and species of Burpres- 

tidae from Arizona (Col.) 

FISHER, W. S. : Descriptions of North American Ptinidae, with notes 

on an introduced Japanese species 181 

Notes on Macrobasis murina Leconte (Coleo.) 1 

GAHAN, A. B.: A new genus of Chalcid-wasp belonging to the family 

Eulophidae 2 

A new species of the Serphidoid genus Dendrocerus 
(Hymenoptera) 121 



CONTENTS 

GAHAN, A. B.: Descriptions of seven new species of Opius (Hymen- 

optera Braconidae) 161 

GREENE, CHARLES T.: A new genus in Scatophagidae (Diptera) 126 

HEINRICH, CARL, with BUSCK, A., and HUNTER, W. D.: Emerson Lis- 

cum Diven. . 177 

HERBERT, FRANK B.: A new species of Matsucocctis from pines in Cali- 
fornia (Hemip.-Homop.) 157 

HUNTER. W. D., with BUSCK, A., and HEINRICH, C.: Emerson Liscum 

Diven 1 77 

HUTCHISON, R. H., and PIERCE, W. D.: Studies on the dry cleaning 

process as a means of de- 
stroying body lice 8 

HOWARD, L. O., with CAUDELL, A. N., and BUSCK, A.: Frederick Knab 41 

MALLOCK, J. R.: The generic status of Zodion palpalis Robertson (Dip- 
tera, Conopidae) with generic key to the family. . . . i'l)4 
MORRISON, HAROLD: A report on a collection of Coccidae from Argen- 
tina, with descriptions of apparently new 

species (Horn.) 63 

A new genus and species of Coccid from Lor- 

anthus (Hem. -Horn.) 1U7 

MOSIER, C. A., and SNYDER, T. E.: Notes on the seasonal activity 

of Tabanidae in the lower Ever- 
glades of Florida 186 

PIERCE, W. DWIGHT: Contributions to our knowledge of the weevils 

of the superfamily Curculionoidea '2\ 

PIERCE, W. DWIGHT, with BUSCK, AUGUST, and BOVING, ADAM G.: 

Captain 
Allan 
Hinson 
Jennings 61 

PIERCE, W. D., with HUTCHISON, R. H.: Studies on the dry cleaning 

process as a means of de- 
stroying body lice 

ROHWER, S. A.: Description of a new Cynipoid from Trinidad 1 ">(> 

Descriptions of three parasites of Agrilus angelic us 

(Hym.) 4 

SHANNON, R. C., with SNYDER, T. E.: Notes on the insect fauna of 

Bank Swallows' nests in Vir- 
ginia 110 

SNYDER, T. E.: Some significant structural modifications in nearctic 

termites $7 

SNYDER, T. E., with MOSIER, C. A.: Notes on the seasonal activity 

of Tabanidae in the lower 
Everglades of Florida 186' 

II 



CONTENTS 

SNYDER, T. E., and SHANNON, R. C.: Notes on the insect fauna of 

Bank Swallows' nests in Vir- 
ginia 110 

TAKAHASHI, RYOICHI: Notes on some Japanese Aphididae 173 

TOWNSEND, CHARLES H. T. : Notes on Leskiine synonymy (Dipt.). ... 20 
WICKHAM, H. F. : Scaphinotus (Pseudonomaretus) mannii n. sp. (Cole- 

optera Carabidae) 170 

Two new species of A saphidion from North Amer- 
ica (Coleoptera, Carabidae) 178 



III 



VOL. 21 JANUARY 1919 No. 1 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

FISHER, W. S. NOTE ON MACROBASIS MURINA LECONTE (COLEO.) 1 

GAHAN, A. B. A NEW GENUS OF CHALCID-WASP BELONGING TO THE 

FAMILY EULOPHIDAE 2 

HUTCHISON, R. H., AND PIERCE, W. D. STUDIES ON THE DRY CLEANING 

PROCESS AS A MEANS OF DESTROYING BODY LICE 8 

ROHWER, S. A. DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE PARASITES OF AGRILUS 

ANGELICUS (HYM.) 4 

TOWNSEND, CHARLES H. T. NOTE ON LESKIINE SYNONYMY (DIPT.) 20 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Application for transfer of entry as second-class matter made at the post office at Wash- 
ington, D. C., under the act of July 16, 1894. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized 

on July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President E. R. SASSCER 

First Vice- President W. R. WALTON 

Second Vice-President. . A. B. GAHAN 

Recording Secretary ^ R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor. . A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Representing the Society as a Vice-President of the Washington Academy of 

Science.. . .S. A. ROHWER 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

THE OFFICERS. 
A. N. CAUDELL. A. L. QUAINTANCE. CHAS. R. ELY. 



PROCEEDINGS 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
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tributors may secure information on these points by application to the Editor 
or Corresponding Secretary. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 21 JANUARY, Hi Mi No. 1 

NOTE ON MACROBASIS MURINA LECONTE (COLEO.j. 
BY W. S. FISHER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. Washington, D. C. 

In 1853 LeConte in his "Synopsis of the Meloides of the United 
States" (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VI, p. 344) described a 
species of Meloidae under the name Lytta marina from two male 
specimens from Lake Superior. When Dr. Horn wrote his "Re- 
vision of the Species of Several Genera of Meloidae of the United 
States" (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., XIII, p. 92 (1873)) he placed 
this species as a synonym of Macrobasis unicolor Kirby with the 
following remark: "The species known as murina appears to be 
merely a badly developed form and not entitled to rank as a 
species." After this date the name has been dropped entirely 
from our lists. 

Among a lot of specimens received from Mr. F. E. Cobb, 
Mandan, North Dakota, there was a series of both sexes of this 
species which shows it to be quite distinct from unicolor, with 
which it has been placed as a synonym, and therefore, LeConte's 
name will have to be restored to our lists as a valid species. 

It is closely related to unicolor and at first glance may be mis- 
taken for a rubbed specimen of that species, but on closer ob- 
servation, it can be easily distinguished from that species by the 
sparse pubescence which is almost invisible on some of the specimens, 
allowing the surface of the elytra to be plainly seen and giving 
the beetle a blackish appearance, while in unicolor, the pubescence 
is more dense and conspicuous, nearly obscuring the surface of the 
elytra and giving the beetle a cinerous appearance. In murina 
the second joint of the antennae in the male is nearly as long 
as the following three joints united, slightly arcuate and com 
pressed, being twice as wide as the third which is cylindrical, 
while in unicolor the second joint in the male is scarcely as long 
as the following two joints united, straight and only slightly 
compressed. 

Mr. Cobb submitted specimens of both species with his letter 
of June 22, 1917, in which he writes, "These have been proving 
quite a serious menace to the Caraana sp. growing at tin- station. 
They appear to be two species. The medium and small black and 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 

gray beetles breed with like color but do not cross, tho they 
have every appearance of being the same. They feed almost 
exclusively on the young growth and eat it entirely to the rib 
of the leaflets. There were a few seen last year but not to the 
extent to cause any special treatment for them." 

The species is represented in the collection of the U. S. National 
Museum by the following material : Eagle Harbor, Lake Superior, 
June (Hubbard & Schwarz); Eagle River, Lake Superior (Hub- 
bard & Schwarz); Marquette, Michigan, June and July (Hub- 
bard & Schwarz); Euclid, Minnesota, June 13, 1896 (R. P. 
Currie); Dakota (C. V. Riley, Coll.); Nebraska (H. Ulke); El- 
more, South Dakota, June and July (J. L. Webb) ; Mandan, North 
Dakota (F. E. Cobb). 

Dr. Paul Standley, Botanist of the Smithsonian Institution, 
has informed me that Caragana is a genus of trees found in southern 
Europe and Asia, which has been introduced into the United 
States for ornamental purposes and is sometimes known as the 
Pea Tree. 



A NEW GENUS OF CHALCID-WASP BELONGING TO THE FAMILY 

EULOPHIDAE. 

BY A. B. GAHAN, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

The new genus described below is remarkable among Eulophids 
because of the fact that it is practically wingless. This character 
at once distinguishes it from all other Eulophid genera known 
to the writer, with the exception of Melittobia. The latter genus 
is apterous or subapterous in the male sex only, while the new 
genus is wingless in the female. The male is unknown. The 
new genus is apparently not closely related to Melittobia since 
the antennal pedicel is longer, there are three distinct ring-joints 
and the funicle joints are more elongate; the scutellum is without 
any longitudinal grooves, the pronotum is shorter, the propodeum 
shorter and sculptured, while the general habitus of the insect is 
quite different, it being much more compact in appearance. 

The classification of the Eulophidae into subfamilies and tribes 
is largely based on wing venation which makes it extremely 
difficult to place this wingless form with any degree of accuracy. 
It appears however to belong to the subfamily Elachertinae, 
and to be very closely related to the genus Miotropis as represented 
by M. clisiocampae Ashmead. In fact, except for the undeveloped 
wings and a somewhat shorter propodeum it might well be con- 
sidered to belong to Miotropis. The new form is readily rec- 
ognized, however, and seems to be deserving of a new generic 
name which I have accordingly given it below. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 '.', 

Family EULOPHIDAE. 
Subfamily ELACHERTINAE. 
Apterolophus new genus. 

Antennae inserted at the clypeus, 11-jointcd, consisting of a slender scape, 
elongate pedicel, three distinct ring-joints, a .'j-jointed funicle, and a 3-jointed 
club. Head viewed from in front approximately as long as broad; antennal 
depression broad and deep, extending to the front ocellus; viewed from above 
the head is transverse, ocelli small, in an obtuse triangle, the lateral ocelli 
distant from the eye margins, occiput concave and immargined; ma idibles 
both tridentate, the ventral tooth acute and prominent, the two dorsal teeth 
very minute, dorsal margin of the mandible with a deep emargination near 
the middle; thorax somewhat flattened, pronotum short, more or less conical 
with a marginal row of about six stiff bristles; mesoscutum broader than long, 
only slightly convex, without a median groove, but with the parapsidal 
grooves deep and complete and with two pairs of stiff bristles on the prae- 
scutum, the axillae each with a single bristle; scutellum broader than long, 
only slightly convex, without any longitudinal grooves and with two pairs 
of widely separated bristles; metanotum short; propodeum short, granularly 
opaque, with a weak median longitudinal carina; wings reduced to mere 
scale-like appendages which barely extend beyond the base of abdomen; 
legs moderately slender, tarsi four-jointed, the hind tibiae apparently with 
two spurs, one of which is very minute; abdomen sessile, as viewed from above 
short, nearly circular in outline and usually broader than the thorax, the dor- 
sum nearly flat; ovipositor wholly concealed. 

Type of the genus. Apterolophus pulchricornis, new species. 

Apterolophus pulchricornis, new species. 

Female. Length .9 mm. Vertex and antennal depression smooth, checks 
and inner orbits very faintly sculptured; occiput finely reticulate; inesoscutum 
and scutellum faintly reticulate; metanotum and propodeum very fimlv 
granularly opaque; abdomen smooth. Antennal pedicel more than twice 
as long as thick and equal to or very slightly longer than the first funicle 
joint which is distinctly the longest of the funicle joints; joint two of the funicK 1 
very slightly longer than joint three, the latter about one and one-half times 
as long as thick; club conico-cylindrical, scarcely broader than the funicle, 
a little longer than the two preceding funicle joints combined and 3-jointi . ! 
the joints subequal in length; ring-joints all transverse, the third about twice 
as broad as long and approximately equal to the other two combined. Scape, 
pedicel, ring-joints and club white; funicle joints black; head black; entire 
thorax and all legs pale testaceous; abdomen brownish black. Male unknown. 

Type locality. -Leeds, N. Y. 
Type. Cat. No. 21910 U. S. N. M. 



4 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 

Type and five paratypes mounted on card points and one 
paratype on a slide. Also antennae and mandibles of a seventh 
paratype mounted on a slide. All of these specimens were taken 
in August, 1918, crawling over the body of what is believed to be 
the prepupal larva of Epargyeus tityrus collected by Dr. W. M. 
Mann. Although there is no positive proof to support the 
assertion that the species is parasitic upon Epargyeus, it is 
likely that these females were upon the caterpillar for the purpose 
of ovipositing. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE PARASITES OF AGRILUS ANGELICUS 

(HYM.). 

BY S. A. ROHWER, Bureau of Entomology. 

In a lot of Hymenopterous parasites of Agrilus angelicus Horn, 
recently submitted by H. E. Burke, were three new species. As 
it is desirable that their names be available, descriptions are 
presented herewith. 

Genus Ptinobius Ashmead. 

The antenna of the species of this genus has never been de- 
scribed and since they are unusual I take this opportunity to 
publish a figure of the antenna of each sex. The terminal joint 
is practically without sutures and the antenna appears to be 
eleven-jointed. 

Key to the species. 

1. Propodeum covered with thimble-like punctures magnificus (Ashmead) 
Propodeum smooth, polished 

2. Hind femora metallic; a dusky band below the marginal vein 

califoniicus Crawford. 

Hind femora mostly ferruginous; area below the marginal vein hy- 
aline > 

2. Hind femora metallic; a dusky band below the marginal vein 

. . . . ; californicus Crawford. 

Hind femora mostly ferruginous; area below the marginal vein hy- 
aline 

o. Ocellocular line half as long as the interocular line; lateral furrows 
of propodeum foveolatc; area along median carina of propodeum 
punctured; the spot below the end of submarginal vein joining the 
band below the postmarginal vein .tcxuinis Crawford. 

Ocellocular line more than half as long as interocular line; lateral 
furrows of propodeum not foveolate; area along median carina 
smooth; spot below end of submarginal vein separated from the 
band below the postmarginal ii^ri/i Rohwer. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 O 

Ptinobius agrili, new species. 

Female. Length 4.25 mm. The anterior margin of the clypcus slightly 
reflexed, medianly with two grooves which converge dorsally so if continued 
they would meet between the antennae; head reticulate, below the middle 
of the eyes the reticulation tends to become concentric from the clupeus; 
ocelli in a low triangle, the interocellar line somewhat longer than the ocellocu- 
lar line which is subequal with the greatest diameter of a lateral ocellus ; seen 
from in front the inner margins of the eyes are parallel dorsally but sharply 
divergent below the middle; antenna as in figure; notum reticulato-punctate, 
more coarsely so on scutum and axillae; pronotum twice as wide as posterior 
width; propodeum polished, with a strong median carina; spiracles oval, 




ANTENNA OF Ptinobius agrili ROHWER. 



twice as long as wide; prcpectus and mesopleurae reticulato-punctate; meta- 
pleurae smooth shining dorsally, rathej feebly sculptured ventrallv; hind 
coxae very large, shining, but covered with reticulations j.first tergite and apical 
margins of the following smooth and shining; basal middle of the second 
tergite, most of the third, fourth and fifth, reticulato-punctate; sixth tergite 
shining but with setigerous punctures. Head and thorax bron/.y green. 
abdomen green with purplish reflections; antennae, except black apical joint, 
and legs beyond coxae, except a metallic green spot on apccies of hind femora 
exteriorly, ferruginous; wings hyaline with a dusky spot below end of sub- 



6 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. I, JAN., 1919 

marginal, and a dusky band, which is broader in middle, below postmarginal; 
submarginal vein yellowish, remaining veins pale brown; body sparsely 
clothed with white hair. 

Male. Length 2.5 mm. Besides the usual sexual and secondary sexual 
characters, the male differs from the female only in having the sculpture 
more decicate. Head and thorax metallic green with a bronzy tint; abdomen 
metallic blue; legs, except the yellowish tarsi, metallic green; scape green, 
remaining joints black; wings hyaline with an elongate dusky spot which 
extends nearly across wing below postmarginal. 

Type locality. Palo Alto, California. Described from one 
female (type) and one male (allotype) reared from twigs of 
Ouercus agri folia infested by Agrilus angelicus and recorded under 
Bureau of Entomology No. Hopk. U. S. 12707a 8c . Material 
collected and reared by H. E. Burke. Also one paratype female 
reared from twigs of Ouercus agrifolia, infested by Agrilus 
angelicus, collected by A. G. Smith at Pasadena, California. 

Type. Cat. No. 21994 U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Dinotus agrili, new species. 

This new species runs satisfactorily to the genus Dinotus in 
both Ashmead's and Kurdjumov's keys and agrees well with a 
European specimen of this genus received from G. Mayr. In the 
American species the stigmatical vein is somewhat less widened 
and the abdomen is more ovate. 

Female. Length 2.5 mm. Head reticulato-punctate, more finely so on 
the vertex; interocellar line distinctly longer than the ocellocular line but 
not half as long as the postocellar line; antenna with three ring joints, the 
first funicle joint distinctly longer than any of the following which are of 
subequal length; club not prominent, broadly lanceolate, three jointed, the 
first two joints subequal the third shorter; pronotum narrow, sharply trun- 
cate anteriorly; mesonotum reticulato-punctate, the scutellum somewhat 
more finely so; propodeum shining, median and lateral carina^ prominent; 
mesepisternum and sides of propodeum reticulato-punctate; abdomen ovate, 
acute apically, shining; stigmatical vein greatly thickened apically the thick- 
ened part nearly trapezoidal in outline, the outer side of the vein but slightly 
thickened. Bronzy green with the Ifronze more prominent on scutellum and 
middle of the abdomen; scape, tibiae (except faint basal infuscation on the 
hind pair) the tarsi ferruginous; apices of hind tibiae whitish; wings hyaline, 
venation pale brown. 

Type locality. Pasadena, California. Described from four 
females (one type) reared by H. E. Burke from twigs of Ouercus 
agrifolia infested by Agrilus angelicus collected by A. G. Smith. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 7 

Material recorded under Bureau of Entomology Xo. Hopk. 
U. S. 1306Sa 4 *. 

Type. Cat. No. 21993 U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Doryctes maculipennis, new species. 

The spotted wings will readily distinguish this species from any 
of its allies. Ashmead had given this species a manuscript name 
after one of its hosts, but since it has more than one host it seems 
to be desirable to chose a different name and I know of no Braconid 
which can more appropriately be called maculipennis. 

Female. Length 3.5; ovipositor beyond abdomen 1.25 mm. Head slightly 
narrowing posteriorly, smooth and shining, practically without punctures; 
dorsal aspect of pronotum granular; scutum granular with faint aciculations 
laterally, and medianly irregularly roughened; suture in front of the scutellum 
without regular rugae; scuttellum more shining than the scutum, with a 
few raised lines; propodeum shining dorsally and with fine, scattered punc- 
tures; median and transverse carinae rather well defined; mesepisternum 
mostly smooth and shining; first recurrent one-fifth its length basad of first 
intercubitus; second intercubitus obsolesent; second and third abcissae of 
radius subequal in length; nervulus postfurcal by nearly its length; first 
two and base of third tergites granular and in addition with irregular wrinkles 
which are stronger basally; apical part of third and all the remaining tergites 
smooth and shining; ovipositor about half as long as the abdomen. Black; 
legs and an obscure U-shaped band on second tergite piceous; wings hyaline, 
the anterior wing with many fuscous spots arranged thus; along basal and 
extending into submedian cell apically, along first abcissa of cubitus, on 
both sides of first abcissa of radius and in first cubital behind first intercubitus, 
longitudinal line in second cubital, subcircular spot a basal middle of third 
cubital, subquadrate spot at anterior middle of radial, spot on both sides 
at apex of radius, spot in apical middle of third cubital, two spots in branchical 
cell, one near base and other near apex, and both sides of recurrent; venation 
dark brown. Body sparsely covered with rather long white hair. 

Male. Length 3.5 mm. Other than the usual sexual differences agrees 
with the female. 

Paratypes show that the strength of the irregular lines on the 
tergites varies with the size of the specimen, and that the exact 
size of the fuscous wing spots may vary. In one specimen the 
apical spots are so enlarged as to be almost confluent. 

Type locality. Shingle- Springs, California. Described from 
two females (one type) and two males (one allotype) reared from 
cocoons taken in the larval mines of a species of Antlm.\'ia work- 
ing in redbud (Celtic ivnifonnis). Material collected and reared 
by H. E. Burke under Bureau of Entomology No. Hopk. I'. S. 
12719 b 1 (type and two males) and 12719 />-. ' 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 

Other localities. Palo Alto, California. Three females and 
three males recorded under Bureau of Entomology Nos. Hopk. 
U. S. 12707 e l and 12707 e s . Material collected and reared by 
H. E. Burke who notes it is parasitic on Agrilus angelicus living 
in twigs of Ouercus agrifolia. Chirichaua Mountains, Arizona. 
Two females and three males reared by H. G. Hubbard under his 
number 7451 which states it is parasitic on Chramesws n. sp., 
mining in Robinia neomexicana. 

Type. Cat. No. 21991, U. S. Nat. Mus. 



STUDIES ON THE DRY CLEANING PROCESS AS A MEANS OF DES- 
TROYING BODY LICE. 

BY R. H. HUTCHISON AND W. D. PIERCE, Bureau of Entomology. 

At the request of Dr. H. E. Mechling, Chief of the Dry Cleaning 
Branch, Salvage Division, in the office of the Director of Purchase 
and Storage, Q. M. C., U. S. Army, we have undertaken a series 
of tests to determine the efficiency of the dry cleaning processes 
as a means of freeing garments of the body lice, Pediadus humanus, 
var. corporis (vestimenti) . In this work we were influenced by the 
following consideration; namely, that there is serious objection 
to treatment of wool uniforms, overcoats or other woolen dress 
goods by steam under pressure on account of the resulting shrink- 
age and actual damage to the material. Fulton and Staniford 1 
have shown how the steam sterilization method can be modified 
to avoid such damage, but their process requires very careful 
observation and a skilled operator. If, then, the dry cleaning 
process is effective in destroying lice and nits, it is unquestionably 
a better practice for the treatment of infested woolens in that 
there is no tendency to shrinkage nor damage to the goods, while 
in addition cleansing and sterilizing is effected. 

We include in this article the substance of our reports to Doctor 
Mechling concerning the practical dry cleaning experiments and 
have added the results of certain laboratory tests made to elucidate 
certain points which came up in the course of the work. It is 
published with the hope that it will be of interest and of some 
value, not only to those concerned with the care of the soldiers 
during demobilization, but also to quarantine, immigration, 
jail, hospital, and public health officials who may have to consider 
delousing measures in the course of their work. Our results will 
also serve to correct erroneous impressions which may have been 

1 Fulton, D., & Staniford, K. J. The Sterilization of Woolen Blankets 
and Uniforms. Journ. Am. Med. Assn., vol. 71, no. 10, pp. XL'o-SLM , Si'pt. 
7, 1918. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL,. 21, NO. I, JAX., 1919 9 

gained from certain published statements concerning the value of 
gasoline as a vermicide. 

The Dry Cleaning Process. 

We investigated what is known as the open rotary washer 
system, as specified by the Dry Cleaning Branch, Salvage Division, 
O. M. C. The specifications read as follows: 

( )PEN ROTARY WASHER SYSTEM : 

(1) a. Goods shall be washed in Benzole, Naphtha or (.inxn/inc, specific gravity 

of which shall not be less than 56 degrees by Hydrometer test. 

b. One gallon of cleaning fluid shall be used to every two pounds of goods. 

c. Two ounces of Standard dry cleaning soap shall he used to every ten 

pounds of goods. 

d. One ounce of 26% ammonia shall be used to every twenty-live pounds 

of goods. 

e. All goods shall be washed 30 minutes and rinsed 15 minutes. 

/. All clothing must be extracted for a period of not less than 3 minutes 
between the wash and the rinse. 

g. Cleaning or washing fluid to be used once; rinsing fluid once, only for 
rinsing, after which it may be used for washing fluid, once only, 
by adding soap and ammonia as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c). 

h. All cleaning fluid used for washing shall be new, distilled or ciirined. 

i. All cleaning fluid used for rinsing shall be new or distilled. 

j. After cleaning, all goods shall be inspected and all spots removed by 
a process known as "spotting," after which, if garments are not 
satisfactory, they shall be steam cleaned by the following method: 
Goods to be immersed in water at temperature of hand heat, which 
contains enough carbonated soda to soften the water, after which 
they shall be brushed with a neutral soap mid water at hand heat, 
after which they shall be rinsed in two waters at hand heat and dried, 
as in (2c). 

(2) a. After goods are cleaned they shall be run in a drying tumbler at a 

temperature not less than 160 degrees for 30 minutes, the tempera- 
ture to be taken at point of discharge of air from tumbler. 

b. If a dry room is used, goods, after being thoroughly dried and de- 

odorized, shall hang in the dry room at a temperature of not less 
than 160 degrees for 30 minutes, after which they shall be run in 
a dust wheel for 20 minutes. 

c. After goods are wet cleaned, they shall be dried in drying rooms m 

open air at a temperature not exceeding Kill drives Fahrenheit 
(71.1 C.). 

The Smith system of dry cleaning differs only slightly from the 
open rotary washer system, and the conclusions reached from the 
study of the open rotary washer system will apply equulK to the 
Smith system. 



10 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., IQIQ 

In the Barbe system goods are washed in gasoline heated by 
means of a steam jacket surrounding the washer, and it is re- 
quired that the goods be dried for 70 minutes at a temperature 
of 210 F. (98.8 C.) as registered on the upper gauge inserted 
through the side of the machine insulated from the steam jacket. 
The temperature requirements of this system are so high that 
it is obviously efficient in destroying both lice and their eggs. 

Practical Dry Cleaning Experiments. 

Practical experiments under actual dry cleaning conditions were 
made at a commercial establishment in Washington. 1 The com- 
plete process was tested as follows: 

Experiment i. Complete process. 

The washer used was a standard dry cleaning rotary washer 
measuring 32" X 50". About 15" of gasoline was let into the 
machine. The fluid used was clarified gasoline at a temperature 
of 65 F. (18 C.) and gave a hydrometer reading of 60 Baume. 
A load of 45 pounds of goods was put in. About one-half pound 
of standard dry cleaning soap and two ounces of ammonia were 
used. 

With this load were placed two army O. D. wool shirts. One 
of these contained in the right hand pocket a small piece of cloth 
to which were attached 107 eggs, 1-3 days old; in the left hand 
pocket, 102 eggs, 5-7 days old. The load was washed for thirty 
minutes, then extracted for about three minutes in a basket 
centrifugal wringer. This shirt with the rest of the load was then 
rinsed in new gasoline for fifteen minutes, and again extracted. 
Then followed drying in the tumbler. The temperature in the 
tumbler as read at the exhaust rose minute by minute as follows : 
56.0, 01.1, 63.0, 65.5, 06.6, 68.3, G9"7, 70.8, 71.1 C. 
In other words the requisite minimum of 71 C. was reached in 
about ten minutes. We did not follow the specifications of leav- 
ing the goods in the tumbler for thirty minutes, but reduced the 
time to fifteen minutes measured from the time that 71 C. was first 
reached. After five minutes the temperature was 75.8; after ten 
minutes, 79.7 ; after fifteen minutes, 83.3 C. The goods were then 
removed from the tumbler, and the eggs were removed from the 
shirt and returned to pill boxes and kept in an incubator at body 
surface temperature, i. e., at about 28 to 30 C. Check lots of 
untreated eggs were kept under the same incubator conditions. 
The hatching record was as follows: 

1 The writers are indebted to Mr. Bert Carter of tin- Curmack Pry 
Cleaning Company for providing all fucilitii s for these tests. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAX., IQIQ 11 

In right pocket, 107 eggs 1-3 days old, hatched, 0%, com- 
pletely collapsed. 

Untreated check, 103 eggs 1-3 days old, 65 hatched, 63.1%. 

In left pocket, 102 eggs 5-7 days old, hatched, 0%, com- 
pletely collapsed. 

Untreated check, 91 eggs 57 days old, 48 hatched, 52.7%. 

The results showed that the eggs subjected to the complete 
process were entirely destroyed. 

Further experiments proved that the heat of the dry tumbler 
is an essential factor in the process. The first steps in the process 
can not be counted upon to destroy all eggs. This is clearly 
shown in the following experiments: 

Experiment 2. Wash and rinse only. 

A shirt containing in the pockets two lots of eggs, A and B, 
was treated as follows: 

Washed 30 minutes in gasoline-soap-ammonia ; temperature of 18.3 C 

Extracted 3 minutes 

Rinsed !"> minutes in new gasoline at 18.3 C. 

1 Extracted 3 minutes 

The hatching record of these eggs and of their untreated checks 
is as follows: 

Number of Number Percentage 

eggs. Age. hatched, hatched. Remarks. 

A. M 1 -3 days 1 l.l'.i', Embryo fully 

formed in a 

B 100 3-5 days 1 1% few others 

Check for A 54 1-3 days 43 79 . 6% 

Check for B 100 3-3 days 52 52% 

Experiment 3. Wash and rinse only. 

In another experiment we prolonged the wasli to 45 minutes. 
One O. D. wool shirt was used with a small load of about ten pounds 
of goods. The shirt contained the following experimental ma- 
terial : 

A. In left pocket, 102 eggs, 5-7 days old. 

B. In right pocket, 103 eggs, 1-3 days old. 

16 lice in chiffon sack. 

It was treated as follows : 

Washed 4.~> minutes in clarified gasoline at 18 C. with the addition of 

Vz pint of ammonia and about 2 ounces of dry cleaning soap 
KxtraeU-d ." minutes. 

Rinsed 1"> minutes in ne\v :-,;iM>line at IS" C. 
I {\ traded .j minutes. 



12 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 

On removal all the lice were dead and soon took on a dark brown 
color and shriveled appearance. The eggs were returned to pill 
boxes and kept in an incubator at 30 C. 

The hatching record obtained was: 

A 102 eggs 69 hatched 67 . 6% 

Check 75 eggs 70 hatched 93 . 3% 

B 130 eggs 102 hatched 78.4% 

Check 64 eggs 35 hatched 54 . 7% 

The results show that the wash and rinse in gasoline may be 
counted on to destroy adult and immature stages of lice, but that 
a high percentage of the eggs may survive a total period of one- 
hour immersion. 

It was thus shown that the high temperature of the dry tumbler 
is an essential factor in the dry cleaning process for the destruction 
of the nits. Since the specifications above quoted require the 
use of the dry tumbler by those doing contract work for the 
army, it may be stated positively that the complete process is 
effective in destroying both the lice and their more resistant 
eggs. Under other circumstances, however, it is possible that a 
dry tumbler might not be used, but that the clothing after ex- 
traction might be dried in the open air or in a drying room in which 
temperatures might be too low to render destruction complete. 
With this consideration in mind we conducted further experi- 
ments to determine whether the washing process itself could be so 
modified as to insure complete destruction of the eggs without 
depending at all on high temperatures. 

In view of the probability that an oil heavier than gasoline 
would kill vermin more quickly, it was decided to try washing 
in a heavier oil and then rinsing in gasoline. 

The gasoline used in the above experiments had a specific 
gravity of 60 Baume. Kerosene gives a hydrometer reading of 
about 45 Baume. By mixing kerosene and gasoline in approxi- 
mately equal parts, we obtained an oil of about 52 Baume. 
This was used in the following experiments as the washing fluid: 

Experiment 4. Gasoline-kerosene wash only. 

One O. D. wool coat with eggs in the pockets was 

Washed 30 minutes in 52 oil at temperature of 15 C. 

ca. 4 oz. dry cleaning soap, 
ca. 2 oz. ammonia. 

The eggs were then removed from the pockets and were not 
subjected to any further treatment, but were partially dried by 
blotting with dry cloth and returned to pill boxes and kept in the 
incubator at 28-30 C. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 !'! 

Hatching Record. 

In left pocket, 122 eggs, 3-5 days old, none hatched. 
In right pocket, 225 eggs, 1-3 days old, none hatched. 
Check lots, 1 15 eggs, 3-5 days old, 76 hatched, (50%. 

160 eggs, 1-3 days old, 152 hatched, 95%. 

Experiment 5. Gasoline-kerosene wash and gasoline rinse. 

Another coat with eggs in the pockets was 

Washed 15 minutes in same fluid as Experiment 4. 

Extracted. 

Rinsed In minutes in gasoline (60 Baume). 

The eggs were removed after the rinse and returned to pill boxes 
and kept in the incubator. 

Hatching Record. 

In left pocket, ca. 250 eggs, 3-5 days old, 62 hatched, 25%. 
In right pocket, ca. 325 eggs, 1-3 days old, 202 hatched, 62.1% 
Check lots, same as for Experiment 4. 

Experiment 6. Gasoline-kerosene wash and gasoline rinse. 

Another coat with eggs was 

Washed ,.':>() minutes in same fluid as Experiment 4. 
Extracted. 
Rinsed 15 minutes in gasoline (60 Baume). 

Eggs were then removed from pockets and kept under same 
conditions as in previous experiments. 

Hatching Record. 

In left pocket, 160 eggs, 3-5 days old, 23 hatched, 14.3%. 
In right pocket, 140 eggs, 1-3 days old, 66 hatched, 47.1%. 
Check lots, same as in Experiment 4. 

Experiment 7. Gasoline-kerosene wash and gasoline rinse-. 

Another coat with eggs was 

Washed 45 minutes in same fluid as Experiment 4. 

Extracted. 

Rinsed 15 minutes in gasoline (b'U Baume). 

Eggs were then removed from the pockets and kept under the 
same conditions as in previous experiments. 

Hatching Record. 

In left pocket, 175 eggs, 35 days old, 19 hatched, 10.8%. 
In right pocket, 128 eggs, 1 3 days old, 37 hatched, 28.9%. 
Check lots, same as Experiment 4. 



14 PROC. ENT. SOC, WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 

The results of this series of experiments may be stated as fol- 
lows: 

1. A thirty-minute wash in 52 Baume oil, when not followed 
by rinsing or any treatment other than extraction, prevented all 
eggs from hatching (Experiment 4). 

2. When a 15-minute rinse in 60 Baume gasoline followed the 
15-, 30-, and 45-minute wash in the 52 Be. oil, a considerable 
percentage of eggs hatched in each case. 

3. The records of Experiments 5 to 7, as tabulated below, show 
a progressive decrease in the percentage of eggs hatching as time 
of the washing period is increased. 

IVriod of time ir> washing fluid 
of 52 Baume, followed by 
15 minutes' rinse in 

60 Baume oil. 
Untreated r~ 

checks. 15 min. 30 min. 45 min. 

Percentage hatching of eggs 3-5 days old 66% 25% 14.3% 10.8% 
Percentage hatching of eggs 1-3 days old 95% 62.1% 47.1% 28,'."', 

4. It is concluded therefore, that washing in heavier oil 
(52 Baume), when followed at once by rinsing in gasoline, is of 
no practical value as far as the destruction of the eggs is con- 
cerned. 

It was suggested by a correspondent (J. E. Fox, Great Falls 
Dye House, Great Falls, Mont., letter dated October 14, 1918) that 
infested clothing be soaked in kerosene for 24 hours, then ex- 
tracted and dry cleaned in the usual manner. He states that after 
some experiments along this line some years ago, this plan was 
adopted by his firm, as it appeared to kill both lice and nits and 
it offered a further advantage in that certain greases responded 
more readily to the kerosene than to gasoline. We did not have 
opportunity to try out this method on a practical scale, but in 
some laboratory tests detailed below it was found that a 24-hour 
soaking in kerosene followed by rinsing in gasoline was not effec- 
tive in preventing all hatching of eggs. 

Laboratory Tests with Oils. 

A series of laboratory tests was carried out in order to de- 
termine more exactly the killing power of oils of different specific 
gravity. It was considered especially important to check up the 
results with gasoline. Kinloch (Brit. Med. Jl., No. 2842, pp. 
1038-41. June 19, 1915) states that "it has so far been found 
impossible to revive the lice or rear the eggs after immersion in 
petrol for one minute." Grubbs (1916, Reprint No. 370 U. S. 
Public Health Reports) has evidently been mislead by Kinlock's 
statement in devising a gasoline-soap emulsion for bathing the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAX., 1919 



15 



body of infested persons. The results of our tests show clearly 
that neither gasoline nor gasoline-soap emulsion are of any value 
in destroying nits. 

In these as in previous tests eggs of known age obtained from 
laboratory reared animals were used. Pieces of cloth to which the 
eggs were attached were immersed in the oil for varying periods of 
time, and on removal were dried between blotters (thus ap- 
proximating the extraction of the dry cleaning process) and re- 
turned to pill boxes and kept in the incubator at a temperature of 
28-30 C. 

Experiments with Gasoline, 60 Baume. 



Temperature 
of oil. 



Number of 
eggs. 



Age at Number Percentage 
treatment, hatched, hatched. 



25.5 C. 


ca. 290 


6-8 days 


191 


65.. V, 


25.5 C. 


ca. 300 


6-8 days 


174 


~,v' 
.),> , 


25.5 C. 


ca. 200 


6-8 days 


98 


4'.)', 


25. 5 C. 


ca. 235 


6-8 days 


86 


36.ii', 


25 C. 


180 


5-7 days 


79 


43. X', 


25 C. 


104 


5-7 days 


30 


28.: s', 


25 C. 


280 


5-7 days 


158 


56.4% 


.5-26. 5 C. 


150 


3-5 days 


35 


23.3% 


20-27 C. 


245 


1-3 days 


79 


32.2% 


.5-26.5 C. 


155 


3-5 days 


1 


0.6% 


20-27 C. 


540 


1-3 days 


101 


18.7', 



Treat rnent. 

Immersed for 
period of 

30 minutes 

1 hour 

1 ' ''._. hours 

12 hours 

3 hours 

4 hours 

21 hours 

l'(i' '.hours 23 

50 hours 

52 '/z hours 23 

54 hours . . 



In another series we used a mixture of about 2 parts gasoline 
and 1 part kerosene having a specific gravity of 56 Baume. 
Hatching has occurred in all tests after immersion for periods of 
from two minutes to seventeen hours. Longer immersion tests 
have not been completed and the minimum time required to 
effect destruction of the eggs is as yet undetermined. 

When gasoline and kerosene are mixed in approximately equal 
parts, the resulting mixture has a specific gravity of 52 Baume. 
Tests with this mixture showed 2.6% hatching after a 5-minute 
immersion, but no hatching after immersion periods of from 
10 minutes to one hour. 

A 48 Baume mixture (about 2 parts kerosene and 1 part 
gasoline) killed all eggs after lo minutes or longer periods of im- 
mersion. After 10 minutes, 2 out of 240 eggs or 0.8% hatched; 
1.2', hatched after 2 minutes' immersion. 

The kerosene used in this series gave a hydrometer reading of 
44 Baume. The following records will be of interest for com- 
parison with gasoline: 



1C) PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 

Experiments with Kerosene, 44 Baume. 

Temperature of Number of Age at Number Percentage 

Treatment. oil. eggs. treatment, hatched hatched. 

Immersed for 
period of 

2 minutes 25 C. 195 5-7 days 1 0.51', 

2 minutes.. 25 C. 330 5-7 days 43 13.0', 

5 minutes.. 25 C. 87 5-7 days 

5 minutes 25 C. 255 5-7 days 3 1.17', 

10 minutes. . 25 C. 235 5-7 days 

15 minutes... 25 C. 138 5-7 days 

15 minutes 25 C. 550 5-7 days 

15 minutes . 25 C. 360 1-3 days 

30 minutes.. 26 C. 85 4-6 days 

45 minutes... 26 C. 175 4-6 days 

1 hour. 26 C. 105 4-6 days 

H/2 hours 26 C. ca. 280 4-6 days 

The above series of oils are .discussed in the order of increasing 
specific gravity but it must not be inferred that there is any 
relation between the specific gravity and ovicidal properties. 1 
A sample of benzol was used which was heavier than kerosene, 
having a specific gravity of 30.5 Baume. The following experi- 
ments indicate that it does not act as quickly as the 52 Baume 
gasoline-kerosene mixture : 

Experiments with Benzol. 

Temperature Number of Age at Number Percentage 

Treatment. of oil. eggs. treatment hatched. hatched. 

Immersed for 
period of 

15 minutes 23. 5 C. ca. 125 0-4 days 66 52. S' , 

30 minutes.. 23. 5 C. ca. 200 0-4 days 127 63.5', 

45 minutes.. 23.5C. ca. 250 0-4 days 238 95. L", 

1 hour. 23. 5 C. ca. 200 0-4 days 50 25 .<)' , 

2 hours.. 23. 5 C. ca. 260 5-7 days 
4 hours... 23.5C. ca. 350 5-7 days 

Further experiments with this oil are necessary before any 
definite statement can be made. If it is effective against eggs of 

1 The Baume scale is used in the trade. The more scientific specific 
gravity equivalents for the Baume degrees mentioned in this paper are as 
follows: 

30.5 Baume .... .... 0.875s g 

44 ... SOD s. g. 

48 . . 0.7i'2 s. g. 

52 ... 0.775s. g. 

56 0.75S s g 

60 . 0.74:! s. g. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 17 

all ages and conditions after '2 hours' immersion it could be used 
for a two-hour preliminary soaking of clothing followed by the 
usual dry cleaning process. If this proves to be the case it will 
provide what we sought, namely, a washing process which is 
effective in itself without depending on high temperatures of the 
tumbler. 1 

The method of soaking in kerosene and then washing in gasoline 
as suggested by Mr. J. E. Fox was tested under varying labora- 
tory conditions. Eggs were immersed for periods of from 2 to 5 
minutes, then partially dried between blotters. Twenty-one 
and one-half hours later they were immersed in gasoline for If) 
minutes. They were also soaked in kerosene for 24 hours and 
then immersed in gasoline for 2 hours. The following table 
includes for comparison one record of immersion for 15 minutes 
in kerosene followed at once by 15 minutes in gasoline: 

Kerosene Followed by Gasoline Rinse. 

Number of Age at Number Percentage 

Treatment. eggs. treatment. hatched. hatched. 

Immersion in kerosene 2 minutes 

and after 21 '/-> hours soaked 

in gasoline 15 minutes 300 5-7 days 150 50' , 

Kerosene 5 minutes then after 

121' '-, hours soaked in gasoline 

15 minutes .. 150 5-7 days 40 26. (!' ,' 

Kerosene 15 minutes then rinsed 

at once in gasoline 15 minutes. 460 5-7 days 215 46.7', 

Kerosene for 24 hours then rinsed 

at once in gasoline for 2 hours 5 Id 5-7 days 225 44 . 1 ' , 

In another series of experiments with the 52 Baume gasoline- 
kerosene mixture, similar results were obtained; that is, the 52 
oil alone was effective in 15 minutes, but when this 15 minutes' 
immersion was followed by rinsing in gasoline, from .'}().(>% to 
57.7% of the eggs hatched. It seemed to make no difference 
whether the gasoline rinse followed at once or after an interval of 
24 hours. On the strength of these laboratory tests, therefore, 
we are of the opinion that a preliminary 24-hour soaking in either 
52 Baume mixture or in kerosene will not render the washing 
process entirely effective in destroying eggs. 

Gasoline-Soap Emulsion. 
Grubbs' gasoline-soap emulsion, mentioned above, was de- 

1 Further experiments, completed since the above was written, show that 2 
to 4 hours' immersion in benzol is entirely effective in destroying eggs, and 
subsequent washing and rinsing in gasoline does not neutralize this effecl 



IS PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 

vised for the purpose of treating the bodies of infested immigrants, 
while their clothing and effects were fumigated. Gasoline rather 
than kerosene was used in this emulsion on the strength of certain 
published statements (probably Kinloch's) as to the effectiveness 
of gasoline. Our results with gasoline led us to question the 
value of the gasoline-soap emulsion. Laboratory tests were 
therefore carried out with emulsions made according to Grubbs' 
formula and used under conditions approximating the bathing 
procedure described by him. The stock emulsion is made of 

Soap 1 part 

Water 4 parts 

Gasoline 4 parts 

The soap is dissolved in water by heating, then after removal 
from the fire, the gasoline is stirred in until a good emulsion of 
creamy consistency is formed. Before use this stock is diluted 
in 5 to 10 parts water. 

We prepared two emulsions, one made with a cheap grade of 
laundry soap and the other with a so-called insecticidal soap of 
the formula 

Fuel oil 25.70', 

Paraffin oil 8.57', 

Oleic acid 42.16% 

NaOH solution, 32 Baume 23 . 57% 

In both cases the stock was diluted in five parts water before 
the tests. The cloth with eggs attached was immersed in the 
emulsion for periods of from 5 to 30 minutes, all of which are 
longer periods of contact than would obtain in Grubbs' pro- 
cedure in which a tank and shower bath followed immediately 
after spraying the body. In our tests the eggs were rinsed 1 to 2 
minutes in water after removal from the emulsion, dried between 
blotters and returned to the incubator. A check was run with 
insecticidal soap alone. Twenty-five grams of the soap were 
dissolved in 200 cc. of water and this stock diluted in four parts 
water. The results are given in the following table : 

Gasoline-Soap Emulsion. 

Temperature of Number of Age at Number Percentage 
Treatment. emulsion. eggs, treatment, hatched, hatched. 

Gasoline-soap emulsion 

followed by 1 -minute 

rinse in water : 

5 minutes 29 .5-32 C. 122 5-7 days 50 41', 

10 minutes 29 .5-32 C. 02 5-7 days 14 22 .5% 

15 minutes 29 .5-32 C. 180 5-7 days 99 55% 

20 minutes 21) .5-32 C. ca. 220 5-7 days 132 tiO' , 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 19 

25 minutes 29 .5-32 C. ca. 130 5-7 days 64 49 .2% 

30 minutes 29. 5-32 C. ca. 200 5-7 days 2.5% 

Gasoline insecticidal soap 

emulsion, then rinsed in 

water for 2 minutes: 

5 minutes 31 C. 126 4-6 days 81 64 .2% 

10 minutes 31 C. ca. 240 4-6 days 181 75 .4% 

20 minutes 31 C. ca. 185 4-6 days 165 89 .2% 

30 minutes 31 C. ca. 225 4-6 days 91 40 .4 ' , 

Insecticidal soap alone 

followed by rinse in 

water : 

5 minutes 23. 5 C. 90 .5-7 days 42 46.0', 

10 minutes 23 .5 C. 82 5-7 days 47 57.3% 

20 minutes 23. 5 C. ca. 180 5-7 days 150 83.3', 

30 minutes 23 .5 C. ca. 210 5-7 days 201 95.7% 

The results indicate that the gasoline-soap emulsion has little 
or no effect in destroying eggs of body lice. 

Conclusions. 

1. The open rotary washer system of dry cleaning, when done 
according to the specifications quoted, is entirely effective in 
destroying both the active stages and the eggs of body lice and has 
additional advantages in the cleansing of the garments and absence 
of shrinkage. 

2. The high temperature required in the drying tumbler was 
found to be essential for the destruction of the eggs. 

3. The wash and rinse in gasoline are effective in destroying 
active stages but a large percentage of the eggs will survive this 
part of the process. 

4. Gasoline itself is of no value as an ovicide, 18.7% of the 
eggs in one test hatched after 54 hours' immersion in gasoline. 

5. An attempt to find a washing formula which of itself would 
be effective without depending on the high temperature of the 
drying tumbler was not successful, although results of one experi- 
ment with benzol, 30.5 Baume, indicated that the oil could be 
used for this purpose, if infested garments were soaked 2 to 4 
hours before washing. 

6. A preliminary soaking in kerosene or in a 52 Baume kero- 
sene-gasoline mixture followed by washing in gasoline was found 
in laboratory tests to be ineffective. 

7. Laboratory tests with a series of oils showed that benzol 
(30.5 Baume) killed after 2-4 hours' immersion; kerosene 
(44 Be.) killed within 10 minutes; gasoline-kerosene mixtures 



20 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. I, JAN., 1919 

(48 Be. and 52 Be.) killed after 15 minutes; a 56 Be. mixture 
did not kill within 17 hours. Gasoline did not kill all eggs after 
54 hours' immersion. 

8. When immersion in any of the heavier oils was followed by a 
rinse in gasoline, hatching occurred. 

9. Gasoline-soap emulsion was found to have little killing 
effect on eggs even after 30 minutes' immersion. 



NOTE ON LESKIINE SYNONYMY (DIPT.). 
BY CHARLES H. T. TOWNSEND. 

Mr. H. E. Smith's paper in Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, XIX, 
122-6, calls for correction. My paper in Proc. U. S. N. M., vol. 
49, 617-33 (wrongly referred to as Smiths. Misc. Colls.), was not 
intended as a revision of Coquillett's species in their entirety 
in any given group but simply as a means of erecting genera 
wherever needed. Hence only genotypes were mentioned. The 
following is the synonymy of the species mentioned under Leskia 
in the Aldrich catalogue, exclusive of Wulp's species which must 
await further material: 

Dexia analis Say belongs without doubt to Dejeaniopalpus T. 

Myobia depile Coq. equals Dexia diadema Wied., which is a 
Leskiopalpus T. The species ranges from Florida through Mexico 
to Brazil. L. calidus T. is a northern form. There is a type 
specimen of depile in the U. S. N. M. from Jacksonville, Fla. 

Dexia flavipennis Wied. is also a Leskiopalpus. It occurs 
in South America and the West Indies. 

Myobia flavipennis Wulp (nee Wied.) equals Stomoxys cothur- 
nata Wd. vel sp. aff. and is a Stomatodexia BB. 

Drepanoglossa occidentalis Coq. equals Masicera eucerata 
Bigot, which is the genotype of Sipholeskia T. 

Myobia gilensis T. is a Sipholeskia and very close to eucerata. 
It differs, however, in the pale brassy mesoscutum, golden 
scutellum and distinctly yellowish tegulae, and evidently re- 
presents a distinct form inhabiting the mountain regions from 
New Mexico to Chihuahua, while eucerata is the Pacific slope 
form. 

Myobia thecata Coq. does not belong in this tribe. It is allied 
to Telothyria Wp. 

Finally, Siphoclytia T. (type, robcrtsonii T.) belongs in the 
Leskiini; Drepanoglossa T. (type, litcens T.) belongs in the Cro- 
cutini; Epigrimyia T. (type, polita T.) belongs in the Cylindro- 
myiini. 

Actual Date of Publication, February 24, ipio. 



VOL. 21 FEBRUARY 1919 No. 2 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BAKER, A. C. THE IDENTITY OF SMYNTHURODES BETAE WEST. (HON.) 36 

CAUDELL, A. N. PALM ODES PRAESTANS AND ITS PREY (ORTH.) 40 

FISHER, W. S. A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF CERAMBYCIDAE FROM 

COLORADO (COLEO.) 38 

PIERCE, W. DWIGHT. CONTRIBUTIONS TO OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE 

WEEVILS OF THE SUPERFAMILY CURCULIONOIDEA . .... 21 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 21 FEBRUARY, 1919 No. 2 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE WEEVILS OF THE 
SUPERFAMILY CURCULIONOIDEA. 

BY W. DWIGHT PIERCE. 

In 1916 the writer 1 published a synopsis of the classification 
of the Rhynchophora which he has adopted as far as the division 
into superfamilies is concerned, leaving the details as to lower 
groups for future discussions. It is of course to be understood 
that continued studies of morphological and biological characters 
may lead to many modifications in the system now in use. 

A number of general observations of importance have been made 
which may be mentioned at this time and will be followed up from 
time to time by detailed studies. 

1. The structure of the larvae and pupae of weevils is of very 
great importance in the taxonomy of the group. 

2. All the species of weevil larvae and pupae so far studied 
can be identified and separated from each other by good charac- 
ters. 

3. It will ultimately be possible for the systematist to identify 
whatever larvae are submitted, at least to the genus. Such in- 
formation if quickly obtained may save months of time. 

4. The characters of the immature stages will often decide 
doubtful questions as to the location of a group in the classifica- 
tion. One such example is the finding that Gymnaetron is 
related to Anthonomus. 

5. The use of the thoracic sclerites is of greater importance 
even than was ascribed to them by LeConte and Horn, but \\v 
have much detailed work to do before beginning a more extensive 
use of these characters. 

6. The genera of weevils are usually definitely defined groups 
separable not only on morphological but also on biological char- 
acters. The writer has found a number of genera, such as Rhyn- 
chites and Apion, which contain many subgenera, to be really 
separable into valid genera on the basis of both habit and struc- 
ture. 

1 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 51, No. 2159, pp. 461-464, Dec. 

21 



22 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

7. No genus or larger group should be studied alone from the 
standpoint of a single geographic region or subdivision. We must 
take into account the occurrence of the group in other parts of 
the world and the work done upon it elsewhere. Our American 
classification has yet to be coordinated with the European. In 
the present paper part of that coordination is attempted. 

The present paper is divided into several separate titles which 
represent, one might say, building materials for the erection of the 
structure of weevil classification. 

I. A SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE CURCTJLION- 

OIDEA. 

Superfamily Curculionoidea Hopkins (1911). 
Table of families of Curculionoidea. 

1. Mandibles with deciduous tip, leaving a scar; mentum generally large 

and covering the maxillae ; beak more or less robust, never slender 
and filiform; scrobes attaining, or almost so, the commissure of 

the mouth 1 PSALLIDIIDAE Pierce. 

Mandibles without deciduous piece; mentum often very small, 
maxillae free 

2 . Prosternum not sulcate between the coxae, which are usually con- 

tiguous (Synmerida) 3 

Anterior coxae more or less distant (Apostasimerida) 7 

3 . Pygidium always covered by elytra; tarsal claws connate or free, never 

appendiculate 4 

Pygidium exposed, or in default, tarsal claws appendiculate (Py- 
gidophora) 6 

4. Metasternum very short; metathoracic episternum narrow (Brachy- 

stetha) 

Metasternum more or less elongate; metathoracic episternum at 
least moderately large (Macrostetha) 4 HYPERIDAE Pierce. 

5 . Submentum not pedunculate ; tibiae unarmed, very rarely and then 

briefly mucronate at apex 2 PSAUDURIDAE Pierce. 

Submentum pedunculate 3 LIPARIDAE, new family. 

6 . Abdominal segments not angulate at sides . . 5 CURCULIONIDAE Leach. 
Abdominal segments angulate at sides b 1 CIONIDAE, new family. 

7. Antennal club articulated; third joint of tarsi bilobed (Aulacostetha) . 
Antennal club compact; third joint of tarsi almost always entire 
(Cyclopoda) 9 

8. Mesothoracic epimera not ascending 7 OROBITIDAE Pierce. 

Mesothoracic epimera ascending. . . .8 CRYPTORHYNCHIDAE Pierce. 

9 . Pygidium exposed 9 RYNCHOPHORIDAE Pierce. 

Pygidium covered 10 COSSONIDAE Shuckard. 

The classification thus proposed follows very closely that of 
Lacordaire, differing principally by the higher rank of the groups 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

and the difference in nomenclature. The generic nomenclature 
has received very careful attention by the writer and is in strict 
adherence to the rules of nomenclature and the opinions of the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. In the 
following discussion the type genera are considered only. 

i. Family Psallidiidae Pierce (1916). 

Otiorhynchidae LeConte (1S74). 

Brachyrrhinidae Bedel (1885). 

Brachyrhinidae Pierce (1913). 

Psallidiidae Pierce (1916). 

The North American classification is treated by the writer 

in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 45, pp. 372-426, May 23, 11)13. 

Type genus. Psallidium (Hellwig) Illiger, 1798, Verzeichniss 
der Kafer Preussens, p. 497. 

Type maxillosus Fabricius, designated by Schonherr (1826) 
in Cure. Disp. Meth., and (1833) in Gen. et Sp. Cure. The 
genus has generally been dated from Illiger (1807) in which 
it is also spelled Psallidium, or from Schonherr (1826) where 
it is spelled Psalidinm. It is the oldest genus in the family, 
antedating Brachyrhinus Latreille (1802). 

2. Family Psaliduridae Pierce (1916). 

Amycteridae MacLeay (1866). 

Psaliduridae Pierce (1916) mere mention. 

The family corresponds with Lacordaire's Synmerides, phalange 
I, Section A, group I (Gen. Coleop. VI, p. 290). 
Type genus. Psalidura Fischer, 1823, Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. 

Mosc., vol. 6, p. 265. 

Type mirabilis Kirby, monotypic. 

Amycterus (Dalman) Schonherr, 1826, Cure. Disp. Meth., 

p. 202, has as its type, mirabilis Kirby, by original designation, 

and is hence as isogenotypic synonym of Psalidura. It is 

therefore necessary to rename the genus known as Amycterus 

in our literature. 

Pseudamycterus, new genus. 

Amycterus auct., and Gemminger and Harold, 1871, Cat. Coleop., 
p. 2342 (not Amycterus Schonherr, 1826). 
Type. Amycterus schonherri Hope. 

3. Family Liparidae, new family. 

Plinthidae Pierce (1916) mere mention. 

The family corresponds with Lacordaire's Synmerides, phalange 
I., Section A, group II (Gen. Coleop. VI, p. 2!)0). 



24 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

Type genus. Liparus Olivier, 1807, Entomologie, vol. 5, No. 73, 
pp. 282-292, not preoccupied by Liparis Artedi, 1736. 

Type germanus Linnaeus, designated by Latreille, 1810, 
Consid. Gen. 

Molytes Schonherr, 1820, Cure. Disp. Meth., pp. 14, 172, 
173, has as its originally designated type germanus, Linnaeus, 
and is hence isogenotypic. 

4. Family Hyperidae Pierce (1916). 

Hyperidae Pierce (1916) mere mention. 

The family corresponds with Lacordaire's Synmerides, phalange 

I, Section B, group I, excepting Scythropides and Promecopides 
which belong to the Psallidiidae. 

Type genus. Hypera Germar, 1817, Mag. der Ent., vol. 2, pp. 
339-341. 

Type nigrirostris Fabricius, designated by Leach, 1819, 
in Samouelle's Entomologist's Useful Compendium, pp. 199- 
206, and again in 1824, in the second edition of the same. The 
genus Phytonomus Schonherr, 1826, is considered by most 
writers as a part of this genus. Our clover and alfalfa weevils 
should therefore go by the generic name Hypera. 

5. Family Curculionidae Leach (1817) restricted. 

This family has never been properly treated for North America, 
although such groups as the Anthonomini, parts of Magdalis, 
Otidocephalus, etc., have been monographed. It corresponds to 
Lacordaire's Synmerides, phalange II, Section A, group II (Gen. 
Coleop. VI, p." 538). 

Type genus. Curculio Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Naturae, 10th 
edit., vol. 1, pp. 377-386. 

Type nucum Linnaeus, designated by Latreille (1810) in 
Consid. Gen. This genus had become lost by the process of 
division. Various types have been selected but the first 
designation is that of Latreille, which is held valid by virtue of 
Opinion 11 of the International Commission. 

Balaninus Germar (1817) is isogenotypic. The typical 
Curculionine weevils are therefore those formerly known as 
Balaninini, the nut weevils. 

6. Family Cionidae, new family. 

This family corresponds with Lacordaire's Synmerides, phalange 

II, Section B, group II (Gen. Coleop. VI, p. 594). 

Type genus. -Clonus Clairville and Schellenberg, 179S, Ent. 
Helv., vol. 1, p. 64. 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, xo. 2, FEB., igig 25 

Type blattariae Clairville and Schellenberg, designated by 
Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Gen. et Part. 

7. Family Orobitidae Pierce (1916). 

This family corresponds to Lacordaire's Apostasimerides, 
phalange I, Section A, group II (Gen. Coleop. VII, pp. 4-6). 
Type genus. Orobitis Germar, 1817, Mag. der Ent., vol. 2, pp. 

339-341. 

Type -(globosus Fabricius) = cyaneus Linnaeus, monotypic. 

Orobites Schonherr, 1826, also has for its type, globosus. 

As will be noticed under the next family, the genus Crypto- 
rhynchus Schonherr (1826) not Illiger (1807) is preoccupied and 
we are compelled to greatly alter our nomenclature. The genus 
Cryptorrhynchus Gemminger and Harold (1871) is a great com- 
posite, but the oldest genus contained therein is Coelosternus 
Sahlberg (1823) with balteatits Sahlberg as type. This generic 
name then replaces Cryptorhynchus and Cryptorrhynchus for all 
weevils not yet assigned to definite genera. 

Cryptorhynchidius, new genus. 

Cryptorhynchus Schonherr, 1826 (not Illiger, 1807). 
Type Curculio lapathi Linnaeus. 

8. Family Cryptorhynchidae Pierce (1916). 

This family corresponds with Lacordaire's Apostasimerides, 
phalange I, Section B, group II (Gen. Coleop. VI, p. 190). 
Type genus. Cryptorhynchus Illiger, 1807, Mag. fur Insekten- 

kunde, vol. 6, p. 330. In some volumes of this work it is spelled 

Chryptorhynch us . 

Type pericarpius Linnaeus, designated by Latreille, 1810, 

Consid. Gen. 

Rhinoncus Schonherr, 1837, Gen. et Sp. Cure., vol. 4, p. 

577, also has pericarpius as its type, and is hence isogenotypic. 

9. Family Rynchophoridae Pa-roe (1916). 

Calandridae LeConte and Horn (1876). 
Rynchophoridae Pierce (1916). 

This family corresponds to Lacordaire's Apostasimerides, 
phalange II, group I. 
Type genus. Rynchophorus Herbst, 1795, Kafer, vol. (>, pp. 

3-29. 

Type palmarum Linnaeus, designated by Schonherr, 1X26, 

Cure. Disp. Meth. 



26 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

Cordyle Thunberg, 1797, Kongl. Vet. Acad., vol. 18, pp. 44-49; 
and Rhynckophorus Schonherr, 1826, Cure. Disp. Meth. are 
isogenotypic. 

Calendra Clairville and Schellenberg (1789). 
Calendra Clairville and Schellenberg, 1798, Ent. Helv., p. 62. 

Type abbremata Fabricius, designated by Latreille, 1810, 

in Consid. Gen. 

Calandra Fabricius, 1801, Syst. Eleuth., vol. 2, pp. 429-438. 
Sphenophorus Schonherr, 1838, Gen. et Sp. Cure., vol. 4, p. 874. 

Type abbreviata Fabricius. 

This change gives our bill bugs the name Calendra. 

Sitophilus Schonherr (1838). 

Sitophilus Schonherr, 1838, Gen. et Sp. Cure., vol. 4, p. 967. 

Type oryza Linnaeus. 
Calandra auct. not Fabricius (1801). 

This change gives our grain weevils the appropriate name 

Sitophilus. 

10. Family Cossonidae Schuckard (1840). 

This family corresponds to Lacordaire's Apostasimerides, 
phalange II, group II. 

Type genus. Cossonus Clairville and Schellenberg, 1798, Ent. 
Helv., vol. 1, pp. 60, 61. 

Type linearis Fabricius, designated by Latreille, 1810, in 
Consid. Gen. 

II. STUDIES OF THE TRIBE MECININI. 
Family Curculionidae Leach (1817). 

Subfamily Orchestinae Pierce (1916). 
Anthonominae Pascoe (1870). 

Table of tribes of Orchestinae. 

1 . Hind legs normal, non saltatory 2 

Hind legs saltatory ORCHESTINI Pierce. 

2 . Prothorax with more or less developed ocular lobes 

LONCOPHORINI Pierce 

Prothorax without ocular lobes 

3 . Tarsal claws free ANTHONOMINI Le Conte. 

Tarsal claws connate 4 

4. Tarsal claws appendiculate BRADYBATIXI, new tribe. 

Tarsal claws not appendiculate MECININI Desbrocher^. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL- 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 27 

Tribe Mecinini Desbrochers (1893). 

Gymnetrides Lacordaire, 1SG6, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. (i. 
Gynmetrinae Pascoe, 1S70, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 
Mecinini, Desbrochers des Loges, 1893, Le Frelon, vols. 2, 3. 
Gymnetrinae Bovie, 1909, Genera Insectorum, fasc. 92. 
Type genus. -Mecinus Germar, 1S21, Mag. der Ent., vol. 4, p. 
315. 

Type pyraster Herbst, designated by Schonherr (1X2(0, in 
Cure. Disp. Meth. 

This tribe has been placed by most writers in the Apostasi- 
merida, associating Mecinus, Gymnaetron and Miarus. These 
genera differ radically in coxal character. There has been much 
difference of opinion as to the proper position of all three genera. 
Judging from Bovie's figure of the pupa of Miarus campanulae I 
consider that genus to really belong in the Apostasimerida. On 
the other hand the pupae in my possession of Gymnaetron teter 
prove beyond a doubt that it is Anthonomine in its essential 
characteristics. Lacordaire acknowledged that Gymnetron had 
the Anthonomine characters but he preferred to associate it with 
Miarus. 

This tribe was generically monographed under the name 
Gymnetrinae by Bovie (1909) in Genera Insectorum, fasc. 92, and 
included only three genera, Mecinus, Gymnetron, and Miarus. 
The genus Mecinus does not occur in this country. I am now 
excluding Miarus from the tribe and leaving it in the Apostasi- 
merid series, Orobitidae. 

Genus Gymnaetron Schonherr. 

Gymnaetron Schonherr, 1826, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 319. 
Type beccabungae Linnaeus, by original designation. 

Gymnetron Schonherr, 1X37, Gen. et Sp. Cure. vol. 4, pp. 743- 
776. Monograph. 

Gymnetron Brisout de Barneville, 1X62, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., ser. 4, 

vol. 2, pp. 62.V668. Revision of genus. 
Gymnetron Desbrochers, 1X93, Le Frelon, vol. 2, No. 10 11, pp. 

1-18. Revision of genus. 

Gymnetron Reitter, 1907, Bestimmungs Tab. o9. Yerh. Xatur- 
forsch. Yer. Bninn, vol. <>."), separate pp. 1.") 43. Revision of 
genus. 

Gymnetron Bovie, 1909, Gen. Insectorum (Wytsman's), fasc. 
92, pp. 8-16, 2 plates. List of species in genus. 



28 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

Table of Subgenera of Gymnaetron. 
(after Reitter) 

1 . Third elytral striae united apically with the eighth .... GYMNAETRON. 

Third elytral striae united apically with the sixth, the seventh and 

eighth being united RHINUSA. 

Subgenus Gymnaetron Schonherr. 

Type beccabungae Linnaeus. 

The typical subgenus does not occur in the United States. 
Many species of Gymnaetron have a squamose area on the pleural 
regions of thorax and this area is absent from Rhinusa. 

Subgenus Rhinusa Stephens. 
Rhinusa Stephens, 1829, Syst. Cat. Brit. Ins., p. 150. 

Type antirrhini Paykull, designated by Westwood, 1840. 
Table of North American Species of Rhinusa. 

1. Scutellum elongate; thorax but little broader than long; anterior 

femora armed with minute denticles; beak shorter than prothorax; 
elytra longer than broad ANTIRRHINI Paykull. 

2. Scutellum broad, rounded; thorax very broad, transverse; anterior 

femora of male with very strong tooth; beak as long as prothorax; 
elytra about as broad as long TETER Fabricius. 

a . Large specimens with pubescence thick on thorax and elytra, 

intervals with several rows of setae ; no red markings 

var. TETER Fabricius. 

b . With red spots on apical portion of elytra 

var. PLAGIELLUM Gyllenhal. 

c . Small specimens with thinner pubescence ; some intervals with 

but a single row of setae; no red markings 

var. SUBROTUNDATUM Reitter 

The beak of the male is more punctate and rougher than that of 
the female in this genus. Both of the species here determined have 
been compared with European specimens and also with the de- 
scriptions. 

Gymnaetron (Rhinusa) antirrhini Paykull (1800). 

Curculio antirrhini Paykull, 1X00, Fauna Suec., vol. 3, p. 257, 

no. 78. 
Curculio noctis auct., Brisout not Herbst (1795). 

This is a European species recorded as breeding in seed pods 
of Linaria genistaefolia and L. vulgar is. The name antirrhini 
is confused with the variety subrotundatum Reitter cited below. 
The material at hand answers the description and tallies with 
the three European specimens determined as noctis. Three 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 29 

specimens 'are from New Haven, Connecticut, collected by M. P. 
Zappe, July 1 and 9, 1914, and bearing the numbers 111-113. 
Many specimens are at hand which were bred by P. H. Timber- 
lake from seed pods of Linaria vulgaris at Melrose Highlands, 
North Saugus, and Forest Hills, Massachusetts in July and 
August, 1909 (Hunter No. 2494). Adults were found in July. 

This species is readily distinguishable from G. teter subro- 
tundatum by the elongate scutellum; the longer prothorax; the 
erect pubescence on thorax as well as elytra. In teter and its 
varieties the dorsal vestiture of the thorax is appressed. Length 
2-2.5 mm. 

Gymnaetron (Rhinusa) teter Fabricius. 
Rhynchaenus teter Fabricius, 1801, Syst. El., vol. 2, p. 448. 

This European species has long been known in the United 
States. It breeds in the pods of Vcrbascum thapsus. The ma- 
terial of the typical variety is from Massachusetts, Maine, Canada, 
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, District of Columbia, 
Virginia, North Carolina, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa, 
Nebraska, Mississippi, Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas. Texas 
and Wisconsin material was bred from Verbascum thapsus and 
Massachusetts material collected on the same plant. 

Gymnaetron (Rhinusa) teter subrotundatum Reitter. 
Gymnaetron (Rhinusa} teter subrotundatum Reitter, 1907, Verh. 

Naturf. Ver. Briinn, vol. 65 (Bestim. Tab. 59), p. 35. 

A European variety of teter very greatly resembling antirrhini 
and formerly confused with it. Specimens are at hand from 
Hamden, Connecticut; Boston, Massachusetts; Dunkirk, New 
York; District of Columbia; Grand Ledge and Port Huron, 
Michigan; and Dallas, Texas. Length 2-3 mm. 

Gymnaetron (Rhinusa) teter plagiellum Gyllenhal. 

Gymnetron plagiellus Gyllenhal, 1S37, Schonherr's Gen. et Sp. 
Cure., vol. 4, p. 759. 

This is a European aberration of teter characterized only by 
the red areas on the elytra. 

The material is principally from Dallas, Texas, although 
specimens are also at hand from Iowa City, Iowa, Wisconsin, and 
Maryland. 

III. SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE OROBITIDAE. 

Family Orobitidae Pierce (1916). 
Table of subfamilies of Orobitidae. 

1 . Mesosternum very often canaliculate or excavated, leaving between 
it and the prosternum a depression 



30 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

Mesosternum never canaliculate, horizontal, forming a surface almost 

continuous with the prosternum and metasternum 14 

2. Antennal funicle 5-jointed 1 MIARINAE, new subfamily. 

Antennal funicle 6- or 7-jointed 

3 . Tarsus with one claw 2 HAPLONYCHINAE Pascoe. 

Tarsus with two claws 4 

4. Prothorax covered with fine costae, longitudinal and parallel 

3 EUDERINAE Pascoe. 

Prothorax not covered with fine costae, longitudinal and parallel .... 5 

5. Rostrum very short, robust, subquadrangular; antennae very short. . 

4 NERTHOPINAE Pascoe. 

Rostrum and antennae at least moderately long 6 

6. Femora armed with a great triangular tooth 

5 MENEMACHINAE Pascoe. 

Femora unarmed or dentate, the tooth at most moderate in size . . 7 

7 . Rostrum cylindrical throughout, generally slender 8 

Rostrum variable, but not cylindrical; compressed or depressed, at 

least at base 11 

8. Prosternum not canaliculate, sometimes a little concave 9 

Prosternum canaliculate 9 ISORHYNCHINAE Pascoe. 

9. Elytra not covering the pygidium 6 LAEMOSACCINAE Pascoe. 

Elytra covering the pygidium 10 

10 . Tarsal claws cleft, or simple and connate 7 ALCIDINAE Pascoe. 

Tarsal claws simple and free 8 DERELOMINAE Pascoe. 

11. Eyes very rarely approximate on the front, more or less covered 

when the rostrum is at rest 12 

Eyes rarely separated above, always uncovered, even when the 
rostrum is at rest 13 ECCOPTINAE, new subfamily. 

12. Prosternum not canaliculate, sometimes a litte excavated 13 

Prosternum canaliculate, rarely excavated. .12 OROBITINAE Pierce. 

13. Anterior coxae separated 11 AMERININAE, new subfamily. 

Anterior coxae contiguous 10 METATYGINAE, new subfamily. 

14. Rostrum short and robust, body depressed 15 

Rostrum at least moderately long, never very robust .... 16 

15. Rostrum very depressed, straight 14 ULOMASCINAE Pascoe. 

Rostrum angulate, arcuate 15 EPIPEDINAE, new subfamily. 

16. Mesosternum large, transverse, quadrate; body oblong, depressed. 

16 TRYPETIDINAE, new name. 

Mesosternum reduced to a tiny transverse band; body briefly oval, 
very convex 17 PYROPINAE Pascoe. 

i. Miarinae, new subfamily. 

Type genus. -Miarus Schonherr, 182(5, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 
320. Name of stirps 2 of Gymnaetron. 
Type campanulae Linnaeus, by original designation. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO 2, FEB., IQIQ 31 

2. Subfamily Haplonychinae Pascoe (1870). 

Haplonycides Lacordaire, I860, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. Hi. 
Haplonychinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Tvpe genus. Haplonyx Schonherr, 1830, Gen. et Sp. Cure., vol. 
'3, pp. ooo, <>()7. 

Type spencei Schonherr, by original designation. 

3. Subfamily Euderinae Pascoe (1870). 

Euderides Lacordaire, 18(50, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 18. 

Euderinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Type genus. Euderes Schonherr, 182(5, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 

'I'll. 

Type lineicollis Wiedemann, by original designation. 

4. Subfamily Nerthopinae Pascoe (1870). 

Nerthopides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 19. 
Nerthopinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Type genus. Nerthops Schonherr, 182(5, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 61. 
Type [multiguttatus (Wiedemann) Schonherr, by original 
designation ] guttata Olivier. 

5. Subfamily Menemachinae Pascoe (1870 

Menemachides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 27. 
Menemachinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Type genus. Menemachus Schonherr, 1843, Gen. et Sp. Cure., vol. 
7, pt. 2, p. 266. 
Type naevus Boheman, by original designation. 

6. Subfamily Laemosaccinae Pascoe (1870). 

Lciiiosacides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 12. 
Laemosaccinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 
Laemosaccini Le Conte, 187(5, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. 15, p. 22.'!. 

Type genus. Laemosaccus Schonherr, 182(5, Cure. Disp. Meth., 
pp. (5, of). 
Type plagiatus Fabricius, by original designation. 

7. Subfamily Alcidinae Pascoe (1870). 
Alcidides Lacordaire, 18(5(5, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 14. 
Alcidinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Type genus. -Alcides Sahlberg, 1823, Peric. Knt., p. 47. 
Type senex (Schonherr) Sahlberg, monotypic. 
Alcides Schonherr, 1X2(1, Cure. Disp. Meth., has as its type, 
trilobns Fabrieius, by original designation and is at presriit 
writing congeneric with the true Alcides. 



32 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

8. Subfamily Derelominae Pascoe (1870). 

Derelomides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 9. 
Derelominae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 
Derelomini Le Conte, 1876, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. 15, p. 221. 
Type genus. Derelomus Schonherr, 1826, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 
'235. 
Type chamaeropis Fabricius, by original designation. 

9. Subfamily Isorhynchinae Pascoe (1870). 
Isorhynchides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 172. 
Isorhynchinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 
Type genus. Isorhynchus Schonherr, 1833, Gen. et Sp. Cure., 

vol. 1, p. 22. 

Type pudicus Sparrman, monotypic. 

10. Subfamily Metatyginae, new subfamily. 

Type genus. -Metatyges Pascoe, 1866, Journ. Ent. vol. 2, p. 424. 
Type turritus Pascoe, monotypic. 

11. Subfamily Amerininae, new name. 

Cholides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 32. 
Cholinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 347. 

Type genus. Ameris (Schonherr) Dejean, 1821, Cat. Coleop., p. 

86. 

Type dufresnei Kirby, designated by Germar (1824), Crotch 

(1870). 
Amerhinus Schonherr, 1826, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 266 is iso- 

genotypic. 
Amerhinus Sahlberg, 1823, Peric. Ent., p. 44, has as its type 

ynca (Schonherr) Sahlberg, monotypic. This genus is at 

present congeneric with Ameris. 
Cholus Germar dates from 1824 and consequently can not give 

its name to the subfamily. 

12. Subfamily Orobitinae Pierce, 1916. 

Cryptorhynchides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 48. 
Cryptorhynchinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 
Cryptorhynchini Le Conte, 1876, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. 15, p. 

223. 
Orobitinae Pierce, 1916, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 51, p. 469. 

Type genus. Orobitis Germar, 1817, Mag. der Ent., vol. 2, pp. 
339-341. 
Type (globosus Fabricius) = cyaneus Linnaeus, monotypic. 

13. Subfamily Eccoptinae, new subfamily. 

Zygopides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 142. 
Zygopinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 33 

Zygopini Le Conte, 1876, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. 15, p. 259. 

Type genus. Eccoptus Dejean, 1821, Cat. Coleop., p. 86. 
Type strix Olivier, designated by Crotch (1870). 

Zygops Schonherr, 1826, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 300, with wiedii 
Germar as the originally designated type, is at present con- 
generic with Eccoptus. 

14. Subfamily Ulomascinae Pascoe (1870). 

Ulomascides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 184. 
Ulomascinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Type genus. Ulomascus Fairmaire, 1848, Ann. vSoc. Ent. Fr., 
ser. 2, vol. 6, p. 173. 
Type caviventris Fairmaire, monotypic. 

15. Subfamily Epipedinae Pascoe (1870). 

Epipedides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 186. 
Epipedinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Type genus. Epipedus Schonherr, 1842, Gen. et Sp. Cure., vol. 6, 
pt. 2, p. 462. 
Type squamifer Boheman, monotypic. 

1 6. Subfamily Trypetidinae, new name. 
Trypetides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 177. 
Trypetinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 
Type genus. Trypetes, Schonherr, 1836, Gen. et. Sp. Cure., vol. 

3, p. 595. 

Type rhinoides Gyllenhal, monotypic. 

The subfamily name had been altered to its correct spelling to 
prevent confusion with the Trypetinae based on Trypeta in the 
Diptera. 

17. vSubfamily Pyropinae Pascoe (1870). 

Pyropides Lacordaire, 1866, Gen. Col., vol. 7, p. 187. 
Pyropinae Pascoe, 1870, Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 10, p. 437. 

Type genus. Pyropus Schonherr, 1836, Gen. et Sp. Cure., vol. 
3, p. 641. 
Type sapphirinus Gyllenhal, by original designation. 

IV. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN MIARINAE. 
Miarinae, new subfamily. 

This subfamily was formerly a part of the Mecininae or 
Gymnetrinae, which I have now removed to form the tribe Mecinini 
in the Orchestinae, and retain here only the genus Miarus. 

Genus Miarus Schonherr. 

Miarus Schonherr, 1826, Cure. Disp. Meth., p. 320. 
Type campanulae Linn., by original designation. 



34 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

Miarus Stephens, 1831, 111. Brit. Ent., p. 15. 

Type campanulae Linnaeus, designated by Westwood, 1S40. 
Cleopus Suffrian, 1854, Stett. Ent. Zeit., p. 94 (not Dejean 1821), 

(not Stephens 1829). 
Cleopus Brisout de Barneville, 1862, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., ser. 4, 

vol. 2, pp. 663-668. Revision of genus. 
Miarus Desbrochers des Loges, 1893, Le Frelon, vol. 2, No. 

10/11, pp. 15-18. Revision of genus. 
Miarus Reitter, 1907, Verhandl. Naturf. Ver. Brunn, vol. (55, 

sep. pp. 43-49. Revision of genus. 
Miarus Bovie, 1909, Genera Insectorum (Wytsman's), fasc. 92, 

pp. 16, 17. List of species in genus. 

Specimens of the type Miarus (Miarus) campanulae Linnaeus, 
are at hand from Europe. 

The genus is divisible into two subgenera: 

Pubescence erect or suberect CLEOPOMIARUS, new subgenus. 

Pubescence decumbent, appressed MIARUS Schonherr 

Cleopomiarus, new subgenus. 
Miarus LeConte, 1876, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. 15, p. 221. 

Table of North American Species of the Subgenus Cleopomiarus. 
All our species have mutic metafemora. 

1 . Pleural regions of thorax setose; prothorax with the erect sparse 
hairs extremely long, bristling and conspicuous. Body stout, oblong, 
convex, deep black throughout, the sparse vestiture hairy and 
cinereous; beak slender, slightly arcuate, similar in the sexes though 
a little shorter in the male, longer than the head and thorax in the 
female; eyes widely separated; prothorax nearly as wide as the 
elytra, very strongly narrowed from base to apex, with arcuate sides, 
punctures coarse and separated; scutellum densely clothed with 
short decumbent hair-like scales; elytra barely a fifth longer than 
wide, very broadly, obtusely rounded behind, clad with long, erect 
hairs; under surface with erect sparse cinereous hairs, shorter, denser, 
and more decumbent on pleura; length 2.4-2.8 mm. . . EREBUS Casey. 
Pleural regions of thorax squamose 

2 . Elvtral intervals thickly pubescent, very seldom with only a single 

row of setae 3 

Elvtral intervals usually with only a single row of white, almost 
bristle-like setae, body elongate oval; sides of elytra parallel, elytra 
much longer than broad; suture toward apex with a short comb of 
hairs. Prothorax rounded on sides, broader than long (coitsnctns 
Casey) MERIDIONALIS Brisout. 

3 . Elytra clothed with white and dark brown hairs intermixed, scutellum 
densely white pubescent, pleural regions clothed with grey plumose 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 2, FEB., 1919 :|.") 

scales, venter with white hairs; body short, deep black, shining; 
pubescence not concealing integument, shorter on thorax than on 
elytra. Beak in 9 slender, slightly arcuate, surpassing mesocoxar ; 
in cf somewhat shorter and coarser. Prothorax strongly transverse, 
somewhat narrower than elytra, densely strongly but shallowly punc- 
tate. Rlytra short and broad, almost quadrate, rounded on sides, 
convex; deeply striate. Length 2-o mm. .HISPIDULUS Le Conte. 
I'pper surface clothed with gray hairs 4 

4. Ovate, oval or short oval, convex; prothorax about two-thirds wider 

than long 5 

Elongate oval 6 

5. Elytra but little wider than thorax MICROS Germar. 

Elytra much wider than thorax PURITANUS Casey. 

b' . Thorax nearly three-fourths wider than long; sides feebly rounded, 

size under 2 mm NANUS Casey. 

Thorax about one-half wider than long; sides strongly rounded; 
size over 2 mm ILLINI Casey. 

The great scarcity of these weevils in this country and their 
presence only on introduced European plants leads me to believe 
that this genus is typically European. I feel certain that further 
study will prove that all of our species are synonyms of some 
European species. In the following notes I have indicated some 
of my suspicions. 

Miarus (Cleopomiarus) erebus Casey. 

Miarns erebus Casey, 1910, Can. Ent., vol. 42, pp. 142, 143. 
Described from near Colonia Garcia, Sierra Madre Mts. 
Chihauhau, Mexico, altitude 7300 feet. 

The presence in this species of hairs, instead of scales on the 
pleural region of the thorax is a character of Gymnaetron rather 
than Miarus, although the beak is elongate as in Miarus. 

Miarus ( Cleopomiarus ) hispidulus Le Conte. 

Miarus hispidulus Le Conte, 1870, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. I"), 

p. 221. 
Miarus hispidulus Reitter, 1907, Verh. Naturforsch. Yer. Brunn, 

vol. 65, p. 46. Described as new species. 
Miarus hispidus Bovie, 190! I, Gen. Insect., fasc. 92, p. 17. 

Proposed as a new name for hispidulus Reitter. 

A European species described from Andalusia and easily 
differentiated by the two colors of setae on the elytra. It is widely 
distributed over the eastern United States. It is an odd coinci- 
dence that the species although twice described, and from different 
continents, received the same name each time. 



36 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

Material is at hand from Straight Creek, Lee Co., Virginia; 
Kanawha Station, West Virginia, on Lobelia; Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts; Pen Mar, Pennsylvania; New York; Grand Ledge, 
Michigan; Kansas City, Missouri; Pontchatoula, Louisiana; 
Baldwin, Florida. It breeds in the seed pods of Lobelia inflata 
and L. syphilitica. 

Miarus (Cleopomiarus) micros Germar. 

Cionus micros Germar, Mag. der Ent., vol. 4, p. 309, No. 21. 
A European species which breeds in the capsules of Jasione 
montana. 

Two specimens from Winnipeg, Manitoba, collected by Han- 
ham, run to this species in Reitter's table. 

Miarus (Cleopomiarus) puritanus Casey. 
Miarus puritanus Casey, 1910, Can. Ent., vol. 42, pp. 143, 144. 

No material is at hand which can be definitely placed here, 
although a Massachusetts specimen of hispidulus answers rather 
closely. 

Miarus (Cleopomiarus) nanus Casey. 
Miarus nanus Casey, 1910, Can. Ent., vol. 42, p. 144. 

No material is at hand which can be attributed to this species. 
It is also described from Massachusetts. 

Miarus (Cleopomiarus) illini Casey. 

Miarus illini Casey, 1910, Can. Ent., vol. 42, p. 144. Described 
from Illinois. 

No material is at hand from Illinois, nor are there any speci- 
mens which can be definitely assigned here. 

Miarus (Cleopomiarus) meridionalis Brisout. 
Gymnetron (Cleopus) meridionalis Brisout de Barneville, 1S62, 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., ser. 4, vol. 2, p. 668. 
Miarus consnetus Casey, 1910, Can. Ent., vol. 42, p. 144. 

A European species recorded from France, Spain, Italy, Algeria, 
and Tunis. Casey's species was described from Kansas. One 
specimen is at hand from Douglas Co., Kansas, altitude 900 ft., 
collected by F. H. Snow. In Europe this species breeds in the 
ovaries of Linaria fih 'folia, and L. striata. 



THE IDENTITY OF SMYNTHURODES BETAE WESTWOOD (HOM.). 

By A. C. BAKER, Bureau of Entomology. 

In the Gardners Chronicle, July 7, 1X49, p. 420, J. O. West- 
wood erected the genus Smynthurodes for a species of aphid which 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1 919 37 

he called betae. This species was described as attacking the 
common garden beet, small colonies being found clustered be- 
neath the spurs of the roots. 

Since the original description no further information has been 
published, so far as the writer knows, in regard to the insect and 
it is impossible to gain a knowledge of it from the description and 
the very inadequate figures given. 

In looking over the Fitch collection of aphididae the writer noted 
a small card point containing two apterous specimens of Smyn- 
thurodes betae labeled England, J. O. W. Fitch received a number 
of specimens of English aphids from Westwood and these were 
pinned with yellow labels, all of which carry the initials J. O. W. 
There is little doubt, therefore, that these two specimens are from 
the lot collected by Westwood and that they were sent Fitch 
by the author of the species. 

The specimens were in very poor shape when located, being 
entirely covered -with a fungus growth. This was cleared from 
them and the specimens mounted in balsam and placed in the 
slide collection of the U. S. National Museum. While it is im- 
possible to give an accurate description of the body characters 
owing to the condition of the abdomen, the following descriptive 
notes and figures will serve to give some idea of the species: 

Apterous Viviparous Female. Length of body 1.68 mm.; width of ab- 
domen 0.96 mm. Antennae as follows: Segment I, 0.08 mm. long, 0.064 
mm. wide; II, 1.128 mm. long, diameter 0.032 mm.; Ill, 0.048 mm. 
long; IV, 0.064 mm. long with the distal sensorium small but prominent; 
V, base 0.112 mm. long, unguis 0.032 mm. and distinctly set off from the 
base. Segments armed with rather stout scattered hairs. Foreleg with the 
following measurements: Femur 0.32 mm., tibia 0.288 mm., tarsus exclusive 
of claw 0.112 mm. Middle leg as follows: femur 0.32 mm., tibia 0.336 mm., 
tarsus 0.128 mm. Hind leg as follows: femur 0.416 mm., tibia 0.496 mm., 
tarsus 0.144 mm. Legs armed with rather short stout hairs. Vertex 
0.24 mm. wide and perfectly straight in the specimens. This, however, 
may be due to their condition. A series of stout hairs is present on 
the vertex. Eyes minute, facets not visible in the specimens. Beak reach- 
ing to the second pair of coxae or slightly beyond. Abdomen armed with 
short, stiff hairs. No cornicles are visible. Wax glands not apparent but 
this may be due to the condition of the specimens. Cauda and anal plate 
rounded. 

Since Smynikwrodes betae West, was found living on cultivated 
beets, the question at once arises as to whether or not it is the 
destructive beet aphid of America now generally referred to as 
Pemphigus betae Doan.. Examples of betae Doan show that the 
antennae are more slender (fig. IB) than those of betae West. 
(fig. 1A) and that the spine-like hairs are not so prominent. 



38 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 



Moreover, the relative lengths of segments IV and V are different, 
segment V being rather longer in betae Doan. It seems evident, 
then, that Westwood had a different insect. 





c. 



FIG. 1 



He separated his genus from Forda Heyden on the antennae. 
These, however, differ little from the antennae of the type species 
of the genus, formicaria Heyden (fig. 1C), excepting in the rela- 
tive lengths. We conclude, therefore, that betae West, is dis- 
tinct from our American beet aphid and should be known as 
Forda betae (West.). 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF CERAMBYCIDAE FROM COLORADO. 

(COLEO.) 

BY W. S. FISHER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 
Elatotrypes, new genus. 

Body very much depressed. Maxillary palpi longer than labial pulpi 
their last joints strongly securiform. Head small; front short and nearly 
perpendicular; top with a narrow, deep groove between the antennae, extend- 
ing to the dorsal median part. Mandibles stout and acute at tip. Ligula 
membranous. Eyes finely granulated, only moderately emarginate, but 
not embracing the base of the antennae. Antennae 11-jointed, the outer 
joints sericeous but without distinct poriferous spaces; second joint moderately 
long. Prothorax depressed, not tuberculate on the sides, the dorsal part with 
callosities. Scutellum rounded behind. Elytra depressed and moderately 
elongate. Prosternum very narrow, pointed, not extending between the o>\;n\ 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 39 

which are contiguous. Mesonotum thickly punctured and pubescent at 
sides, with a median smooth surface. Front coxal cavities transverse, very 
strongly angulated, and broadly open behind. Middle coxal cavities open 
externally. Hind coxae prominent, not inclosed by the side pieces. Legs 
moderate in length ; femora not strongly clavate ; tibiae slender. 

Genotype. Elatotrypes hoferi Fisher. 

This new genus belongs to LeConte & Horn's tribe Callidiini 
and is closely related to Hylotrupes, Callidinm and Xylocn'n.^, 
but differs from all of these by having the femora not strongly 
clavate. From Hylotrupes and Callidium it differs by having the 
sides of the mesonotum densely punctured and pubescent. From 
Hylotrupes it also differs by having the front coxae contiguous and 
from Callidinm by the prothorax having dorsal callosities. It 
also differs from Xylocrius by its very depressed form and the more 
slender antennae. 

Elatotrypes hoferi, new species. 

Female. Elongate, very much depressed, piceous-black, sparsely clothed 
with irregularly placed whitish pubescence, which gives it a cinereous ap- 
pearance. Head coarsely and densely punctured. Eyes rather small, widely 
separated, transverse, and only moderately emarginate. Antennae slender, 
reaching beyond the middle of the elytra ; first joint thickened at apex ; second 
about one-third as long as the first; third slightly longer than the first; fourth 
to seventh subequal, and about as long as the first; eighth about three-fourths 
as long as the first; ninth about one-half as long as first; tenth and eleventh 
slightly shorter and wider than the ninth, the last being about three-fourths 
as wide as long, with the tip rounded. Prothorax depressed, nearly twice 
as wide as long; front angles rounded; sides strongly rounded and very much 
narrowed towards the base; surface with three narrow, shining callosities, 
reaching from the apex to base, the median one less distinct, between these 
and the sides, the surface is densely and coarsely punctured, and sparsely 
clothed with long semi-erect whitish hairs. Elytra at base about us wide 
as prothorax, twice as long as wide, slightly wider at middle with the tips 
separately rounded; surface reticulately rugose, not noticeably punctured, 
but clothed with irregular patches of semi-erect whitish pubescence. Pros- 
ternum shining, very finely, transversely rugose at middle, scarcely punc- 
tate, with long, sparse, inconspicuous hairs. Body beneath shining, sparsely 
punctate, and clothed with recumbent whitish pubescence. Abdomen 
with fifth ventral segment a little longer than the fourth and broadly roundi-d 
at apex. Femora only slightly clavate. Tibiae slender, about twice as 
long as the tarsi. First joint of posterior tarsi slightly longer than joints 
two and three united. 

Length 7 mm., width 4 mm. 



40 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 2, FEB., 1919 

Habitat. Ute Pass, El Paso County, Colorado. Mr. F. C. 
Craighead, Collector. 

Type. Cat. No. 22000, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Described from a single female recorded under Bureau of 
Entomology No. Hopk. U. S. 11919 and reared from material 
collected by Mr. Craighead. The larvae of this species was first 
collected by Mr. A. B. Champlain and George Hofer, March 2, 
1914, under bark of dead limb of partially dead Limber Pine 
(Pinus Jiexilis) but no adults were reared. September 10, 1917, 
Mr. Craighead collected from the same tree a number of half 
and full grown larvae under the green bark of slowly dying branches, 
from which the type was reared May 3, 1918. 

I take great pleasure in naming this interesting species after 
Mr. George Hofer in appreciation of his active and continued 
assistance in collecting material which has added very much to 
our knowledge of the coleoptera of the Rocky Mountain region. 



PALMODES PRAESTANS AND ITS PREY (ORTH.). 

BY A. N. CAUDELL. 

In a miscellaneous lot of Orthoptera sent me for determination 
by Prof. Lovett, of Corvallis, Oregon, was a large male specimen 
of the long winged Dectician, Capnobotes fuliginosus Thomas. In 
spite of the large size of this insect and its formidable nature, 
being itself, at least partially, predatious in habits, it had fallen a 
victim to a medium sized wasp which Mr. Rohwer has determined 
as Palmodes praestans Kohl. The data on the pin bearing these 
insects is "Brads Mt. Ariz. 6-22-92." 

This matter is deemed worth recording by reason of the 
nature and size of the prey it shows this wasp capable of captur- 
ing, the length of the wasp scarcely exceeding one-third that of its 
prey. The wasp itself is also of interest, as it is an insect very 
rare in collections, the present specimen being, according to Mr. 
Rohwer, about the fourth one known. 



Actual Date of Publication, February 26, 1919. 



VOL. 21 MARCH 1919 No. 3 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BARBER, H. S. AVOCADO SEED WEEVILS 53 

BUSCK, AUGUST TWO MICROLEPIDOPTERA INJURIOUS TO STRAWBERRY 52 

CAUDELL, A. N., BUSCK, A., AND HOWARD, L. O. FREDERICK KNAB 41 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Application for transfer of entry as second-class matter made at the post office at Wash- 
ington, D. C., under the act of July 16, 1894. Acceptance for mailing at special rale 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized 

on July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President E. R. SASSCER 

First Vice-President W. R. WALTON 

Second Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. vS. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Representing the Society as a Vice-President of the Washington Academy of 

Sciences. . .S. A. ROHWER 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

THE OFFICERS. 
A. N. CAUDELU. A. L. QUAINTANCE. CHAS. R. ELY. 



PROCEEDINGS 
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PLATE 1 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 




FREDERICK KNAB 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 



VOL. 21 MARCH, 1919 No. :i 

FREDERICK KNAB. 

BY A. N. CAUDELL, A. BUSCK, AND L. O. HOWARD. 

We record with sorrow the loss of our distinguished fellow 
member, and vice-president of our Society, Frederick Knab, 
who died in Washington, D. C., November 2, 1918, after a pro- 
longed and painful decline. 

Mr. Knab was born September 22, 1865, in Wurzburg, Bavaria 
and came to the United States as a boy of eight with his parents, 
Oscar and Josephine Knab, who settled in Chicopee, Massachu- 
setts in 1873. The father was an engraver and painter, and an 
uncle was court artist to the King of Bavaria. Frederick partook 
of the artistic temperament of his family and even as a boy de- 
voted himself to painting. In 1889 he went to Europe and 
studied art for two years at the Munich Academy, and on his 
return to Massachusetts he established a studio in Chicopee 
and for a series of years made landscape painting his profession. 
Long before this, however, he had been interested in Natural 
vScience, and especially in Entomology. As a boy he had studied 
the classics of Zoology, such as the works of Darwin, Wallace,, 
and Bates, and had accumulated a large collection of insects, 
the biology of the Coleoptera attracting him particularly. He 
was an active member of the Springfield Zoological Club and a 
valued correspondent of several of our Coleopterists. 

Prompted by his interest in Zoology Mr. Knab undertook 
in 1885-86 a sixteen months' collecting trip up the Amazon River, 
traveling form its mouth to Peru. Although the results of this 
expedition were published only in local newspapers, it was an event 
of great and lasting importance to Mr. Knab, as his natural bent 
for Entomology and his keen powers of obervation made this 
travel in the tropics a constant source of information in his later 
scientific career. 

In 1903 the first grant by the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton for the purpose of a monograph of the mosquitoes of North 
and Central America and the West Indies was made, and in or- 
ganizing the work Doctor Howard sought the advice of Mr. 
George Dimmock of Springfield (who in his earlier years had done 

41 



42 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

some work on mosquitoes), as to the best observer known to him 
who could undertake the study of the biology of the mosquitoes 
of the New England region, and Doctor Dimmock promptly 
nominated Mr. Knab. Knab went to work with energy and 
enthusiasm, and during the summer of 1903 brought together 
some very important notes and sent in a report illustrated by 
drawing which were so admirable as to command the greatest 
respect. It was during this work that Knab first got the idea 
that certain of the northern mosquitoes do not follow in their 
life histories the generalizations which had been laid down as 
belonging to the genus Culex. The drawings submitted were 
so excellent that when in the autum of that year Professor Forbes, 
the State Entomologist of Illinois, found himself in need of an 
artist Mr. Knab was recommended for the post and went to Ur- 
bana where he worked until the close of the following year. 

The Carnegie appropriations continuing he was then brought 
to Washington, and started in 1905 on his first trip to Mexico 
in the interests of the proposed monograph. A brief account of 
this trip and of his subsequent travels and activities in this di- 
rection will be found in the introduction to the monograph, of 
which he was eventually made co-author in collaboration with 
Howard and Dyar. He was appointed an assistant in the Bureau 
of Entomology in 1900, and his work upon mosquitoes and other 
disease-bearing Diptera continued with increasing interest and 
importance. In 1911, after the death of the late D. W. Coquillett, 
he was made Custodian of the Diptera of the U. S. National 
Museum, which broadened his field of work. Intensely interested 
and absorbed, though he was, in the preparation of the final 
volumes of the mongraph in which his work cannot be too greatly 
praised, he found time to make many interesting observations 
and a few broad generalizations which showed that he had a very 
philosophical mind and that he was a keen observer and a keen 
reasoner. In the early part of his work upon the monograph, 
Jae prepared the extraordinary plates of mosquito larvae, published 
in Volume II, which are quite the most admirable figures of the 
sort that have ever been published. The plates, although ad- 
mirably reproduced, do not do full justice to the beauty of the 
original drawings. 

In 1916 he was made Vice-President of the Entomological 
Society of Washington. He was a fellow of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science and of the Entomological 
Society of America. He was also a member of the Biological 
Society of Washington. He was a candidate at the George 
Washington University for a doctor's degree, but his illness and 
death intervened before it was granted. His death was due to 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL- 21, NO. ; v MAR., 1919 43 

/ 

an insidious, lingering disease, probably insect-borne , which he 
contracted during his expedition to Brazil. Its nature baffled 
the medical specialists until Mr. Knab himself correctly diagnosed 
it through his diligent study of the South American medical 
literature. He was proficient in both the Spanish and Portuguese 
languages, and was a broad student. He was noted for his 
helpfulness to other workers, and for his genial, companionable 
nature. He was a very active member of the Entomological 
Society of Washington, attended the meetings regularly as long 
as his health permitted, frequently contributed papers, and often 
added great interest to the discussions. His interest in the Society, 
in fact, was so great that he bequeathed the larger part of his 
estate to it an especially noteworthy act, as this is the first 
considerable contribution to the publication fund of the Society. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Prepared by MABEL COLCORD, Librarian, Bureau of Entomology. 

1887 Hunting in Brazil. A day's trip into the interior of the forests. 

Springfield, Mass. Daily Union, p. 6, col. 4-5, Jan. 31, 1887. 
1887 Along the Amazon. A naturalist's rambles in South America. 

Springfield, Mass. Daily Union, p. 6, col. 5-6, April 20, 1887. 

1895 Ant nests. Entomological News, vol. 6, No. 1, p. 15-16, January. 

1896 An Amazon town. Youth's Companion, vol. 70. No. 7, p. 81, cols. 

2-4, illus., February 13. 

1896 Notes and news. Limenitis arthemis, Strangalia bicolor, Saperda 

obliqua, Purpuricenus humeralis, Myodites stylopides, Chlaenius 
prasinus. Entomological News, vol. 7, No. 4, p. 113, April. 

1897 Note: House fly with three pseudoscorpions attached. Entomologi- 

cal News, vol. 8, No. 1, p. 13, January. 

1897 Note on Labia minor (Forficulidae). Entomological News, vol. 8, 

No. 9, p. 236, November. 

1898 Note: Records Anisolabis maritima from Bridgeport, Conn. 

Entomological News, vol. 9, No. 1, p. 21, January. 

1898 Curious actions of house flies. Entomological News, vol. ii, No. 9, 
p. 219, November. 

1898 Notes on Pieris oleracea. Entomological News, vol. 9, No. 10, p. 

256, December. 

1899 Adalia bipunctata Linn, and its varieties. Entomological News, 

vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 146-147, May. 

1899 Geographical distribution of Limenitis well illustrated. Entomologi- 
cal News, vol. 10, No. 8, p. 245, October. 

1899 Coleoptera in September. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 31, Xo. 11, 
pp. 310-311, November. 



44 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

1901 Asaphes a synonym. Entomological News, vol. 12, No. 3, p. 91, 

March. 

1902 Display of caterpillars at Springfield, Mass, jocular note on an actual 

occurrence. Entomological News, vol. 13, No. 10, pp. 326-327, 
December. 

1903 Beetle prizes at Springfield, Mass. Entomological News, vol. 14, 

No. 3, pp. 89-90, March. 

1904 Diverse mosquito larvae that produce similar adults. By H. G. 

Dyar and Frederick Knab. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 6, No. 3, 
pp. 143-144, July. 

1904 The epistomal appendages of mosquito larvae. Journal New York 
Entomological Society, vol. 12, No. 3, pp, 175-177, pi. 10, Septem- 
ber. 

1904 The eggs of Culex territans Walker. Journal New York Entomologi- 
cal Society, vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 246-248, December. 

1904 Early stages of Carabidae. By George Dimmock and Frederick 

Knab. Springfield Museum of Natural History, Bui. 1, 55 pp. 
4 pi., December 28. 

1905 The spreading of Sphaeridium scarabaeoides L. Entomological 

News, vol. 16, No. 2, p. 52, February. 
1905 A chironomid inhabitant of Sarracenia purpurea, Metriocnemus 

knabi Coq. Journal New York Entomological Society, vol. 13, 

No. 2, pp. 69-73, pi. 6, June. 
1905 Observations on Lampyridae. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 37, 

No. 7, pp. 238-239, July. 
1905 Los mosquitos de los tropicos. Observationes de Mr. Frederick 

Knab. Diario del Salvador, p. 1, August 16. 

1905 Galeruca pomonae Scopoli, in North America. Entomological 

News, vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 230-232, September. 

1906 A new species of Donacia. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 7, Nos. 2-3, 

pp. 122-123, for October, 1905. January. 

1906 The yellow-fever mosquito. Science new ser., vol. 23, No. 581, pp. 
270-271, February 16. 

1906 Goeldi's "Os mosquitos no Para." Journal New York Entomological 
Society, vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 57-76, June. 

1906 Notes on Deinocerites cancer Theobald. Psyche, vol. 13, No. 4, 
pp. 95-97, pi. 5-6, August. 

1906 Diagnoses of new species of mosquitoes. By H. G. Dyar and 
Frederick Knab. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, vol. 19, pp. 133-142, September 25. 

1906 The species of mosquitoes in the genus Megarhinus. By H. G. 
Dyar and Frederick Knab. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions, Washington, 1907, vol. 48 (Quarterly issue, vol. 3), pp. 
241-258, illus. Publication, 1657, September 27. 

1906 A new species of Donacia. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 7, Nos. 2-3, 
pp. 122-123, October. 



PROC, ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 45 

1906 The Swarming of Culex pipiens. Psyche, vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 123-133, 
October. 

1906 Notes on some American mosquitoes with descriptions of new species. 
By H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington, vol. 19, pp. 159-172, November 12. 

1906 The larvae of Culicidae classified as independent organisms. By 

H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Journal New York Entomologi- 
cal Society, vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 169-230, pi. 4-6, December. 
1906-7 Communications. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 8, pp. 76, 77, 99, 
102, 106, 115, 144, 151. 

1907 On the classification of mosquitoes. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick 

Knab. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 47-50, 

February. 
1907 A new species of Megarhinus. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 39, 

No. 2, pp. 50-51, February. 
1907 The swarming of Anopheles punctipennis Say. Psyche, vol. 14, 

No. 1, pp. 1-4, February. 
1907 Descriptions of some American mosquitoes. By H. G. Dyar and 

Frederick Knab. Journal New York Entomological Society, vol. 

15, No. 1, pp. 9-13, March. 
1907 An early account of the copulation of Stegomyia calopus. Journal 

New York Entomological Society, vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 13-18, March. 
1907 The classification of the Culicidae according to scale-vestiture 

characters. Entomological News, vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 151-154, 

April. 
1907 New American mosquitoes. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. 

Journal New York Entomological Society, vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 

100-101, June. 
1907 A new genus and species of sabethid mosquito. Journal New York 

Entomological Society, vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 120-121, September. 
1907 Deinocerites again. Journal New York Entomological Society, vol. 

15, No. 3, pp. 121-123, vSeptember. 
1907 Culicid characters. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 

349-353, October. 
1907 Color varieties of Locustidae. Science new ser., vol. 26, No. (>7u, 

pp. 595-597, November 1. 
1907 The classification of mosquitoes. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick 

Knab. Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 10, No. 21, p. 355, 

November 1 . 
1907 Descriptions of new mosquitoes from the Panama Canal Zone. By 

H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Journal New York Entomologi- 
cal Society, vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 197 212, December. 
19(17 Descriptions of three new North American mosquitoes. By H. G. 

Dyar and Frederick Knab. Journal New York Entomological 

Society, vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 213 21 ). Decembi-r. 



46 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

1907 Book notice. A monograph of the Culicidae of the world. By 
F. V. Theobald: London, 1907. Volume IV. By H. G. Dyar 
and Frederick Knab. Journal New York Entomological Society, 
vol. 15. No. 4, pp. 239-248, December. 

1907 Mosquitoes as flower visitors. Journal New York Entomological 
Society vol., 15, No. 4, pp. 215-219, December. 

1907 Notes on Leptinotarsa undecimlineata Stal. Journal New York 

Entomological Society, vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 190-193, December. 

1908 Tower's Evolution in Leptinotarsa. Science new ser., vol. 27, No. 

684, pp. 223-227, February 7. 
1908 Observations on the mosquitoes of Saskatchewan. Smithsonian 

Micellaneous Collections (Quarterly issue), vol. 50, Pt. 4, pp. 

540-547, February 20. 
1908 Los mosquitos de Cordova. Diario del Hogar, Mexico, D. F., p. 2, 

cols 3-5, March 11. 
1908 Communication. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 9, No. 1, p. 23, April 

25. 
1908 Notes on mosquito work. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. 

Canadian Entomologist, vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 309-312, September. 
1908 Swarming of a reduviid. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 10, Nos. 1-2, 

p. 7, September 15. 
1908 The early stages of Sayomyia punctipennis Say. (Diptera, Culicidae.) 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 10, Nos. 2-3, pp. 36-40, figs, 6-8, 

September 15. 

1908 Descriptions of some new mosquitoes from Tropical America. By 

H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Proceedings of the U. S. 
National Museum, vol. 35, pp. 53-70, October 30. 

1909 Descriptions of some new species and a new genus of American 

mosquitoes. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Smithsonian 

Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 52 (Quarterly issue, vol. 5), pp. 

253-266, illus. Publication 1822, January 12. 
1909 Mosquito comment. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Canadian 

Entomologist, vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 101-102, March. 
1909 Migrations of Athena chiron Fabricius. Entomological News, vol. 

20, No. 4, p. 154, April. 
1909 Notes on tachinid parasites of Chrysomelidae. Psyche, vol. 16, 

No. 2, pp. 34-35, April. 
1909 On the identity of Culex pipiens Linnaeus. By H. G. Dyar and 

Frederick Knab. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 

30-39, pi. 1-3, July 26. 
1909 Description of a new mosquito from Cuba. By H. G. Dyar and 

Frederick Knab. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 11, No. 1, p. 39, 

July 26. 
1909 The role of air in the ecdysis of insects. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 

vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 68-72, August 31. 
1909 Some species of Calligrapha. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 11, No. 2, 

pp. 83-87, August 31. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 47 

1909 Nuptial colors in the Chrysomelidae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 

vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 151-153, October 5. 
1909 The identification of Culex cyaneus Fahricius. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash., vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 154-155, October 5. 
1909 Luminous termite hills. Science new ser., vol. 30, No. 773, pp. 

574-575, October 22. 

1909 Two new Philippine Culicidae. Entomological News, vol. 20, No. 

9, pp. 386-388, November. 

1910 Description of three new American mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 173-174, January 17. 
1910 Mosquito habits and mosquito control. Science new ser., vol. 31, 

No. 805, pp. 868-869, June 3. 
1910 The feeding-habits of Geranomyia (Diptera, Tipulidae). Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 61-65, June 15. 
1910 On the identity of Culex pallidohirta. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick 

Knab. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 81-82, June 15. 
1910 Review of Blatchley's, "The Coleoptera or Beetles of Indiana." 

Science new ser., vol. 32, No. &32, pp. 838-840, December 9. 

1910 Coquillett's, "The type species of the North American genera of 

Diptera." Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 197-200, 
December 31. 

1911 Remarks on Melasoma lapponica. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 13, 

No. 1, pp. 10-11, March 12. 
1911 Ecdysis in the Diptera. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 

32-42, March 12. 
1911 Larval species. By H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Science new 

ser., vol. 33, No. 847, pp. 455-456, March 24. 
1911 The food habits of Megarhinus. Psyche, vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 80-82, 

April 5. 
1911 [Remarks on Euchroma gigantea.] Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 13, 

No. 2, pp. 88-89, June 19. 

1911 Chrysomela staphylea Linne in North America (Col.). Entomologi- 
cal News, vol. 22, No. 7, pp. 306-309, July. 
1911 How Emphor drinks. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 13, No. 3, p. 

170, September 30. 

1911 Dr. A. Lutz's studies of Brazilian Simuliidae. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash., vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 172-179, September 30. 

1912-17 The Mosquitoes of North and Central America and the \\Vst 
Indies. By L. O. Howard, H. G. Dyar and Frederick Kii;il>. 
4 vol. (Carnegie Institution of Washington. Publication, 159, 
illus., pi.) 

1912 Unconsidered factors in disease transmission by blood-sucking 

insects. Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 
196-200, April. 

1912 Preference for strict priority in scientific nomenclature. Entomologi- 
cal News, vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 271-272, June. 



48 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

1912 Drosophila repleta Wollaston. Psyche, vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 106-108, 

June. 
1912 New species of Anisopidae (Rhyphidae) from Tropical America. 

(Diptera; Nemocera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of 

Washington, vol. 25, pp. 111-113, June 28. 
1912 Blood-sucking and supposedly blood-sucking Leptidae. Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Wash., vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 108-110, July 19. 
1912 Diptera at home on spiders' webs. Journal New York Entomological 

Society, vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 143-146, September. 
1912 Symphoromyia as a blood-sucker (Diptera, Leptidae). By Frederick 

Knab and R. A. Cooley. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 14, No. 3, 

pp. 161-162, September 30. 
1912 New Australian Diptera from ants' nests. By Frederick Knab and 

J. R. Malloch, communicated by A. M. Lea. Transactions Royal 

Society of South Australia, vol. 36, pp. 233-237. Read October 10. 

1912 A borborid from an epiphytic bromeliad (Diptera; fam. Borboridae). 

Entomological News, vol. 23, No. 9, pp. 413-415, November. 

1913 Remarks on geographical distribution: Diptera. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash., vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 201-202, January 10. 
1913 Blood-sucking insects as transmitters of human disease. Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Wash., vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 219-221, January 10. 
1913 A proposal for the control, of certain mosquitoes. Science new 

ser., vol. 37, No. 943, pp. 147-148, January 24. 
1913 Some neotropical Syrphidae (Diptera). Insecutor Inscitiae Men- 

struus, vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 13-15, February 20. 
1913 Names and synonymy in Anopheles. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 

vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 15-17, February 20. 
1913 Some earlier observations on the habits of Aphiochaeta juli (Brues) 

(Diptera, Phoridae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 1, 

No. 2, p. 24, February 20. 
1913 Larvae of Cyphonidae (Coleopt.) in Bromeliaceae. Entomologist's 

Monthly Magazine ser., 2 vol. 24, pp. 54-55, March. 
1913 A new bromelicolous Megarhinus (Diptera; Culicidae). Insecutor 

Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 35-36, March 29. 
1913 Changes in the mosquito-fauna of Panama. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 

vol. 15, No. 1 pp. 40-42, April 9. 
1913 Spider's web and malaria. Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 16, 

No. 9, pp. 133-134, May 1. 
1913 A new bot-fly from reindeer (Diptera; Muscoidea). Proceedings 

Biological Society of Washington, vol. 26, pp. 155-156, June 30. 
1913 Three new neotropical mosquitoes. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 

vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 74-78, June 30. 
1913 The species of Anopheles that transmit human malaria. American 

Journal of Tropical Diseases and Preventive Medicine, vol. 1, 

No. 1, pp. 33-43, July. 
1913 Malaria, cause and control. By Wm. B. Herms. Science new 

ser., vol. 38, No. 970, pp. 162-164, Aug. 1. (Review.) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO 3, MAR., 1919 49 

1913 New moth-flies (Psychodidae) bred from Bromeliaceae and other 

plants. Proceedings U. S. National Museum, vol. 46, pp. ln.'!- 

106, No. 2015, August 23. 
1913 Anopheles and malaria. American Journal of Tropical Diseases and 

Preventive Medicine, vol. 1, No. 3, p. 217, September. 
1913 A new Heterostylum from Mexico (Diptcra, Bombyliidae). In- 

secutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 1, No. 9, pp. 110-111, September 

15. 
1913 The contentions regarding "Forest malaria." Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 

vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 110-114, October 2. 

1913 A question of authorship. Psyche, vol. 20, No. 5, p. 170. Octolu r 
1913 A new Cuban Chaoborus (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae 

Menstruus, vol. 1, No. 10, pp. 121-122, October 30. 
1913 A new American Phlebotomus. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 

vol. 1, No. 11, pp. 135-137, 1 fig., Nov. 29. 
1913 The life-history of Dermatobia hominis. American Journal of 

Tropical Diseases and Preventive Medicine, vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 

464-468, December. 
1913 The lepidopterous caterpillar in the bromeliad from Costa Rica. 

Entomological News, vol. 24, No. 10, p. 467, December. 
1913 Gad-flies (Tabanidae) of the genus Stibasoma. No. 2033. Pro- 
ceedings U. S. National Museum, vol. 46, pp. 407-412, December 

23. 

1913 A note on some American Simuliidae. Insecutor Inscitiae Men- 

struus, vol. 1, No. 12, pp. 154-156, December 31. 

1914 A new Pantophthalmus (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae). Insecutor 

Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 27-29, February 28. 

1914 On the genus Cryptochaetum (Diptera, Muscidae acalpytratae), 
Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 33-36, March 30. 

1914 Simuliidae de Chile septentrional. Analcs de Zoologia Aplicada, 
vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 17-22, pi. 1, April. 

1914 New Mosquitoes from Peru (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor In- 
scitiae Menstruus, vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 5862, April 24. 

1914 Simuliidae of Peru. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, vol. 27, pp. 81-86, May 11. 

1914 Ceratopogoninae sucking the blood of caterpillars. Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash., vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 63-66, June 11'. 

1914 Ceratopogononinae sucking the blood of other insects. Proc. Hut 
vSoc. Wash., vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 139-141, September 26. 

191-1 Supplementary notes on Peruvian Simuliidae. Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, vol. 27, pp. 123-124, July 10. 

1914 A review of our species of Trigonometopus (Diptera; Lauxaniidae). 
Psyche, vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 123-126, August. 

1914 New South American scientific journal. Anales de Zoologia Aplioada. 
Canadian Entomologist, vol. 46, No. 8, pp. 298-299, August. 

1914 A new mesembrine fly. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 4ti, No. 9, pp. 
325-326, vSeptember. 



50 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

1914 Papaya fruit fly. By Frederick Knab and W. W. Yothers. U. S. 

Dept. Agr. Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 

447-454, pi. XLI-XLII, September 21. 
1914 The oriental trigonometopine flies (Diptera, Lauxaniidae). In- 

secutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 2, No. 9, pp. 131-133, October 2. 
1914 Two North American Syrphidae. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 

vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 151-153, October 19. 
1914 Drosophilidae with parasitic larvae (Diptera). Insecutor Inscitiae 

Menstruus, vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 165-169, December 7. 

1914 Mosquitoes and sewage disposal. By Frederick Knab and August 

Busck. American Journal of Tropical Diseases and Preventive 
Medicine, vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 333-338, November. 

1915 New data and species in Simuliidae (Diptera). Insecutor Inscitiae 

Menstruus, vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 177-180, January 14. 

1915 A new Cuterebra from Panama (Diptera). Insecutor Inscitiae 
Menstruus, vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 187-188, Jan. 14. 

1915 Notes on Peruvian mosquitoes and mosquito literature. Report of 
First Expedition to South America. Harvard School of Tropical 
Medicine, Cambridge (Mass.), 1915 Appendix, Art. Ill, pp. 
212-217. 

1915 Brauer on generic values in the Muscoidea. Annals of the Ento- 
mological Society of America, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 91-92, March. 

1915 The Nemocera not a natural group of Diptera. Annals of the 
Entomological Society of America, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 93-98, March. 

1915 Mosquitoes and sewage disposal. By Frederick Knab and August 
Busck. Southern Medical Journal, vol. 8, No. 3, p. 208, March. 

1915 Dipterological miscellany. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol 17, No. 1, 
pp. 38-40, March 16. Evolution of the blood-sucking habit in 
Symphoromyia. Musca leprae Linne. A case of phoresy. 

1915 Two new species of Pipinculus (Diptera Pipinculidae). Proceedings 
Biological Society Washington, vol. 28, pp. 83-86, pi. 3, April 13. 

1915 Some West Indian Diptera. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 
3, No. 1-4, pp. 46-50, May 15. 

1915 A new Simulium from Texas (Diptera, Simuliidae). Insecutor 
Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 3, No. 5-7, pp. 77-78, July 20. 

1915 Commensalism in Desmometopa. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 
No. 3, pp. 117-121, September 18. 

1915 The secretions employed by rhynchophorous larvae in cocoon-making. 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 154-158, September 18. 

1915 Some new neotropical Simuliidae. Bulletin of Entomological Re- 
search, vol. 6, Pt. 3, pp. 279-282, December. 

1915 New Ceratopogoninae from Peru (Diptera, Chironomidae). In- 
secutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 3, No. 8-10, pp. 109-111, Dec. 11. 

1915 Notes on the species of Culex in the Bahamas. By H. G. Dyar and 
Frederick Knab. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 3, No. 
8-10, pp. 112-115, December 11. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 3, MAR., 1919 ol 

1915 A new American fruit-fly (Diptera; Trypetidae). Insccutor In- 
scitiae Menstruus, vol. 3, No. 11-12, p. 146, December 31. 

1915 Dung-bearing weevil larvae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, No. 4, 

pp. 193-194, December 31. 

1916 Carlos Finlay on the house-mosquitoes of Habana. (Abstract 

Proceedings of the 2nd Pan American Congress, Washington, 
D. C., Dec. 27, 1915-Jan. 8, 1916; Section VIII, Subsection 1, 1 p. 

I'.llti Carlos Finlay on the house mosquitoes of Habana. Proceedings 
of the 2nd Pan American Scientific Congress, Washington, U. S. 
A., Monday December 27, 1915 to Saturday, Jan. 8, 1916. Sec- 
tion 8 (in 2 parts), Part I, Public Health and Medicine, vol. 9, 
pp. 107-108, Discussion, pp. 108-110. 

1916 The dispersal of some species of flies. (Abstract of paper read 
before 545th meeting Biological Society of Washington.) Science 
new ser., vol. 43, pp. 75-76, January 14. 

1916 Four European Diptera established in North America. Insecutor 
Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 4, No. 1-3, pp. 1-4, March 31. 

1916 Tanypezidae in the United States (Diptera acalyptrata). By 
Frederick Knab and R. C. Shannon. Insecutor Inscitiae Men- 
struus, vol. 4, No. 1-3, pp. 33-36, March 31. 

1 '. 1 1 ( i Dispersal of some Ortalidae. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological 
Society, vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 40-46, fig, 1-3, April. 

1916 Mycetobia and the classification of the Diptera. Entomological 
News, vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 259-262, 2 figs., June. 

1916 The earliest name of the yellow fever mosquito. Insecutor In- 
scitiae Menstruus, vol. 4, No. 4-6, pp. 59-60, July 18. 

HUG Eggs and oviposition in certain species of Mansonia (Diptera; 
Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 4, No. 4-6, pp. 
61-68, 2 figs., July 18. 

1916 A new mosquito from the eastern United States. Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, vol. 29, pp. 161-164, 
Sept. 6. 

1916 Critical notes on Syrphidae. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 
4, Xo. 7-9, pp. 91-95, October 23. 

1916 What is Tabanus mexicanus? Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 

4, No. 7-9, pp. 95-100, fig. 1-2, October 23. 
l'.16 Egg disposal in Dermatobia hominis. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 

18, No. 3, pp. 179-182, November 27. 
11H7 Further notes on Syrphidae. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 4, 

No. 10-12, pp. 133-135, January 12. 

1917 Bromelicolous Anopheles (Diptera, Culicidae). By H. G. Dyar and 

Frederick Knab. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 5, No. 1-3, 

pp. 38 40, April 6. 
1917 On some North American species of Microdon. Proceedings of the 

Biological Society of Washington, vol. 30, pp. 133-144, July 27. 
1917 Notes on Aedes curriei (Coquillett) (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor 

Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 5, No. 7-9, pp. 122-125, October 15. 



52 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

1917 A new ortalid from the Philippines (Diptera, Ortalidae). Insecutor 

Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 5, No. 7-9, pp. 125-127, October 15. 

1918 New American mosquitoes (Diptera, -Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae 

Menstruus, vol. 5, No. 10-12, pp. 165-169, Jan. 29. 
1918 The genus Culex in the United States. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 

vol. 5, No. 10-12, pp. 170-183, Jan. 29. 
1918 A second Mycetophila with dung-bearing larva (Diptera; Myceto- 

philidae). Entomological News, vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 139-142, 

pi. 8, April. 
1918 Bromelicolous Anopheles, a correction (Diptera, Culicidae). By 

H. G. Dyar and Frederick Knab. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 

vol. 6, No. 7-9, pp. 140-141, October 30. 



TWO MICROLEPIDOPTERA INJURIOUS TO STRAWBERRY. 

BY AUGUST BUSCK. 

Tortricodes fragariana, new species. 

Labial palpi porrected, smooth, light gray, mottled externally with white- 
tipped black scales. Head and face brownish fuscous, each scale slightly 
tipped with white. Forewings brownish fuscous, overlaid with black and 
reddish scales; a darker basal area with outwardly angulated edge is followed 
by a broad illdefined whitish fuscous fascia, which gradually fades into the 
darker posterior part of the wing; the outer edge of the fascia is emphasized 
by three reddish brown tufts of raised scales and by small, broken groups 
of black scales; a small, reddish brown tuft is found on the lower half of the 
fascia near the basal patch and another similar tuft is found at the end of 
the cell; cilia gray. Hindwings light, silvery fuscous with lighter cilia. Ab- 
domen yellowish fuscous. Legs blackish with narrow white annulations. 
Alar expance: 17 mm. 
Habitat: Victoria, British Columbia. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Type No. 22109. 

According to the Dominion Assistant Entomologist, Mr. W. 
Downes, this species "breeds commonly in the buds at the head 
of the crowns of Strawberry." 

This is the first published record of the occurrence of this in- 
teresting genus in North America, but horariana, Walsingham, 
(Dyar No. 5414) also belongs in this genus; so does probably 
basiplagana, Walsingham, of which however we have no authentic 
specimens except the types in British Mus. The present 
species differs from the type in having vein 7 in the forewings 
to costa and in the smoother labial papli; it also has a short but 
distinct tongue. 

Aristotelia fragariae, new species. 

Second joint of labial palpi light fuscous on the inner side, blackish ex- 
teriorly ; tip of second joint light strawcolored ; terminal joint yellowish fuscous. 
The face and head yellowish fuscous, iridescent. Thorax dark fuscous. 
Forewings dark fuscous, overlaid with sparce yellowish scales; three indistinct 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 53 

and illdefined blackish brown spots on the cell, another more denned black 
spot at the end of the cell; at apical third is an indistinct yellowish costal 
streak and around the edge is a postmarginal black line on the base of the cilia ; 
cilia light gray. Hindwings light fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous with 
yellowish anal tuft. Legs blackish fuscous with narrow ochreous annula- 
tions. Alarexpance: 12mm. 

Habitat: Victoria, British Columbia. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Type No. 22110. 

Received from Mr. W. Downes. This is the socalled "Straw- 
berry Crownborer," on which there is a considerable economic 
literature, but which has never received a specific name. The 
species is exceedingly close to Aristotelia absconditella, Walker, 
which feed on Polygonum; the lighter colored terminal joint of 
the labial palpi and minute differences in the white annulations 
of the antennae are the only slight distinctions, but slides of the 
male genitaliea prove the separation correct. 

In the National Museum are also specimens bred from straw- 
berry at Corvallis, Oregon. 



AVOCADO SEED WEEVILS. 
BY H. S. BARBER, Bureau of Entomology. 

Since the writer's 1912 note on the large weevil (Heilipus 
lauri Boh.) reared from Central American seeds of avocado, 
(Per sea spp.} a federal quarantine has become effective against 
importation of these seeds, and in this connection the weevil 
has been mentioned several times. Together with three other 
seed-infesting weevils mentioned hereafter, it was used in the 
seed fumigation experiments described by Sasscer 1915. A recent 
paper by Hoyt 1918 warns the avocado growers of Florida against 
this possible pest and mentions the feeding injury by the adult 
in confinement but no field observations (except those of Gandara 
and Inda 1914, in which the damage by some bark-borer and 
perhaps other pests also seems to have been confused with that 
by Heilipus} have yet offered us any basis upon which we may 
satisfy our curiosity as to the nature or extent of commercial 
damage liable from this weevil under its most favorable condi- 
tions. We are still in ignorance of the principal part of its biology 
since the only observations of which I am aware are based upon 
prepupal larvae and pupae found within imported seeds and 
upon the adult beetles issuing thereform. One of these latter 
lived under my observation for four and a half months, most 
of the time confined upon a potted seedling avocado about 14 
inches high, which it killed by its voraceous feeding upon the 
leaves, buds, and finally upon the bark. Before being placed 



54 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

upon this plant it had fed upon ripe avocado fruit and, when starved 
to it, upon the seed of the same. 1 

Two quite distinct though closely related forms of adults were 
mentioned in the 1912 note and it was then hoped that more 
material would soon be available, as well as observations on 
habits in its native home, but the infested seed subsequently 
received in Washington seems to have contained only the larvae 
of a somewhat smaller weevil often occurring a dozen or more 
in a single seed, and which when reared proved to be the species 
described below as Conotrachelus perseae. I know of no one who 
has noticed either weevil in its wild state. An excellent photo- 
graph of very serious injury to the pulp surrounding the seed was 
made by Wilson Popenoe at Panajachel, Guat. in Jan. 1917, and 
will apear in his forthcoming paper on Guatemalan Avocados 
(U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 743, pi. XI). The larvae there shown are 
certainly weevil larvae (probably C. perseae}, but when found were 
mistaken for the larvae of the moth Stenoma sp. 

The two forms of Heilipus are so distinct in habitus that it 
seems best to use distinctive names for them but it is more than 
likely that intergrading forms will be discovered in avocado seed 
from other tropical American localities and require the reduction 
of the new form to the rank of a subspecies. In the ten specimens 
before me the relative lengths of the rostrum may be shown by 
the decimal quotients found by dividing the measured length of 
the beak (from margin of eye) by the measured length of the prono- 
tum (before scutellum) which are as follows: 

H. lauri &<?, 1.42, 1.45, 1.47; 9 9, 1.81, 1.84, 1.86. 
//. piUieri tf tf , 1.56, 1.68; 9 9, 2.19, 2.45. 

The two forms are distinguishable as follows: 

Ground color piceous, legs concolorous; elytra with conspicuous transverse 
antemedian and subapical squamose patches; rostrum of a 1 less than l J /2 
times length of pronotum, of 9 less than twice pronotal length. Habitat 
in seeds of Persea persea from Mexico. Heilipus lauri Boh. 

Ground color red, legs bicolored; no elytral fascia; rostrum of 6* more than 
l'/2 times pronotal length, of 9 nearly 2*/2 times pronotal length. Habitat 
in seeds of Persea pittieri from San Jose, Costa Rica. Heilipus pittieri n. sp. 

Heilipus lauri Boh. 1845. The type locality in Mexico from 
which Wahl (Professor of Botany in Copenhagen?) obtained the 
infested avocado seed can probably never be located; Champion 
1902 saw two specimens from Capulalpam (Salle); Barber 1912 
had seen three specimens from the U. S. that had issued from im- 

1 This was a 9 specimen of H. lauri, received from A. S. Hoyt Aug 1, 
1913, which he had taken at Los Angeles, Cal., out of a seed from a dealer 
in Mexico City, and which died Dec. 19. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 .").") 

ported seed of unknown source; Pierce 1917 added no new records; 
and Hoyt 1918 must have seen a number of specimens found in 
seeds received in Los Angeles, Cal. from a dealer in Mexico City 
for he kindly has sent three examples to the Bureau of Entomology. 
The six examples before me are very dark brown with short decumln-nt 
fulvous or cinereous hairs in the transverse wrinkles of the elytra; on the lattL-r 
are two conspicuous transverse bands of densely placed hairs, one at basal 
two-fifths and lateral fourth, broadly interrupted at middle, the other at 
apical fourth narrowly interrupted at suture but nearly obsolete on flanks. 
Length (rostrum excepted) 14-15 mm. 

HeilipUS pittieri n. sp. (H. lauri (part) Barber 1912, Pierce 1917. ) 
Similar to //. lauri but differs in the bright rufous color of the integument and 
uniform disposition of the elytral vestiture as well as in the longer rostrum, 
stronger development of the mesosternal tubercle and relatively slightly 
narrower pronotum. Length (rostr. excl.) 13, l-tVa, 15Y 2 , 16V2 mm.; length 
of rostrum tf, 5 to 5.7 mm., 9 , 8.1 to 9.8 mm. 

The type and three paratypes (U. S. N. M. Type No. 22007) 
issued at Washington, D. C. in 1912 from a small lot of seeds of 
Persea pittieri Mez. received by the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
U. vS. Department of Agriculture, from Mr. Carlos Werkele in 
San Jose, Costa Rica. 

CONOTRACHELUS. 

The most common, weevil larvae found in imported avocado 
seed by the federal inspectors since 1912 was reared from three 
lots of seed, and proved to be as recorded by Sasscer 1918, a 
Conotrachelus which we were unable to identify among the 189 
species of this genus treated by Champion in the Biologia Centali- 
Americana (Vol. 4, pt. 4, 1904-6) until after its close relationship 
with Floridian specimens of C. serpent-inns Boh. was noticed. 
Although females of the two forms are often almost indistinguish- 
able the characters of the males are so different that there seems 
to be no alternative but to add the hundred -ninetieth species 
to the list of Central American Conotrachelus. The males of 
both species have the rostrum shorter before the antennal sockets 
and have a pair of tufts composed of two or three short tactile 
hairs near the apex of the last ventral segment. The two species 
here distinguished may be recognized in the males as follows : 
c? 1 with hook on anterior tibia flattened, bidentate, apex shallowly emarginatc; 
rostrum conspicuously pubescent in basal two-thirds; antennae inserted 
at apical fifth; metasternum with very large, shallow concavity, the posterior 
margin of which is elevated into a strong, transverse, arcuate and finely 
crenulate ridge; first abdominal segment without median impression; 
hind tibia longer and more slender, with inner margin obliquely truncate 
and biseriately ciliate in apical fourth, and with a strongly curved apical 



56 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

hook; aedeagus flattened, less strongly chitinized, apex broadly truncate 
and bearing lateral patches of very fine, short pubescence, the opening 
hardly double the width of the chitinized border. Length, Q 1 /-, to 7 mm. 
Habitat in seeds of Persea from Guatemala City. 

Conotrachelus perseae n. sp. 

d 71 with anterior tibial hook simple; rostrum pubescent in basal third; antennae 
inserted at apical third; metasternum with small medium posterior im- 
pression; first abdominal segment broadly, shallowly impressed; hind 
tibiae shorter, stouter, with only a vestage of the inner apical emargination 
and with an inconspicuous hook; aedeagus strongly convex, heavily chitin- 
ized, with opening about five times the width of the lateral border, apex 
rounded or narrowly truncate. Length, 5 J /2 to 6 mm. Habitat, Cuba, 
Florida and Georgia. (C. ventralis Lee. 1878.) 

Conotrachelus serpentinus Boh. 

Conotrachelus perseae n. sp. Larvae believed to be of this 
species are before me from seven lots of avocado seed and from 
three of these lots adults have matured in my breeding jars. 
The first adults reared are from seed which came from Coban, 
Alta Vera Paz, Guat. and are smaller, paler in color, with almost 
uniformly, pale yellow vesitture and it is feared they may have 
issued under abnormal conditions in the breeding jar, so specimens 
from the two other lots from Guatemala City which are supposed 
to be more normal, have been chosen as types, and the following 
description was drawn from two live and freshly emerged but 
fully hardened females: 

Integument very dark piceous (almost black), shining. Vestiture moder- 
ately dense and composed of hairs of three colors intermixed rose-red, 
rather pale brownish, and a few white; the first being quite dense on the 
front, the humeri, and base of second interstrial space of elytra and on the 
legs; the brownish hairs being confined principally to the disc of the elytra, 
and the white occurring conspicuously in the punctures of the metasternum 
and abdomen, in the large serial punctures of the elytra and less prominently 
in small, irregularly placed spots and bands on the disc of the elytra. Elytra 
with alternate interspaces carinate, the two inner ones much less prominent 
on the disc, the two outer ones uniting in a rather strong humeral prominence. 
Abdomen and metasternum shining, very sparesly punctate; a strongly 
elevated oblique ridge connecting the middle and hind coxae and ending in 
a slightly produced tubercle in front of the hind trochanter; median area of 
metasternum finely crenulate behind and with similar transverse sculpture 
in front; last three abdominal segments narrowly margined with fine pale 
pubescence; femora very strongly toothed, with the rosy hairs more densely 
placed in illdefined postmedian and subapical bands. 

Type, allotype and 14 paratypes No. 22008 U. S. N. M. 
The larval galleries in the seed reach a diameter of about 
4 mm. and are tightly packed with frass. When the larvae are 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL 21, XO. 3, MAR., 1919 57 

numerous the seed may be badly riddled but the germ is often 
not injured by the larvae whose presence in the seed cannot be 
detected except by cutting into their galleries unless they have 
started to leave the seed for pupation. This transformation 
is usually accomplished in the ground but larvae sometines pupate 
in rotten seeds. The pupal period lasts about two weeks and the 
adults do not harden very rapidly. It is supposed that eggs are 
laid in the young fruit otherwise one would expect to find a 
noticeable entrance hole in the seed covering. If the larvae 
shown in the injured avocado fruit illustrated by Wilson Popenoe 
1919 (Plate XI) are in truth this species, as I believe they probably 
are, its habits of attack in the growing fruit must be similar to 
that of C. nenuphar in peach, but nothing to indicate this was seen 
in the material reaching my hands from the following sources: 

A. vS. Hoyt of Los Angeles, Cal., examined quantities of seed from 
a dealer in Mexico City finding larvae and pupae of Heilipus 
lauri and a Scolytid (mentioned below) but among the few 
specimens of the former now in the National Collection there 
are two larvae now believed to be this Conotrachelus but which, 
when received were mistaken for young larvae of the Heilipus. 

O. F. Cook collected seed of a "hard shelled" avocado at Coban, 
Alta Vera Paz, Guat., many of which were infested with Cono- 
trachelus larvae and Caulophilus larvae, pupae and adults. These 
were received by me June 9, 1914 and from them pupae were 
secured in July and early August, and adults were reared. 

Wilson Popenoe purchased seed in the markets in Guatemala 
City which was received in Washington in several lots, two adults 
being reared in Feb. 1917 and twelve more in Feb., Mar. and 
early April 1918, the latter from seed purchased in November 
19lt. In this lot there was much parasitism by a Chalcid (En- 
cyrtid) whose black pupae formed a raspberry-like cluster all 
standing upright in the pupal cell of their host. Larvae are also 
preserved from seed grown in Panajachel, Guat., about Jan. 
5, 1917, but I have seen no adults from this lot. Avocados are 
brought into the markets by the natives from long distances, 
I am informed, so the specimens here described may be native 
in some other section of that country although undoubtedly 
established about cities. 

Conotrachelus serpentinus Boh. 1X37 was described from Cuba 
and has been mentioned by Jaq. Duval 1S.")0, by Suffrian 1872 
and by Gundlach 1S91? What seems to be the same species 
from Florida was described by LeConte ls7x as a new species, 
C. ventralis under which name Schwarz 1890 recorded it as found 
by him exclusively upon Per sea carolinensis ( = - P. borbonid), 
within Psyllid galls on which, lie believed the larvae developed. 
Blatchley and Leng 191(i re-describe the species under the name 



58 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

serpentinus and state that ventralis is a synonym. The National 
Collection contains 27 specimens as follows: a topotype of ven- 
t rails from Enterprise Fla. June 14; eight examples from Lake 
Worth, Fla. (Soltau Coll.) ; Ten examples from Cocoanut Grove 
(labelled Biscayne Bay) Fla. Apr. 30, May 10 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz) ; two from Miami, Fla. (Wickham) ; one from St. Lucie, 
Fla. Apr. 20 (Hubbard and Schwarz); one from St. Catherine 
Isl., Ga. April 19 (Hubbard and Schwarz) and one from Savannah, 
Ga. (G. Noble larvae in fruit of Per sea catesbyiana) 1 besides 
three examples from Cayamas, Cuba, Mar. 2, 3, and May 22 
(Schwarz). These latter are so like the others that I believe 
the LeConte name must remain a synonym although a comparison 
of the aedeagus of a Lake Worth and a Cayamas specimen show 
some slight differences in outline of apex, the Cuban form being 
slightly more deflexed and rounded than the Florida example 
which is slightly truncate apically. The forms treated as ser- 
pentinus by Champion 1904 probably belong 'partly to this species 
and partly to the species above described as persiae but no male 
specimen before me has the hind tibia of the shape indicated in 
his figure 19b. To the above distribution should probably be 
added his record from Jamaica. 

Other Insects. 

Another weevil (Rhyncolus lauri] from seeds of avocado from 
Mexico, was described about eighty years ago by Gyllenhal, 
but no one seems to have been able to indentify this species. 
Champion 1909 states that the type could not then be found in 
the Stockholm Museum but that the species probably does not 
belong in Rhyncolus. Except for the pale elytra more than three 
times as long as the prothorax the original description might 
apply to what we are now calling Caulophilus latinasus Say, 
which Boheman redescribed from material sent by, say, only 
nine pages ahead of Gyllenhal's description of Iduri. C. latinasus 
seems to be native in our Southern States and Champion 1909 
adds Mexico, Guatemala and Madeira to the known distribution 
but the specimens I have seen vary considerably and may not all 
be latinasus. Injury to avocado seeds by this species has been 
mentioned by Schwarz 1912, Sasscer 1915, Blatchley and Leng 
1916, Pierce 1917, Popenoe 1918, Hoyt 1918, and by Popenoe 
1919. 

The small Scolytid from a Panama avocado seed mentioned by 
Schwarz 1912 has not yet been described but Dr. Hopkins be- 
lieves it represents a new genus related to Spermatoplex. The 
Scolytid mentioned by Sasscer 1915 and by Hoyt 1918 seems to 

1 This plant is now listed in Ocotea but is presumbly a misdetermination of 

Pcrsea borbonia. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 59 

be Pagiocerus rimosus Eich. which, according to Blandford 1896 
is widely distributed in tropical America from Chili to Mexico 
and Cuba, and which is recorded from Florida by Hopkins 1907, 
Swaine 1909, and Blatchley and Leng 1916, boring in seeds of 
Persea borboni, Anona glabra and .4. cherimolia, and in corn. 
Specimens received alive from Mr. Hoyt were reared by the writer, 
through serveral generations in Avocado seed, and the same 
species was recently found infesting Central American corn at 
Quarantine in San Francisco, so the species may be a pest of 
various stored products.. 

Since avocado culture in Florida appears to be assuming almost 
the proportions of an industry, it may be permissible to mention 
two other insects that are not seed weevils but which may become 
important. Mr. Schwarz believes that Ashmead confused the 
two Florida swamp trees, Magolia glauca and Persea borbonia 
in his field observations and that Trioza niagnoliae Ash. lives 
upon the latter and not, as stated by Ashmead 1881 and quoted 
by Crawford 1914, upon the former. Crawford remarks upon 
the similarity between magnoliae and koebelei which latter, Kirk- 
aldy 1905 described from galls on Persea gratissima in Morelos, 
Mex., the species being "very destructive." Whether or not 
the two named forms prove to be synonyms, it is evident that the 
Florida form may adapt itself to, and become destructive to 
cultivated avocado. 

CryptorhyncJius ferratus is recorded by Schwarz 1890 as in- 
festing only branches of Persea carolinensis, in Florida, instead 
of oak. VanDine 1909 records Xyleborus immaturus attacking 
avocado, and Perkins 1913 mentions two more Scolytids, Hy- 
pothenemus eruditus (?) and Crossotarsns externedentatus as boring 
in large avocado trunks in Hawaii. A single specimen of an 
unknown genus of Cryptorhynchid weevils was found in an avocado 
flower-bud received in alcohol in 1915 from the island of Guam, 
the vial being labeled "Avocado flowers attacked by insects" 
but we were unable, from the accompanying letter or from the 
samples received, to satisfy ourselves as to the nature or cause 
of the injury. 

There are probably many other insects already reported as 
of economic interest in relation to the culture of this tree, but 
it would be out of place here to more than mention that fourteen 
species of Coccids and five other insects not mentioned above 
are listed as dangerous by Pierce 1917 and that a few more Coccids 
and an undermined species of the Lepidopterous genus Stenoma 
are mentioned by Sasscer 1918 who tells me that the larva of the 
latter eats galleries in the seed similar to those of the two large 
weevils, but easily distinguishable from them by the presence of 
loosely packed lepidopterous irass-pellets. Popenoe 1919 also 
refers to this moth. 



60 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAR., 1919 

References cited. 

1837 Boheman; Schoenherr Gen. Curcul., vol. 4, p. 402 and 1068. 
1837 Gyllenhal; Schoenherr Gen. Curcul., vol. 4, p. 1076. 
1845 Boheman; Schoenherr Gen. Curcul., vol. 8, Pt. 2, p. 443. 
1856 Jac. DuVal; Ramon de la Sagra, Hist. fis. pol. and nat. Cuba., vol. 

7, p. 93. 

1872 Suffrian; Archiv f. Naturg., vol. 38, Pt. 1, p. 163. 
1878 LeConte; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., vol. 17, p. 429. 
1881 Ashmead; Can. Ent., vol. 13, p. 224. 
1890 Schwarz; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 1, pp. 232-3. 
1891? Gundlach; Ent. Cubana, vol. 3, p. 301. 
1896 Blandford; Biol. Cent.-Amer. Coleop., vol. 4, Pt. 6, p. 135. 
1902 Champion; Biol. Cent.-Amer. Coleop., vol. 4, Pt. 4, p. 19, pi. 2, fig. 8, 8a. 

1904 Champion; Biol. Cent.-Amer. Coleop., vol. 4, Pt. 4, p. 433, pt. 21, fig. 19. 

1905 Kirkaldy; Can Ent., vol. 37, p. 290. 

1907 Hopkins; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 8, pp. 112-114. 

1909 Champion; Biol. Cent.-Amer., Coleop. vol. 4, Pt. 7, pp. 40, 73, 75. 

1909 Swaine; N. Y. State Museum Bull., 134, p. 128. 

1909 VanDine; An. Rep. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1908, pp. 29-37. 

1912 Barber; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 14, pp. 181-183, pi. IX. 

1912 Schwarz; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 14, pp. 183. 

1913 Perkins; Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 1, Pt. VI, p. cxxiv. 

1914 Gandara and Inda; El Picudo del Aguacate. Mexico. 17 pp. "Im- 

prenta Secretaria de Industria y Comercio." 

1914 Crawford; U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 85, pp. 96-7. 

1915 Sasscer; U. S. Depart. Agr. Bull., 186, pp. 4-5. 

1916 Blatchley and Leng; Rhynch. N. E. A. pp. 474, 535, 586. 

1917 Pierce; Manual of Dangerous Insects, Office of Secty. U. S. Dept. Agr., 

p. 30, pi. 49. 

1918 Hoyt; Quarterly Bull. St. Plant Bd. Fla., vol. 2, pp. 108-112. 
1918 Sasscer; Journ. Econ. Ent., vol. 11, p. 127. 

1918 Popenoe; 1917 Ann. Rep. Calif. Advocado Assn. p. 6. 

1919 Popenoe; U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 743, pp. 34-35, pi. XI. (In press.) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 2 

1. Heilipus lauri Boheman, cf. Mexico. X4 

2. Heilipus pittieri n. sp. cf Type. Costa Rica. X4 

3. Heilipus pittieri n. sp. 9 Allotype. Costa Rica. X4 

4 and 5. Conotrachelus perseae n. sp. cf Paratype. Guatemala. X4 



Actual Date of Publication, March 18, 1919. 



PROC. IJNT SOC WASH., VOL. 21 



PLATE 2 



M 



CO 

w 



O 

n 



a 
w 



n 

w 




VOL. 21 APRIL 1919 No. 4 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BUSCK, AUGUST ON SOME GENERIC SYNONOMY IN THE FAMILY GELECHIIDAE 

(LEP.) 94 

FISHER, W. S. DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF BUPRESTIDAE 

FROM ARIZONA (COL.) 

MORRISON, HAROLD A REPORT ON A COLLECTION OF COCCIDAE FROM 

ARGENTINA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF APPARENTLY NEW SPECIES (HOM.) 03 
PIERCE, W. DWIGHT, BUSCK, AUGUST AND BOVING, ADAM G. CAPTAIN ALLAN 

HINSON JENNINGS 61 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President E. R. SASSCER 

First Vice- President W. R. WALTON 

Second Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 

Representing the Society as a Vice- President of the Washington Academy of 
Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

THE OFFICERS. 
A. N. CAUDELL. A. L. QUAINTANCE. CHAS. R. ELV. 



PROCEEDINGS 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
at Easton, Pa., and Washington, D. C. Terms of subscription: Do- 
mestic, $4. 'OO per annum; foreign, $4.25 per annum; recent single numbers, 
50 cents, foreign postage extra. All subscriptions are payable in advance. 
Remittances should be made payable to the Entomological Society of 
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PLATE 3 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 




CAPTAIN ALI.AX HINSON JENNINGS 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 21 APRIL, 1919 No. I 

CAPTAIN ALLAN HINSON JENNINGS. 
BY W. D WIGHT PIERCE, AUGUST BUSCK AND ADAM G. BOVING. 

The many associates and friends of Captain Jennings were 
shocked by the news of his sudden death from accident on Decem- 
ber 16, 1918, at Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Many 
of us had seen him only a few days before while he was on a short 
business trip north. He had returned to camp and received 
orders to proceed to Hoboken for special duty. His baggage 
had already been sent to the station and he had said farewell to 
most of his officer friends. He was speaking to some one in an 
automobile and when through stepped backward across the road 
in the path of a camp ambulance. He was run over and sus- 
tained severe injuries. He was very brave about it and took the 
entire blame for the accident. His usual courage and philosophy 
kept him up throughout all the examinations, but in the after- 
noon he lost consciousness and died after about seventy-two 
hours. Captain Jenning's papers ordering him to France were 
signed the day his body passed through Washington. 

Allan Hinson Jennings was born in Maryland, November 9, 
18(56. His early education was received in private schools at 
Baltimore, Maryland. During 1886 and 1SS7 he was a special 
student in the Marine Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins 
University and made studies of marine biology, entomology and 
ornithology in the Bahama Islands. In 1888 he rendered volun- 
teer service in the Division of Birds of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. In 1905 he spent six months in the Division of Paleontology 
of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, 
studying the taxonomy, biology and evolution of the living 
species of horses, asses and zebras, as well as the ancient dispersion 
and present distribution of the group. This work was done 
under Prof. H. F. Osborne and Dr. W. K. Gregory. 

For several years he practiced agriculture on his own farm near 
Chesapeake Beach, Maryland. He devoted much time to study 
and travel within the United States, with zoology as the main 
object, forming a considerable collection of birds, fishes and 
invertebrates. 

From November 1906 to July 1911, he was Entomologist of the- 
Department of Sanitation of the Isthmian Canal Commission. 

61 



02 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 4, APR., 1919 

The duties of this position consisted of a biological study of the 
insect fauna of the region with special reference to economic 
forms and to mosquitoes in particular; research work in disease 
transmission under the direction of Dr. S. T. Darling; supervision 
of inspection of mosquito breeding conditions; investigation of 
causes of malarial incidence and recommendation of control 
measures as far as related to mosquito conditions. 

He entered the service of the Bureau of Entomology, August 
1, 1911, and from then on was employed in the investigation 
of the relations of insects to disease. The most notable portion 
of his work was done from 1912 to 1914, in cooperation with the 
Robert M. Thompson Pellagra Commission of the New York 
Post-Graduate School of Tropical Medicine; he had charge of the 
investigations at Spartansburg, South Carolina, on the possible 
relation of insects to the transmission of pellagra. In this con- 
nection he made studies in the West Indies of the occurrence of 
pellagra and the buffalo gnats of the genus Simulium. 

After the conclusion of this work he was engaged in a malaria 
mosquito survey of the District of Columbia. During this time 
he lost his wife, whose death greatly affected him. 

On September 13, 1917, he entered the Sanitary Corps of the 
Army as a first lieutenant and throughout his service was stationed 
at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, where he had charge of all sanita- 
tion related to insect control. After a year's service he was 
promoted to a captaincy. 

Captain Jennings w r as an exceedingly painstaking investigator, 
never committing himself to a positive statement unless ab- 
solutely certain of his ground. 

He was uniformly courteous and considerate of the feelings of 
other people. He was very much loved by his many friends. 
Captain N. Riggins, one of his most intimate friends in the camp, 
in a letter to Doctor Howard writes: "I can not tell you ade- 
quately how deeply we all feel this loss. The captain was a fine 
comrade and a staunch friend, and he had won in the camp the 
esteem and respect of everyone with whom he had come in con- 
tact, and this feeling always deepened upon further association. 

It seems to me that you should know that part of the last 

conversation with the Captain had to do with you and his old 
associates at the Bureau. He was looking forward to getting 
back to his real work, among the old scenes, old associates and 
friends." 

Captain Jennings w r as a fellow of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, an active member of the American 
Association of Economic Entomologists, and of the Washington 
Entomological Society. 

A list of his publications follow : 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 63 

1. List of birds observed in the Bahama Islands in 1XS6 and 1887. Johns 

Hopkins Univ. Circ., 1888. 

2 . The eggs of Lutzin bigotii Bellardi. Can. Hnt., 1908, p. 49. 
3. Mosquitoes destroyed by the night hawk. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 

vol. 10, Sept. 15, 1908, pp. 61, 62. 

4 Rats and ileas in their relation to bubonic plague, with special reference 

to Panama and the Canal Zone. Proc. Med. Assoc. Isthmian Canal 
Zone, vol. 3, pt. 1, 1910. 

5 Some problems of mosquito control in the tropics. Journ. Kcon. lint., 

vol. 5, No. 2, April 1912, pp. 131-141. This paper was republislicd 
by the Department of Sanitation, Isthmian Canal Commission for 
distribution with official literature. 

6. Some notes on the tick Ornithodoros talajc Guerin. Proc. Knt. Soc. 

Wash., vol. 14, 1912, pp. 77-78. 

7. One of the possible factors in the causation of pellagra. Allan H. Je-n 

nings and W. V. King, Journ. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 59, Jan. 25, 1913, 
pp. 271-274. 

8 . An intensive study of insects as a possible etiologic factor in pellagra. 

Allan H. Jennings and W. V. King, Am. Jour. Med. Science, vol. 
146, No. 3, Sept. 1913, pp. 411-441. Also issued in a separate (30 pp.) 
and in First Progress Report of the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra 
Commission of the New York Post Grad. Med. School and Hosp., 
part III, pp. 81-110. 

9 . Summary of two years study of insects in relation to pellagra. Jour. 

of Parasitology, Sept. 1914, vol. 1, pp. 10-21. Issued as 12 page 
separate, and abstracted in Science. 

10. Two new species of Simulium from tropical America. Proc. Hnt. .Soc. 
Wash., vol. 17, No. 4, 1915, pp. 199-200. 

A REPORT ON A COLLECTION OF COCCIDAE FROM ARGENTINA, 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF APPARENTLY NEW SPECIES (HOM. . 

BY HAROLD MORRISON, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

The following list of new and described species of Coccidae is 
based on collections made by Sr. P. Jorgensen in three parts of the 
Argentine republic, at Mendoza, in the west, in Misiones Terri- 
tory, in the north, and at Buenos Aires, during the years I'.Hi!* 
19l"l, and sent by him to Dr. L. O. Howard, Chief of the I'. S. 
Bureau of Entomology for possible determination. All of the 
information regarding date of collection and host plants are from 
Sr. Jorgensen's notes accompanying the lots of material. The 
single representative of the subfamily Diaspinae in the collection 
has been identified by Mr. H. R. vSasscer. The material has been 
prepared for microscopic study largely by Misses B. M. Boss 
and Sadie Keen, employees of the Bureau of Entomology. The 
photographs used have been made by Mr. J. II. Paine. The 



64 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

drawings illustrating the structural characteristics of the species 
have been prepared by Emily Morrison who has also been of 
much assistance in other ways, and to all of these the writer is 
correspondingly indebted. 

Fam. COCCIDAE.' 
Subfam. MONOPHLEBINAE. 

Genus Icerya Sign. 
Icerya minima, n. sp. 
(PI. 4, fig. 1; pi. 6, fig. 2, A-M.i 

Adult Female. Maximum length of body and ovisac observed 4 mm., 
maximum length of shriveled body of insect observed 2 mm. maximum exten- 
sion of ovisac behind hind margin of insect observed 2.5 mm.; maximum 
width of shriveled body of insect observed 1.5 mm. ; color of dried adult female 
very dark reddish to blackish red, more or less obscured dorsally by a faint 
whitish powdery and cottony secretion; body of insect dorsally, strongly 
and irregularly wrinkled transversely; shape of dried body variable, oval or 
more typically broader behind, tapering in front, with the two ventral halves 
of the body shriveled up so that the anterior and posterior faces meet below 
at the middle line to form a broad round-bottomed V as viewed from the side ; 
dorsum so shriveled near the margin that there is left all the way round the 
body a rather prominent marginal border area; ovisac secreted from the pos- 
terior face of the ventral surface, shape somewhat variable, depending ap- 
parently on the state of shrinkage of the female, typically flaring out below 
on each side to reach its greatest width opposite the hinder margin of the 
body, then tapering gradually to a rounded apex, the whole having the shape 
of a flattened wedge with rounded off edges, only faintly longitudinally ridged 
and grooved, appearing rather closely woven but quite fragile, white in color, 
very indistinctly tarnished in some specimens. 

Body of Adult Female. Mounted on a slide 2-2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. 
wide, rather elongate egg-shaped, broadest behind; when boiled in KOH 
giving off a small amount of reddish brown stain; with a few large stout 
setae of varying lengths scattered over the dorsum, particularly near the 
margin, these forming a comparatively dense cluster around the dorsal anal 
opening, although here they are smaller than elsewhere, each seta set in 
a conical protruding base, the longest observed about 19()yu long from base 
to apex, or about 200/u from the base of the socket to the apex of the seta, 
which is bluntly rounded, diameter of longest hairs at base about 10 ju, diameter 
of socket about 26/j., height of socket about 18ju, these dimensions sometimes 
slightly exceeded, and frequently less; with multiocular gland pores scattered 
over the dorsum, the relative abundance of occurrence, but not necessarily 
the number corresponding pretty closely to that of the setae, these pores 
having a maximum diameter of about lOju and consisting in surface view of 

1 The system of classification followed is that used in the Catalogue of 
the Coccidae of the World by Mrs. Fernald. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 65 

a central ring surrounded by a single circle of similar rings, the number in 
the circle varying from 6 to 8, with 7 the most frequent, and these in turn 
surrounded by a continuous thickened chitinous circle, in profile the small 
circles appearing as a bundle of tiny cylinders protruding from the thickened 
circular enclosing band; body ventrally with smaller hairs and fewer gland 
pores scattered over the anterior half, on the posterior half with a narrow 
but conspicuous, irregularly circular or oval continuous band of closely set 
multiocular gland pores and nearly blunt-tipped setae which evidently 
are responsible respectively for the secretion and support of the ovisac, 
this band located on the ventral surface of the abdomen, extending across 
it just behind the posterior legs and curving back and running around the 
posterior portion of the abdomen parallel and close to the body margin, 
the setae of this band with bases distinctly different in type from those of 
the other hairs found on the body; with five small irregularly-shaped clear 
cicatrices included within that portion of the band crossing the abdomen 
just behind the posterior legs, of which the middle is the smallest and the in- 
termediate pair the largest; with three ventral cicatrices, circular or somewhat 
irregular in outline, the median much the largest, placed inside the ventral 
gland band near the posterior end of the body; the relatively large, oval 
anal opening placed a little back of the middle of the dorsum of the abdomen ; 
with a series of indeterminate chitinized structures, in reality small invagina- 
tions of the body wall presumably for muscle attachment, curving forward 
and outward from the anal opening on each side, these apparently 7 or 8 
in number in each series, and with one or two rows of similar but smaller 
structures on each side of this larger row, and still another row, of small size, 
ventrally, curving outward and forward from the end of the ventral cica- 
trices on each side; while not definitely determinable from the material at 
hand, apparently with from three to five rows of these tiny invaginations 
dorsally on each side of the middle line; antennae 9-segmented, the relative 
shape and size of the segments shown in the figure, the lengths of the segments 
in microns as follows: 1 



II. 


in. 


IV. 


V. 


i VI. 


VII. 


VIII 


IX 


82 


60.5 


46.5 


46:5 


43 


broken 




. . 


78.5 


00.5 


43 


46.5 


broken 


. . 




. . 


7s . :. 


60.5 


44 


43 


43 


37 . 5 


43 


71 


82 


60 . 5 


48 


48 


32 


35.5 


182 




7.') 


50 


48 


48 


41 


85 5 


46.5 


82 


82 


57 


48 


50 


43 


39 


43 


85 


82 


53 :. 


85 5 


39 


3.") o 


32 


48 


s< 


82 


60.:. 


41 


39 


28.5 


28.5 


39 


x.-, 



legs not unusual for the genus, lengths of the parts of ;i middle leg. iVinur 
310/i. tibia 335 ju, tarsus 207 /u. claw liii/u, claw slender, slightly curved, digitulc.s 

1 In this and succeeding tabulations of antennal measurements, the 
length of the first segment is always omitted as it is so often twisted or dis- 
torted that it is rarely possible to obtain an accurate measurement. 



66 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

of both tarsus and claw probably broken off, the remaining portions on the 
claw extending only a little beyond the middle, slender, seta-like, tarsus 
noticeably curved, with a number of stout spine-like setae, tarsal digitules, 
if present, represented by two small hairs set some distance from the apex 
of the tarsus and projecting very slightly beyond it, tibiae also with a number 
of stout spine like setae ventrally and some slender longer ones above ; thoracic 
spiracles rather large and elongate, abdominal spiracles marginal, much smaller 
than the thoracic, the connecting tube less chitinized and usually shriveled, 
in three pairs, located in the posterior portion of the abdomen. 

Young Larva. Total length 0.5 mm. more or less, elongate oval, about 
equally narrowed before and behind, antennae 6-segmented, typical lengths 
as follows: II, 39 M I III, 28.5/i; IV, 30 M ; V, 25 n; VI, 80 M; antennae 
and particularly the legs large and conspicuous in proportion to the body, 
lengths of the parts of a middle leg about as follows: coxa 46.5/x, trochanter 
and femur 114/x, tibia 121 M, tarsus 107yu, claw 36 ju, claw slender, only slightly 
curved, with a tiny and obscure denticle near the tip ; with relatively few 
large hairs and multiocular gland pores scattered over the dorsum of the body, 
the hairs at the caudal apex slender, acute apically, distinctly but not con- 
spicuously longer than some of the other marginal and body hairs which are 
bluntly rounded apically, longest caudal hair observed 303. 5^ long; ventral 
abdominal hairs much smaller and more slender; with a single median ventral 
cicatrix, in this stage apparently a glandular organ placed on a slight pro- 
tuberance located at the caudal apex of the body; anal opening dorsal, near 
but not at the caudal end of the body, surrounded by a stout circular ring 
marked with radiating ridges or thickenings; with three pairs of tiny slender 
abdominal spiracles; no traces of the ovisac-secreting band of pores, as such 
or of the hairs peculiar to it observed. 

Described from four mounted adults and a number of mounted 
larvae, and from four unmounted specimens from Mendoza, 
Argentina, under collection number 148a. There is no informa- 
tion as to the exact date of collection or of the name of the host. 

The types are in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae. 

Subfam. DACTYLOPIINAE. 

Genus Asterolecanium Targ. 

Asterolecanium viridulum Ckll. 

(PI. 4, fig. 3; pi. 6, fig. 1, A-F.) 

This species is represented in the Jorgensen collection by a lot 
of material collected at Bomplana, Misiones, Argentina, July, 
1010, on Compositae, under collection number S19a. 

This is a pit forming species which appears to have been over- 
looked by Mr. E. K. Green (Jour. Econ. Biol., vol. V, 1910, pp. 
.'! .")) in his discussion of the pit-forming species of Asterolecanium. 
In the key given there for the separation of such species, : [ ii iJitiit< 
runs to tlitspcsiac Green, from which it may be separated, from a 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 07 

comparison with the illustrations and description of the latter 
species (Coccidae of Ceylon, pt. Ill, 1909, p. 331, and pi. CXXII, 
fig. 1-5) by having the discal paired pores slightly but distinctly 
smaller than the largest marginal paired pores, the marginal row 
of unpaired glands single, except at a few points, and by having 
a more or less distinct faded salmon-colored fringe on the margin 
of the test, and a test more elongate in proportion to its width. 

The following details and corrections may be added to the 
original description of this species as given by Prof. Cockerell 
(Can. Ent. XXXIV, 1902, p. 89). 

Adult Female. Test in unmutilated specimens with a relatively wide, 
straight, continuous fringe of faded salmon color, and with a considerable 
quantity of dirty curled-thread secretion over the uniformly convex dorsum; 
marginal paired glands in a double row as stated in the original description, 
except on about the posterior fifth of the body, where the row is single; with 
the marginal paired gland pores varying slightly in size, but with some of 
them, at least, larger than the discal paired gland pores; with numerous 
dorsal paired gland pores scattered without apparent order over the dorsal 
surface of the body. 

Young Larva. Elongate oval, tapering behind, antennae and legs small, 
the former 6-segmented, with a complete marginal and median double row 
of paired gland pores, and an incomplete intermediate row of the same on 
each side; anal ring with 6 small hairs, surrounded by 4 chitinized plates 
making up a ring, on each side of which projects one short and outside of 
this one long hair; tarsal claw straight, sharply bent at extreme tip. 

Statements as to details of structure at variance with the 
original description have been verified by an examination of the 
type slide of the species, deposited by Prof. Cockerell in the 
National Collection of Coccidae. 

Genus Birchippia Green. 

Birchippia americana Leon. 

(PI. 4, fig. 4.) 

The specimens of this species in the Jorgensen collection are 
from Cordillera de Mendoza, Argentina, on Larrea divaricata, 
Feb. S, 1909, under collection number u'a. 

It may be noted with reference to the original description of this 
species (Bol. Lab. Zool. gen. e agr. R. Scuola sup. d'Agr. Portici, 
vol. V, 1911, p. 240-248, fig. VI), that Dr. Leonard! gives B. 
anomala as the species heading in the explanation of his figures, 
but this is apparently incorrect, since the drawings agree with his 
description of B. americana, and do not agree with Green's figures 
and descriptions of B. anomala. The genus Birchippia Green 
appears to be separable from Solenococcus Cockerell only by the 
absence of a median caudal tubercle, between the uniu-d anal 



68 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

plates, judging from an examination of Green's figures and a study 
of this, the only other species at present included in the genus. 

Genus Eriococcus Targ. 

This genus is represented in the collection at hand by four 
species, of which three appear to be undescribed, while the speci- 
mens of the fourth have been referred to a species already de- 
scribed from South America, although there are some variations 
in the material from what appear to be typical specimens of the 
species in question. 

So far as the writer knows, there are at present four described 
species of the genus Eriococcus reported from South America. 
Three of these, together with the three new species are included 
in the following key. Eriococcus parcispinosus Leon. (Bol. Lab. 
Zool. gen. e agr. R. Scuola sup. d'Agr. Portici, vol. V, 1911, p. 
248, fig. VII) is obviously a species of the genus Erium, as it is at 
present recognized, which will be discussed later in connection 
with Erium armatum (Hemp.) Eriococcus diversispinus Leon. 
(Bol. Lab. Zool. gen. e agr. R. Scuola sup. d'Agr. Portici, vol. \ , 
1911, p. 249, fig. VIII) is not included in the following key to the 
species of the genus since it is known to the writer only from the 
original description. Assuming that Leonardos description and 
figures are completely accurate in such details, it may be readily 
separated from the other known South American species by the 
presence of only a pair of spines on each margin of each abdominal 
segment and by the relatively small size of the anal lobe spines. 
Such structures as the pores of the hind coxae and femora and the 
cup-shaped body glands which are mentioned in the following 
key and descriptions can be studied satisfactorily only in stained 
specimens. 

Key to South American Species of Rriococciis. 

a . Abdominal body spines confined to the margins of the segments, two 
large and one small, stout, blunt-tipped spines occurring on each 
margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobe spines stout, blunt- 
tipped araucariae Mask. 

aa . Abdominal body spines varying in number but always present on the 
dorsum, all spines slender, nearly sharp-pointed at apex ; anal lobe 
spines elongate, slender. 
b . Dorsal body spines small, distinctly smaller than the largest marginal 

spines, not very numerous nor conspicuous. 

c . Subapical hair of anal lobes longer than largest anal ring hair; apical 
hair of anal lobes more than twice as long as anal ring hair 

mendnzae n. sp. 

cc . Subapical hair of anal lobes a little shorter than longest anal ring hair; 
apical hair about twice as long as anal ring hair leguminicola n. sp. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 4, APR., 1919 69 

bb . Dorsal body spines large, numerous and conspicuous, not noticeably 

differentiated in size from the body marginal spines. 

d . Pores of hind coxae irregular in size and shape, grouped into 

clusters, each cluster surrounded by a more or less distinct chiti- 

nous thickening; a relatively larger species. . . .perplexus Hemp. 

dd . Hind coxal pores approximately uniform and circular, scattered, 

not grouped as in the preceding species. 

e . Hind tibiae with at most a cluster of only three or four more 
or less fused pores above, just before the apex ; hind coxal 
pores relatively small, rarely if ever exceeding 14-28 in 

number braziliensis Ckll. 

ee . Hind tibiae with a group of about 6 or more large con- 
spicuous pores above just before the apex; hind coxal pores 
large and conspicuous, usually 40 or more in number 

jorgenseni n. sp . 

Eriococcus araucariae Mask, and E. perplexus Hempel have 
thus far been reported only from Brazil. 

Eriococcus mendozae, n. sp. 
(PI. 4, fig. 2; pi. 5, fig. 1, A-H.) 

Sac of Female. Occurring on the twigs of the host, most abundantly at 
points where a cluster of tiny shoots has branched off; light buff in color 
surface finely and densely matted, thin, firm in texture and rather brittle 
in the dried specimens, with a rather large posterior subdorsal opening; 
about 4 mm. in maximum length, normally oval in shape, rather convex, 
and with faint or indistinct transverse grooves marking the abdominal seg- 
mentation; almost invariably distorted and twisted due to crowding or to 
the position on the host; younger sacs lighter and more elongate oval. 

Adult Female. -Maximum length of specimens mounted on slide 2.5 mm., 
maximum width of same 1.75 mm., plump, broad oval, evidently strongly 
convex dorsally in life; color of dried and shriveled body dark reddish; giving 
off dark wine color stain when boiled in KOH; antennae 7-segmented, the 
diameter of corresponding segments varying somewhat in different individuals, 
measurements in microns as follows: 



II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


39 


60.5 


60.5 


26 r. 


25 


35.5 


39 


60.5 


57 


25 


21 


.5 35.5 


39 


78.5 


43 


25 


25 


35.5 


39 


75 


50 


I 1 :. 




64 


39 


62. r, 


53 . .1 


28.5 


18 


35.5 


39 


60.5 


60.." 


25 


25 


35.5 


39 


68 


64 


25 


25 


35.5 


35.5 


60.5 


57 


53.5 




broken 


35.5 


60.5 


46.5 


25 




60.5 


35.5 


57 


53.5 


25 


28 


::_' 



70 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

occasional fusion of the segments, as of the last two, or of the fifth and sixth 
occurring, in which case there is a partial suture present; legs characteristic 
of the genus, the relative proportions indicated in the figures, tarsal digitules 
stouter than claw digitules, both projecting well beyond the apex of the claw 
and distinctly knobbed at apices, claw with a distinct denticle close to the 
apex, anterior tibiae and tarsi about equal in length, the four posterior tibiae 
slightly but evidently longer than the corresponding tarsi, hind coxae with 
numerous, 30 or more, medium size pores, hind femur with 4-6 obscure 
clustered pores above near apex; anal lobes riot very large or stout, incom- 
pletely chitinized, with three long slender dorsal spines and an apical and 
three ventral hairs, of which two are basal and the other is placed close to 
the apical hair which is long and stout, 265 M^ much more than twice as 
long as the longest anal ring hairs which are about 1 10-1 !OM ="= , ventral subapical 
hair of the anal lobes relatively very long, much longer than anal ring hair, 
160-nOn^ ', anal ring as usual in the genus, open anteriorly, each half with a 
solid interior band containing four or five small isolated pores in its whole length, 
bordered outside by a single row of irregular-sized approximately circular pores, 
which is interrupted at intervals by the larger circular bases of the four anal ring 
hairs present on each half; body with stout tapering spines, slender but 
bluntly rounded at apices both dorsally and laterally, those on the margins 
much larger and stouter than those on the dorsum, at least on the abdomen, 
each margin of each abdominal segment typically with three large spines, 
all different in size, the largest placed posteriorly, the next in size anterior to 
the largest and the smallest inside towards the middle line of the body from 
the other two, so that the bases of the three are in a triangle, largest marginal 
spines 70 ju long , intermediate marginal spines 53 /u long == , smallest marginal 
spines 43 n =*=, average size dorsal abdominal spine 25ju, with some dorsal 
spines on thorax and head as much as 44^ long, but these few and scattered, 
dorsal spines without apparent definite arrangement, except that they are 
evidently in transverse bands, corresponding to the segments, on the abdomen; 
ventral abdominal hairs occuring in a single but not straight nor evenly 
curved row on each segment, except that there is on most of the segments 
a median pair, flanked on each side by a single plainly larger hair, these in 
turn flanked by a series of smaller hairs; cup-shaped gland duct bases rather 
shallow, very slightly asymmetrical, fairly numerous; ventrally with scattered 
but segmentally arranged multiocular pores, these more numerous on the 
posterior abdominal segments. 

This species has been described from 7 specimens mounted on 
slides and from a small amount of unmounted material from 
Mendoza, Argentina, host and date of collection not given, under 
collection number 17 n. 

The types are in the U.S. National Collection of Coccidae. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 ,1 

Eriococcus leguminicola, n. sp. 
(PI. 4, fig. 5; pi. 5, fig. 2, A-G.) 

Sac of Female. Occurring on the tiny twigs of the host and on the bases 
of the pinnate leaves, usually in clusters; maximum length a little over 2 
mm., normally short oval, strongly convex dorsally, almost circular in median 
cross section, with two dorsal rows of small secretionary tubercles, these 
indistinct or not evident in the oldest forms; color varying from dirty white 
through buff to a faded salmon, the old female sacs of the previous generation 
a faded white, usually almost wholly obscured by black incrustation, probably 
produced by fungus growing in the intestinal excretion of the younger growing 
females; with a rather large posterior circular opening; surface rather roughly 
matted, thin but fairly firm in texture. 

Adult Female. Maximum length of adult female mounted on slide 2.25 
mm., broad oval when flattened on the slide, dark red before boiling in KOH, 
giving off dark reddish stain in this solution: antennae 7-segmented, the 
measurements of the different segment in microns as follows: 



II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 




37 .5 


32 


21.5 


21.5 


26.5 


28.5 


35.5 


32 


25 


IX 


28.5 


28.5 


50 


25 


21.5 


2 1 5 


30 


28.5 


35.5 


32 


21.5 


L'l .5 


30 


25 


28.5 


25 


18 


broken 




28.5 


32 


35.5 


23 


18 


32 


25 


35.5 


35.5 


21.5 


21.5 


30 


28.5 


32 


35.5 


21.5 


21.5 


28.5 


26.5 


35.5 


32 


21.5 


18 


30 


25 


32 


28.5 


18 


18 


32 


28.5 


28.5 


35.5 


21.5 


19.5 


28.5 


25 


32 


35.5 


21.5 


19.5 


26.5 


28.5 


35.5 


35.5 


21.5 


23 


26.5 


32 


35.5 


37 5 


23 


25 


28.5 


25 


28.5' 


35 . r, 


25 


21.5 


30 


28.5 


35.5 


35.5 


25 


broken 





aborted, total length 142.5, of III-VII is 107 

legs normal for the genus, the tarsus averaging slightly but uniformly longer 
than the tibia in all the legs, hind coxae with a number, usually about 20, 
of rather large pores, two or three of these sometimes fused into a single 
light streak; anal lobes small, tapering strongly, with three long slender 
dorsal spines, the outer the smallest, all averaging distinctly larger than most 
of the similar spines on the dorsum of the abdomen, and with an apical and 
a central subapical and two basal hairs, apical hair averaging 230-250/u, 
subapical hair averaging 107-125/u, longest anal ring hairs averaging 107-125 p, 
these lengths as given relative according to the size of the specimen; anal 
ring with 8 hairs, characteristic of the genus, as described in the preceding 
species; body dorsally and laterally, at least on the abdomen, with only rel- 



72 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

atively few scattered spines, at least an occasional one on the abdominal 
margin distinctly or even conspicuously larger than the average sized dorsal 
abdominal spines; the actual size of the corresponding spines in different 
specimens apparently quite variable, particularly in lots from different 
host plants, but all showing the same approximate relationship between the 
marginal and dorsal abdominal spines, these body spines fairly stout, tapering, 
somewhat curved, slender at apex, but with the tip bluntly rounded, lengths 
as follows: from Mimosa sp., marginal, largest noted 43^, but most about 
35 ju or a little less, dorsal abdominal, largest noted 19ju, smallest 7 n; on Caesal- 
pinia sp. largest marginal 29 M, average length about 20-22 n, largest dorsal 
abdominal noted about 16^, average size 8-10^; on Leguminosae, largest 
marginal noted about 42 /u, average size about 25-28 /x, largest size dorsal 
abdominal noted about 21 yu, smallest about 9/uJ number, size and position 
of the ventral abdominal hairs not determinable from the material available 
for study; cup-shaped gland bases deep, rather narrow, slightly asymmetrical, 
the duct leading to the surface long and slender. 

Young Larva. About 0.5 mm. long when mounted on slide, but varying, 
stoutest and widest anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; antennae 6-segmented, 
both these and the legs large in proportion to the size of the body; hind coxae 
apparently without pores, tarsus a little less than twice the length of the tibia; 
abdomen dorsally with eight rows of spines, the median pair on each segment 
small, the submarginal and marginal pairs much larger, all six of these in 
line transversly, and with the fourth spine on each side small and placed 
anterior to and a little outside of the large marginal spine on each segment; 
ventrally with four hairs near the median line and another, almost spine- 
like hair near the lateral margin on each side; anal lobes with three relatively 
large spines dorsally, a very long apical hair and another, ventral hair, some- 
what longer than the anal ring hairs; anal ring with six hairs, and with a 
rather large .hair close to each side but separate from the anal ring; with a 
few multiocular gland pores ventrally and apparently with an occasional 
very tiny indistinct cup-shaped gland dorsally. 

Male Puparium. Elongate oval, about 1.5 mm. long, slender, convex, 
the anterior half nearly circular in transverse section, dorsum flattened 
posteriorly, caudal apex terminating in a horizontal semicircular slit as wide 
as the body, dirty white in color; adult male not observed. 

This species has been described from 16 specimens mounted on 
slides and a number of unmounted specimens still in position 
on the host plants; the material has all been collected under the 
number 3346 and is from Bomplana, Misiones, Argentina, from 
Mimosa, Caesalpinia and an unstated Leguminosae, collected 
June, 1910. 

The types are in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae. 

In spite of the considerable number of specimens mounted; it 
has not proven possible to obtain very satisfactory slide mounts 
of any of this material and there is in consequence a little doubt 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 73 

regarding some of the points given in the description. In this 
respect, particular attention is called to the apparent proportional 
reduction in the actual size of the body spines of the specimens 
from Caesalpinia as compared with specimens from the other 
hosts. As careful a study as was possible of the other structural 
characters of the specimens does not show any other differences 
in the two lots of material that are not easily included within the 
limits of variation of either lot, so there does not appear to be any 
justification for separating the specimens from Caesalpinia as a 
distinct species. 

Eriococcus braziliensis Ckll. 

(PI. 5, fig. 5, A-E;fig. 6, A-E.) 

The specimens from this collection which have been determined 
as this species were obtained from Baccharis sp., from Com- 
positae, and from unstated host plants at Bomplana, Misiones, 
Argentina, June, 1910 under collection numbers 2'2c and 7106. 

The hind coxal pores in these specimens average a little larger 
than in the material from Brazil already in the National Collec- 
tion of Coccidae, and there also appear to be some slight differ- 
ences in the appearance of the body spines, but this last is ex- 
plainable from the rather poor condition of the mounts from the 
Brazilian material. 

Eriococcus jorgenseni, n. sp. 

(PI. 4, fig. 8; pi. 5, fig. 4, A-F.) 

Sin of Female. Occurring on the leaves and twigs of the host, singly or 
in clusters; elongate, almost parallel-sided, tapering posteriorly and rounded 
off in front, normally flattened below and convex, approaching hemispherical 
dorsally, with a posterior circular opening; maximum length 5 mm., usually 
less when crowded, normal width '2 mm., white, more or less faintly tinged 
with buff, the intersegmental areas showing as faint transverse white grooves; 
surface rather roughened and fuzzy, thin and fragile in texture. 

Adult Female. Dried shriveled adult dark reddish in color, giving off 
dark brownish wine-colored stain when boiled in a solution of KOH; length 
of body mounted on slide about 3 mm., width 1.7.")- '2 mm., shape oval; an- 
tennae 7-segmented, the lengths of the different segments in microns as 
follows: 



II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


35.7 


50 


43 


21 .4 


18 


35.7 


.35 


43 


50 


21.4 


21 .4 


35.7 


34 


43 


43 


21 .4 


21 .4 


35.7 


3.-> . 7 


46.4 


46.4 


broken 






32.1 


43 


32.1 


21.4 


18 


32.1 


35.7 


50 


46.4 


21 .4 


lit. 6 


35.7 


35.7 


46.4 


53 5 


21 4 


L9.6 


35.7 


35.7 


46.4 


41'. 8 


broken 


t t 


m f 



74 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 



32 1 


44.5 


50 


broken . 






35.7 


50 


53.5 


21.4 


21.4 


37.4 


35 .7 


42 8 


46.4 


21 .4 


21.4 


35.7 


35.7 


49.9 


35.7 


21.4 


17.8 


35.7 


28.5 


42.8 


39.2 


21.4 


21 .4 


35.7 


28.5 


46.4 


39.2 


17.8 


17.8 


35.7 



antennae and legs both rather small, the latter with the tibia and tarsus 
about equal in length, the hind coxae with numerous rather large, approx- 
imately circular pores, the number varying from 26 to 60, with the average 
to each coxa around 40; and lobes small, rather stout, round-pointed, with 
three large stout dorsal spines, the longest sometimes as much as 53 /x long, 
and apical, a subapical and basal ventral hair, apical hair 230-270 yu ="=, sub- 
apical 120 ju , longest anal ring hair about 125 ju == ; anal ring with 8 hairs, 
the ring itself typical of the genus; body dorsally with numerous large, slightly 
curved, strongly tapering spines, slender tipped, rounded at apex, these not 
noticeably differentiated in size or position from the similar marginal spines; 
body ventrally with a transverse row of small hairs, varying in length, on each 
of at least the abdominal segments; ventral multiocular gland pores rather 
numerous; dorsal cup-shaped gland bases rather broad and shallow, slightly 
asymmetrical. 

Male Piiparium. Occurring on the leaves and twigs of the host; about 
1.75 mm. long, elongate flat beneath, convex above, flattened caudally, 
with a wide horizontal semicircular opening at the caudal apex; delicate in 
texture, thin but opaque, w'hitish, surface rather fuzzy. 

This species has been described from 13 specimens mounted on 
slides and a number of specimens in position on the host plant, 
sent from Bomplana, Misiones, Argentina, December, 1910, 
under collection number 854a, some material from "Myrtaccous 
plant, ' ' some on ' 'Myricia apiculate' ' and some on an unstated host. 

The types are in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae. 

Genus Erium Cockerell. 

This genus is credited to Crawford in the Catalogue of the 
Goccidae of the World, 1903, p. 112 by Mrs. Fernald, and to 
Maskell by Ferris in The California Species of Mealy Bugs, 1918, 
p. 7.i. An examination of the first bibliographical reference 
given in the Catalogue, that to Maskell (Trans. N. Z. Inst. 
XXIV, 1891, p. 35) shows that Maskell describes the type species 
of the genus, globosus Mask, as a P seudococcus , and merely states 
that in the Crawford collection, from which he obtained his 
specimens of the species, it had been labeled Erium globositni. 
Maskell does not make any statement which could be construed 
as establishing the name Erium as even a subdivision of the genus 
Pseudococcus, and consequently the first use of this name in 
literature for a group of coccids is by Cockerell (Am. Nat. XXXI, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 4, APR., 1919 IO 

1897, p. 590), who states "(5). Erium, Crawford, ins. This 
name will stand for the subgenus of Dactylopins without lateral 

cottony tufts, . The type is D. globosus Mask.," and the genus 

must therefore be credited to him and from that date. 

So far as is known to the writer, there are at present two de- 
scribed species of this genus from South America, one, Erium 
parcispinosMH (Leon.) (Eriococcus parcispinosus Leon. Bol. 
Lab. Zool. gen. e agr. R. Scuola sup. d'Agr. Portici, vol. V, 1911, 
248-9, fig. VII), and the other E. annaiuni (Hemp.) (Eriococcus 
armatus Hempel, Rev. Mus. Paulista, IV, 1900, p. 38-3) both 
incorrectly described originally as Eriococcus. The proper 
position of E. parcispinosiim (Leon.) does not appear to have 
been noted heretofore. Assuming that the published descriptions 
and figures of the two species are correct, they may easily be 
separated by an examination of the antennae, E. parcispinosum 
having 8-segmented antennae, while those of E. arniatitni are 
7-segmented. 

Erium armatum (Hemp.) is represented in the collection from 
Sr. Jorgensen by material from Mendoza, Argentina, host and 
date of collection not given, under collection number oN/>. 

Subfam. TACHARDIINAE. 

Genus Tachardia R. Blanch. 

Tachardia lycii Leon. 

The specimens of this species in the collection at hand agree 
very well with Leonardos description and figures of Tachardia 
lycii (Bol. Lab. Zool. gen. e agr. R. Scuola sup. d'Agr. Portici, vol. 
V, 1911, p. 250) with the single exception that they average 
larger than the measurements given by him. While it is of course 
impossible to make any definite statement, it appears to the 
writer, after a careful study of Leonardos description of /". 
cordaliae (Ibid., p. 258), that it is very doubtfully distinct from the 
T. lycii described on the preceding pages. 

Two lots of material have been examined, both from Mendoza, 
Argentine under collection numbers .'>// and ;>9r, then- being no 
additional data. 

Subfamily COCCINAE. 

In addition to the known and apparently new species of this 
subfamily which are treated in their proper systematic sequence, 
there were four lots of material which could not be determined 
specifically on account of the scarcity of specimens, but these are 
included with generic or tentative determinations for the sake 
of the greatest possible completeness in the report, as follows: 

Pulvinaria sp. This species, from Misiones, Argentina, Nov. 
1910, under collection number KiXa, is probably new, but there 



76 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

is only a single mounted specimen, and some unmounted parts 
of other specimens available for examination, so it must be left 
until additional material is available for study. 

Ceroplastes sp. Under collection number 17 there are a 
few specimens of a Ceroplastes obtained from Veronica elliptica 
at Buenos Aires, Argentina, May, 1911, but the number is too 
few and their condition too poor to make a specific determination 
possible. 

Ceroplastes sp. Under collection number 3 there is a specimen 
or two of a species of this genus, possibly the same as the pre- 
ceding, obtained from Lithraea molleoides at Buenos Aires, 
Argentina, May, 1911. As in the preceding lot, the material is 
insufficient for specific determination. 

Akermes verrucosus (Sign.)(?). From Bomplana, Misiones, 
Argentina on Solanaceae, November, 1910, under collection 
number 92a, there is a single specimen of a large convex, almost 
spherical, lecanine scale insect, which seems to agree rather well 
with Signoret's description of Lecanium verrucosum (Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr., (5) III, 1873, p. 442) which was described from Monte- 
vidio, Uruguay, and has been placed by Cockerell in his genus 
Akermes. The writer is inclined to question the correctness of 
this reference of Signoret's species to Akermes, since it has well 
developed legs and antenne, while the type of the genus, A. 
bruneri Ckll. has both of these so very greatly reduced that they 
are almost wanting. 

Genus Ceroplastes Gray. 

Ceroplastes bruneri Ckll. 

The specimens of this species from the Jorgensen collection are 
all immature, but a comparison with the type material, kindly 
deposited in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae by Prof. 
Cockerell leaves no question as to the identity of the material. 
Prof. Cockerell (Can. Ent., XLII, 1910, p. 76) establishes this 
species as the type of a new subgenus, Ceroplastidia. This sub- 
genus, so far as the writer can determine, is synonymous with 
Gascardia Targ., a genus described by Targionia Tozzetti (Bull. 
Soc. Ent. Ital., XXVI, 1894, p. 456, "and placed by him in the) 
subfamily Tachardiinae, but redescribed by Newstead (Quart. 
Jour. Inst. Comm. Res. Liverpool Univ., vol. Ill, 1908, p. 3 et. 
seq.) and properly placed close to and doubtfully distinct from 
the genus Ceroplastes. Neither genus appears to be founded on 
any definite morphological characters that would distinctly 
separate it from Ceroplastes, and Newstead's opinion regarding the 
very close relationship with the latter genus appears to be fully 
justified by an examination of Prof. Cockerell's type of Cero- 
plastidia. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 7< 

The wax in the immature specimens of C. bninen which are in 
this collection is light olive-green in color, while the white secretion 
mentioned by Cockerell is very conspicuous. There are three 
lots of the material, one on Leguminosae from Bomplana, 
Misiones, Argentina under collection number o2a, one from 
Misiones, Argentina on Acacia, June 17, 1909, and the third from 
Misiones, Argentina on Acacia riparia, May, 1909, both of the 
latter without collection numbers. 

Ceroplastes grandis Hempel. 

The material of this species in this collection has been com- 
pared with cotype specimens from Mr. Hempel. The size of the 
dried cotype specimens is somewhat smaller than is indicated by 
Hempel in his original description (Riv. Mus. Paulista, vol. IV, 
1900, p. 455), while the color is a uniform light buff or pale clay- 
yellow, with two narrow lateral streaks of white secretion on 
each side. All of the Jorgensen material is somewhat smaller 
than this cotype material, not much more than S mm. in length 
in any case, but it has not been possible to find anything else that 
would differentiate these lots of specimens from the cotype (.". 
grandis of Hempel, all the structural characters apparently being 
the same, if allowance be made for only a limited amount of 
variation. 

The material examined is as follows: On Cephoreseyhon 
barbinervis, Buenos Aires, Argentina, May, 1911, collection 
number 10; on Scutia buscifolia, Buenos Aires, Feb. 191 1, collec- 
tion number 11; on Compositae and on Baccharis salicifolia, 
Bomplana, Misiones, Argentina, October, 1910, collection number 
for both hosts 76a ; on Vitex montividiensis, Bomplana, Misiones, 
Argentina, Oct. 1910, collection number '.)'2'2d; on Actimostema 
lanceolata, Bomplana, Misiones, Argentina, Oct. (1910?), collec- 
tion number 395a; on Ilex Paraguay ensis, Bomplana, Misiones, 
Argentina, Oct. 1910, collection number JSSOa; on unstated host, 
May, 1911, Buenos Aires, Argentina, without collection number. 

It is of course impossible to make a definite statement without 
having type material to examine, but there seems to be nothing 
but the question of size to distinguish Cockerell's Ceroplastes 
bergi (Com. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires no. S, 1901, p. 2SS) from ( '. 
grandis Hempel. The question of the difference in the number 
of antennal segments is deliberately ignored in making this 
suggestion, especially since Prof. Cockerell mentions that one 
of the joints in the antennae is indistinct. In view of the fact 
that the final color of the dried cotype material, received from 
Hempel, of C. grandis is buff or clay-yellow, quite different from 
the color of the fresh and probably living specimens as noted by 
Hempel in his original description, there is evidently a gradual but 



78 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

very decided change in the color of the wax, presumably due to 
its drying out after death or separation of the insect from the 
living host plant, and any differences in the color of the wax of 
C. bergi, as compared with C. grand-is such as are noted by Cock- 
erell, are easily susceptible of explanation as being due to the 
stage of the drying-out process which had been reached when 
they were described by Prof. Cockerell. 

Ceroplastes novaesi Hempel. 

The writer has identified as this species four lots of material, 
two each from widely separated localities in Argentina, although 
with some doubt and certain reservations. However, it is not 
considered advisable, in view of the present condition of the 
classification of this genus, to describe any new species where 
material is possibly referable to any described species. The 
specimens from the Jorgensen collection have been compared 
with cotype material in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae, 
kindly contributed by Mr. Hempel. No material of Ceroplastes 
novaesi mendozae Ckll. (Can. Ent. XXXIV, 1902, p. 93) has 
been available for examination. The collections are as follows: 
Mendoza, Argentina, on Baccharis salicifolia, Feb. 10, 1909, 
collection number 14t; Mendoza, Argentina, on Baccharis subulata, 
Feb. 8, 1909, collection number ISc; Bomplana, Misiones, Argen- 
tina, on Baccharis sp. July, 1910, collection number 181a; Bom- 
plana, Misiones, Argentina, on Compositae, June 1910, collection 
number 72lh. 

Ceroplastes subrotundus Leon. 

The material at hand, as in the preceding species is somewhat 
doubtfully referred to this species of Leonardi. The description 
agrees quite well, particularly if allowances are made for the 
scarcity of the material available to Leonardi for examination, 
and for the rather poor condition of the Jorgensen specimens of the 
species. It is represented by a lot of material from Cordillera 
de Mendoza, Argentina, on Caesalpinia praecox (Leguminosae), 
Feb. 8, 1909, collection number 4a. 

Ceroplastes lucidus Hempel. 

This species is represented in the Jorgensen collection b\ a 
single lot of material from Mendoza, Argentina on Lippia 
lycioides, Feb. 8, 1909, under collection number 1266. A com- 
parison with cotypes of this species deposited in the U. S. National 
Collection of Coccidae by Mr. Hempel shows no apparent mor- 
phological differences and only the single external difference 
that the color of the wax in the specimens from Mendoza is a 
yellow-brown while in the type material it is strongly reddish 
brown. Hempel in his original description notes this variation 
in his material. It seems rather surprising to find this species 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 79 

apparently occurring naturally in two such widely separated 
localities as southeastern Brazil and western Argentina, although 
what seems to be a similar situation exists in the case of C. 
novae si Hempel. 

The following species of this genus is described with some 
hesitation, but it has not been possible to place the specimens even 
approximately under any already described species from this 
region, although it is quite possible that the species has already 
been described. 

Ceroplastes deciduosus, 11. sp. 

(PL 4, fig. 6; pi. 7, fig. 2, A-G.) 

Adult Female. Occurring on the twigs of the host, strongly convex, sub- 
hemispherical, length, covered with wax, about 5 mm., width about 4.25 
mm., height 2.5 mm.; in the fully developed female covered with wax the 
shape stout convex, with the whole surface irregularly nodulose, while the 
wax plate divisions are wholly obscured ; in the immature forms (probably 
adult females before the development of ovaries and the chitinization of 
the derm) much less convex, rather flat pyramidal with the apex broadly 
truncate, with a sort of stout horseshoe-shaped dorsal waxy ridge surrounding 
the elongate oval central nucleus and with the borders of the poorly defined 
lateral plates produced into stout wavy ridges and otherwise pitted and 
ridged; normal color of the wax light golden yellow, but this varying to a 
dark orange-red in some individuals; wax on the dried specimens semi-trans- 
parent yellow within, hard and brittle, not very thick, and evidently very 
easily deciduous, since of the four specimens of adult females available for 
examination, three are completely denuded of wax and the fourth has a large 
chunk missing from one side ; denuded female quite variable in color and usually 
conspicuously mottled, the colors ranging from blood-red to pale yellow, 
almost cream color; with a number of shallow pits dorsally among which 
it is possible to distinguish a more or less defined submedian dorsal row on 
each side running forward from anterior to the anal plates; surface except 
for the pits smooth and shining, except along the margin in the region of the 
spiracular grooves where it is punctured and wrinkled; the female boiled in 
KOH giving off a dark reddish brown color which stains the liquid strongly; 
the derm of the adult female still remaining yellow-brown with occasional 
clear areas after boiling, with the caudal horn inconspicuous and only slightly 
differentiated; in the immature- specimens the caudal horn is low, slightly 
conical and more distinctly differentiated from the rest of the derm which 
becomes colorless on boiling; antennae of adult female 6-segmented, the 
measurements in microns as follows: 



II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


43 


100 


2! 4 


25 


28 5 


39.2 


101 .5 


21 ! 


28.5 


32 


n; i 


100 




42 S 


35.7 


43 


103. 5 1 


21.4 


25 


32 



1 With an almost complete pseudo-joint IUMI tin- apex. 



80 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

legs as usual in the genus, the measurements of one of an adult female as^ 
follows: coxa, lOOyu, trochanter 64. 2/x, femur 110. GM, tibia 93^, tarsus, 43ju, 
claw I7.8fj., the measurements in all cases being of the greatest length, the 
corresponding parts on the different legs being approximately equal in length 
with the exception of the coxae, which are progressively larger from fore 
to hind, claw short and stout, in some specimens at least with a tiny denticle 
at tip, so the apex appears bidentate; with two digitules, one about twice 
the length of the claw, slender, knobbed at apex, the other a little longer, 
distinctly stouter and with an elongate flattened, blade-like apex; tarsal 
digitules about as long as claw digitules, both slender, knobbed at apex; 
shank of spiracles slender, ends greatly enlarged transversely, the outer 
more than the inner; marginal spines elongate, slender, acute, widely separated; 
spiracular spines numerous, stout, bullet-shaped or cylindrical, with the 
apex tapering conically and truncate, arranged in a close cluster of from about 
26 to 48, varying considerably in size among themselves and in shape as well, 
those along the body margin the largest; dorsal surface with scattered elongate, 
slender, peg-like spines with rounded apices; ventral surface with similar 
but smaller and more scattered spines or hairs; dorsally with scattered un- 
usual triocular pores, the three openings arranged in line, the two outer 
circular and much smaller than the inner ; ventrally with a band of, roughly, 
around 200 multiocular disk pores running from each spiracle to the cor- 
responding group of spines, with curved transverse bands of similar pores 
surrounding and anterior to the anal plates, and with some very minute 
scattered pores, apparently similar to the triocular pores described for the 
dorsum, although too small to be definitely recognized; anal plates together 
forming almost a circle, inserted at the apex of the small cone, an average 
length 157 M, width of each 78 /*; each plate with the inner margin straight 
and the outer continuously curved, but plainly widest before the middle so 
the posterior outer face of the curve is longest and least sharp; showing a 
continuous thickening around the margin due to heavy chitinization ; with 
two marginal setae near the caudal apex, the inner and posterior about 28p 
long, the outer and anterior about 43 n long, normally with two dorsal setae 
set on the inner half about one-fourth or a little more of the plate length from 
the posterior apex and a third set close to or on the inner margin of the plate 
about half-way between the other two and the apex, but with some variation 
in these positions; ventrally on each plate with a single seta set close to the 
edge just anterior to and below the outer marginal seta, and with two or 
usually three other setae in a row along the ventral ridge of the plate, the 
posterior of these the largest, all these ventral setae smaller than those oc- 
curring on the dorsum; with five fringe setae on each side, the outer two the 
largest, the inner three smaller, the five forming into two groups; anal ring 
small, stout, nearly circular, with a row of pores along the inner and outer 
margins and with three hairs on each half, these set near the outer margin. 

This species has been described from 2o specimens mounted 
on slides and from a number in position on the host plant, these 
nearly all immature. They were collected on Lapium big- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 M 

landulosum at Buenos Aires, Argentina, May, 1911, under collec- 
tion number \'l. 

The type's are in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae. 

Genus Ceroplastodes Ckll. 
Ceroplastodes misiones, n. sp. 
(PI. 4, fig. 7; pi. 6, fig. 3, A-G.) 

Test of Female. Occurring on the small stems of the host; length about 
i 1 . 75 mm., width 1.5 mm. height 1 mm., elongate oval, strongly convex, ends 
rounded, with low broad median carina which runs from the anal opening 
to the anterior border, except for a short distance at either end, and is divided 
into three sections, frequently with part missing or reduced; rest of dorsum 
smooth, laterally with a row of small blunt tubercles above, with a row of 
impressions or shallow pits below, these followed lower down by another row 
of low tubercles, this arrangement poorly defined and often not determinable ; 
the test somewhat glassy, translucent whitish showing faint straight lines 
radiating from the lateral pits and wavy lines, somewhat similar to those 
on a mussel-shell, encircling the group of lateral pits; the anal plate orifice 
irregularly elongate oval. 

Adult Female. Color of dried form varying from light chestnut to dark 
reddish brown; body shriveling to the anterior end of the test, and wholly 
free from it, the fully expanded female mounted on a slide as much as 2.5 
mm. long and 1.5-2 mm. broad, broad oval, the anal cleft short, so the anal 
plates are not inserted more than twice their own length within the posterior 
body margin; giving off a yellow-brown stain when boiled in KOH, the derm 
becoming nearly colorless; antennae quite variable, 7 to 8-segmented, the 
difference due to a division of the fourth segment, and indicated in the follow- 
ing table of measurements in microns by placing the measurements of the fourth 
segment in the 7-segmented antennae under the combined heading IV and V : 



II. 


III. 


IV. V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


35.7 


71 .4 


49.9 46.4 


32.1 


32.1 


46.4 


35.7 


74.9 


49.9 39.2 


39.2 


32.1 


46.4 


35.7 


71.4 


4:2.8 32.1 


24.9 


21 .4 


49.9 


39.2 


74.9 


89.2 


39.2 


35.7 


57.1 


42.8 


74.9 


85.6 


35.7 


35.7 


60.6 


32.1 


71.4 


71 4 


12.8 


39.2 


49.9 


32.1 


74.9 


74 '.( 


35.7 


39.2 


If. t 


35.7 


74.9 


85 . 5 


39.2 


:;L> . 1 


49.9 



legs large, rather stout, average measurements of a middle leg as follows: 
coxa, 153. 5/x, trochanter 100 yu, femur 178.5/u, tibia 160. 6,u, tarsus 114. 2/u, 
flaw 25/u, tarsal digitule 57^, claw digitule 28.5/u, tarsal digitules long and 
slender, slightly knobbed at apex, claw digitules both stout, slightly swollen 
basally and apically; body margin with a continuous row of rather stout 
tapering spines, very bluntly rounded, almost truncate at apex, averaging 
about 18-22(u long and most spaced a little further apart than the length 
of one spine; accompanied by an occasional submarginal slender sharp 



82 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

seta about as long as one of the spines; spiracular region normally with three 
spines larger than the marginal, but sometimes with an additional pair of 
differentiated spines, the median the largest, averaging 5771/j. long, the 
second pair averaging proportionally to the median 36-57 n long, the third 
pair when differentiated, still smaller; dorsally with an occasional small 
spine-like seta set in a well-developed socket; ventrally with a median pair 
of long slender hairs on several segments anterior to the anal plates and with 
a pair of unequal size hairs near the antennal bases; dorsal glands apparently 
wholly of the long-tubed cup-shaped base type, these scattered dorsally 
but rather numerous along the body margin; with an anterior and a posterior 
dorsal pair of peculiar circular structures, probably the same as the submarginal 
tubercles of Coccus and related genera, each pair quite close to the corresponding 
end of the body; ventrally apparently with only circular multiocular disk 
pores, the scattered row running from each spiracle to the spiracular spines 
small, about 4/j, diameter and with about 6 oculi, those occurring in bands 
and clusters in considerable numbers around and anterior to the anal plates 
much larger, about 7/u in diameter, and apparently with about 12 oculi; 
anal plates about 133 /j. long and 71 n wide, each triangular, with the posterio- 
lateral side longer than the anterio-lateral, with a distinct apical seta, usually 
broken off, about 32 ^ long, with three dorsal setae, the first about one-fourth 
of the plate length from the posterior apex and near the inner margin, the 
second a little further from the apex and nearer the outer margin of the plate 
than the inner, the third distinctly nearer the cephalic than the caudal apex 
of the plate and quite close to its inner edge; with three setae rather close 
together on the ventral ridge, the outer the largest, protruding beyond the 
plate apex; with a single large fringe seta on each side; anal ring apparently 
with 6 hairs, but this not determinable with certainty. 

This species has been described from 5 females mounted on a 
slide and a number of unmounted specimens in position on the 
host plant, which appears to be a Compositae, although not 
named. The material is from Bomplana, Misiones, Argentina, 
Oct., 1 ! ) 1 0, on an unstated host plant under collection number 7 10ft. 

The types are in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae. 

Genus Pseudokermes Ckll. 
Pseudokermes nitens (Ckll.) 

(PI. 4, fig. 9.) 

This species is represented by material from Bomplana, Misiones, 
Argentina, on Eugenia uniflora, Oct., 1910, under collection number 
158a. 

Genus Akermes Ckll. 
Akermes bruneri Ckll. 

(PI. 4, fig. 10.) 

This species is represented in the Jorgensen collection by one 
lot of material from Posadas, Misiones, Argentina, on Celt-is tala, 
April, liMO, under collection number 728. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

The antennae and legs are present but minute and very greatly 
reduced; it has not so far been possible to locate any spiracular 
or marginal spines, although they probably occur in the species. 
The band of multiocular disk pores running from each spiracle 
to the margin of the body is very heavy, probably including 
several hundred of these pores closely crowded together. 

Genus Saissetia Targ. 
Saissetia oleae (Bern.) 

This species is represented by two lots of material, one from 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, on Pittosporum tobira, May, 1911, with 
collection number 8, the other from the same locality, on Nerium 
oleander, during the same period, with collection number 5. 

Saissetia silvestrii Leon. 

There are a few specimens of what seems without question to be 
this species in the collection from Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 
Celtis tala, May, 1911, under collection number 24. The species 
was originally described from Cacheuta, somewhere in the 
subandean region of the republic from Zuccagnia punctata, and 
with no further records of its distribution in Argentina available, 
the evidence indicates a probable artificial introduction into 
Buenos Aires. 

Saissetia argentina, n. sp. 

(PL 4,%. 11; pi. 7, fig. 1, A-H.) 

Adult Female. Occurring on the small twigs and branches of the host, 
frequently closely crowded in clusters; leaving a whitish mark, formed by 
waxy secretion when detached from the host; maximum length 2.75 mm., 
maximum width about 2.75 mm., height 2.25 mm., strongly convex, irreg- 
ularly hemispherical, apparently normally covered with a thin transparent 
coating of hard wax which is very easily deciduous, leaving only a few small 
irregular wax scales on the more prominent points on the dorsum; surface 
of both wax and body faintly shining, smooth, body surface usually with 
a low elongate mid-dorsal ridge, this not noticed in a few specimens and typi- 
cally with two shallow pits on each side of the middle line on the dorsum, 
these sometimes confluent so that there is apparently only a single elongate 
but short, shallow groove running lengthwise on the body on each side of the 
middle line; with a slight suggestion of a cubical form, due to the presence 
of faint traces of broad slightly rounded ridges at the four "corners" of the 
body, these elevations very indistinct or wanting, lateral only, not con- 
tinued onto the dorsum; body surface in a band all around the margin faintly 
pitted and rugose, this rather broad band occurring between the margin 
and a lateral row of pits similar to those described as present on the dorsum, 
but less developed and more numerous; the body shape usually more ir- 
regular than described, in crowded specimens; body color reddish brown, 



84 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 

about burnt sienna, with numerous closely set large, oval or somewhat ir- 
regular lighter brown areas, representing the derm pores; boiled in KOH 
the insect giving off a reddish brown stain, and staining the liquid a light 
reddish brown; the derm becoming semitransparent, but remaining strong 
reddish brown in color; the dorsal pits already mentioned appearing as two 
deep heavily chitinized pocket-like invaginations of the dorsum on each side ; 
the derm pores clear, conspicuous, irregular in shape and size, with the median 
dorsal area showing small circular to oval pores, these gradually increasing 
in size till outside of the dorsal pits, there forming a broad circle of large 
irregularly shaped rather closely crowded pores, these again decreasing in 
size gradually till they become even smaller than the mid-dorsal pores in 
the submarginal area, becoming relatively minute in the marginal area, 
the pores in the anal plate area radiating more or less distinctly from the 
plates; antennae much reduced in size and length, maximum total length about 
120 n, approaching the rudimentary type, obscurely 5 to 7-segmented, the 
joints so indistinct and variable as to prevent accurate tabulations of antennal 
measurements, measurements of a single antenna about as follows: I, 17 n, 
II, 7.5yu, III and IV, 47 p. (with possible division making III 21.5/x and IV 
25/x), V, HM, VI, 7yu, VII, 14 M (these lengths not including any allowances 
for space occupied by joints), the joint between III and IV, if present, very 
indistinct, the joints between V, and VI and VII large but incomplete; legs 
small, semi-rudimentary, rather stout in proportion to the length, with the 
different parts poorly formed and indistinctly separated, particularly the 
tibia and tarsus; total length, including the elongated coxa 105/x or less; 
coxa with about 5 hairs, trochanter very much reduced, with one or two 
hairs, femur apparently with three hairs, tibia apparently with four hairs, 
tarsus with about four hairs, tarsal digitules relatively long and slender, 
produced more than half the length of the claw beyond its apex, slightly 
knobbed at apex, claw short, broad and stout, the digitules similar to those 
of the tarsus but not so long; marginal spines few, scattered rather evenly 
along the body edge, small with slightly swollen bases, tapering uniformly 
to an acute tip, maximum length about 14 /z, those at posterior end of body- 
adjacent to anal cleft more closely set, and as much as 29 /x long; spiracular 
spines typical of the genus, with one relatively long and large one, flanked 
by a very much smaller one on each side, middle spine 82 n long, lateral spines 
each about 12. SM long all tapering, bluntly rounded at apices; dorsal surface 
apparently without spines or hairs, except for a few of the former, similar 
to and a little smaller than the marginal spines and probably homologous 
with them, placed along the edge of the anterior curve of the gap in which 
the anal plates are inserted; ventral surface w r ith a number of slender hairs 
of various sizes some minute ones close to the spiracles, the exact position 
and relation of the others not determinable, but apparently with a pair 
much larger than the others somewhere anterior to the anal plates; the dorsal 
gland cell cavities or pores quite variable in size, depending on their location, 
with the true pore or opening a minute circle usually to one side of the very 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 S.~> 

thin transparent outer surface covering of the cell cavity; the transparent 
area varying from irregularly circular to irregularly elongate oval, and usually 
surrounded by an area of darker brown than the remainder of the derm with 
approximately but by no means exactly the same shape as the clear area; 
of the clear areas, the largest observed in the subdorsal region about 170/i 
in largest diameter, the diameters in the middorsal region ranging from 25-50 ^ 
with the larger size nearer the average, through the whole dorsal and sub- 
dorsal region with an occasional minute pore with a diameter of about G/u; 
the distances between the middorsal pores varying, but rarely less than 5(V; 
in the region of the large subdorsal pores, the minimum w r idth of the chitinized 
separating area about the same, although on account of the larger size of 
the clear areas, the resulting impression given is that they are more closely 
crowded; in the submarginal region the clear areas smaller than dorsally, 
but even closer together and usually elongate oval in shape, the pores in- the 
marginal band all much smaller than elsewhere, though very uneven in size, 
nearly circular, with a maximum diameter of about 15^, and separated by 
widely varying distances, the minimum being about 25/u, but giving the im- 
pression that they are far more widely scattered and separated than in other 
regions of the dorsum; ventrally with fairly numerous but scattered minute 
elongate slender tubular glands with cup-shaped bases, the total length from 
opening to end of cup about 21 M, and with multiocular pores, a few scattered 
near each spiracle, an occasional one in the derm between it and the spiracular 
spines, and rather numerous groups in the anal plate region, the exact number 
and position of these not determinable; anal cleft completely fused for prac- 
tically its entire length; anal plates together forming a short oval, almost 
a circle, sometimes unequal in length, maximum length about 165 /u, width 
of each about 68-70 ju, inner margins more or less parallel-wavy, but nearly 
straight, outer margins almost uniformly curved from base to apex; with 
four dorsal spines, one apical, two subapical and quite close to the apex, and 
the fourth a little caudad of the middle and quite close to the inner margin 
of the plate, with three or usually four spines of different lengths on the 
ventral ridge of each plate, with a single small fringe seta and with four 
small hypopygial setae, each plate with from one to five indistinct scattered 
oval pores in a slightly curved row running caudad and medially from a 
point on the outer margin about one-third of the plate length from its base, 
when only a single pore is present, located about the middle of the length 
of the plate and well inside the outer margin; with a small anal ring, length 
87 M, width 36 M, very distinctly divided into two wide slightly curved halves, 
each about lOju wide, with 10 anal ring hairs in all, the longest of these about 
128ju, rather slender. 

This species has been described from 15 specimens and parts of 
specimens mounted on slides and from a considerable amount of 
unmounted material, all from Mendoza, Argentina, collection 
number I7h, no data as to host or date of collection available. 

The types are in the U. S. National Collection of Coccidae. 



86 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

vSubfam. DIASPINAE. 

Genus Aspidiotus Bouche. 

Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot). 

This, the only Diaspinae included in the collection received 
from vSr. Jorgensen, has been identified by Mr. E. R. Sasscer. It 
was obtained at Buenos Aires, Argentina on Nectandra acutifolia, 
May, 1911, under collection number 23, and was found in the 
bottoms of small cup or pocket galls formed on the leaves of the 
host and protruding from the surface. Since it was possible to 
find an occasional Psyllid nymph in the same situation, how- 
ever, it appears certain that the latter insect and not the Aspi- 
diotus was responsible for the formation of the galls. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate 4. 

(All of these photographs are 2*/2 times enlargement.) 
Fig. 1. Icerya minima, n. sp. adult females. 

Fig. 2. Eriococcus mendozae, 11. sp., sacs of adult females on host. 
Fig. 3. A sterolecanium viridulum Ckll., adult females on host. 
Fig. 4. Birchippia americana Leon., adult females on host. 
Fig. 5. Eriococcus leguminicola, n. sp., sacs of females on host. 
Fig. 6. Ceroplastes deciduosus, n. sp., incompletely developed adult females. 
Fig. 7. Ceroplastodes misiones, n. sp., tests of adult females on host. 
Fig. 8. Ericoccus jorgenseni, n. sp., sacs of adult females on host. 
Fig. 9. Pseudokermes nitens Ckll., adult females, somewhat injured by 

lepidopterous larva which has w T ebbed the specimens. 
Fig. 10. Akermes bruneri Ckll., adult females on host. 
Fig. 11. Saissetia argentina, n. sp. adult females on host. 

Plate 5. 

(The designations of the body spines figured in this plate are as follows: 
A. anal lobe spine; D. dorsal spine; M. marginal spine.) 

Fig. 1. Eriococcus mendozae, n. sp.: A. antenna, X66; B. fore leg, X66 
C. hind leg, X66; D. hind coxa showing pores, XI32; E. body 
spines, X256; F. apex of hind femur showing pores, X132; G. 
dorsal cupshaped gland duct, X256; H. apex of abdomen showing 
anal lobes and ring, dorsally to left, ventrally to right, with the 
characteristic number and position of the dorsal spines and the 
ventral hairs, XI 32. 

Fig. 2. Eriococcus leguminicola, n. sp.: A. antenna, X6G; B. fore leg, X66; 
C. hind leg, X66; D. hind coxa showing pores, XI 32; E. body spines 
from Mimosa, X2;~>6; F. body spines from Caesalpinia, X256; 
G. young larva from dorsum, X66. 

Fig. 3. Eriococcus perplexus Hempel: A. antenna, XlHi; B. fore leg, X66; 



PI.ATK 4 



PROC. ENT. S(lC. WASH., VOL. 21 




MORRISON ARGENTINE COCCIDAK 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VI) I.. 21 



PLATli .5 




M()RRIS< >N ARGENTINE O H'CI DA K 



PLATE 6 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21 




MORRISON ARGENTINE COCCIDAE 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 



PLATE 7 




. 

S> ; -?.' 

O o 

c^k o . 

. <w i 



^ ; cb-, / 5 - ^ o 

Q . -y /,, o (^ 

\\ \ 






S> dS>o \ f o 




^cP 

^^ 



j^7 

::\^ 

:. ( ^^ ^c? 




20 - ^^^ 

^ 



MORRISON-ARGKNTIM: COCCIDAK 



90 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

C. hind leg, X66; D. hind coxa showing pores in groups, X132; 

E. body spines, X256; F. apex of hind femur showing pores, X132. 
Fig. 4. Eriococcus jorgenseni, n. sp.: A. antenna, X66; B. fore leg, X66; 

C. hind leg, X66; D. hind coxa showing pores, X132; E. body 

spines, X256; F. apex of hind femur showing pores, X132. 
Fig. 5. Eriococcus brasiliensis Ckll., material from the Jorgensen collection: 

A. antenna, X66; B. fore leg, X66; C. hind leg, X66; D. hind 

coxa showing pores, X132; E. body spines, X256. 
Fig. 6. Eriococcus brasiliensis Ckll., material from Nat. Coll. Coccidae: 

A. antenna, X66; B. fore leg, X66; C. hind leg, X66; D. hind coxa 

showing pores, X132; E. body spines, X256. 

Plate 6. 

Fig. 1. Asterolecanium viridulum Ckll.: A. lateral marginal paired and 
single gland pores of adult female at the point where the two 
change from double to single, X427; B. cephalic marginal paired 
and single gland pores of adult female, X427; C. apex of body of 
adult female, X223; D. young larva from the dorsum, X223; 
E. antenna of larva, X427; F. leg of larva, X427. 

Fig. 2. Icerya minima, n. sp.: A. antenna of adult female, X11U; B. leg 
of adult female, XI 10; C. apex of antenna of adult female showing 
the two terminal segments only partially separated, XI 10; D. 
thoracic spiracle of adult female, X427; E. abdominal spiracle 
of adult female, X427; F. ventral cicatrices of adult female, X110; 
G. portion of same showing areolation, X427; H. portion of ven- 
tral ovisac-secreting band of adult female showing pores and 
peculiar hairs, X223; I. largest marginal seta of adult female, 
X223; J. leg of young larva, XI 10; K. antenna of young larva. 
XI 10; L. apex of abdomen of young larva from dorsum, XI 10; 
M . disk gland pores of adult female, X427. 

Fig. 3. Ceroplastodes misiones, n. sp., all drawings from adult female: A. 
eight-segmented antenna, X110; B. seven-segmented antenna, 
XI 10; C. leg, XI 10; D. anal plates from dorsum showing dorsal 
setae (solid) and ventral setae (broken), X223; E. body margin 
showing marginal and spiracular spines, X223; F. submarginal 
tubercle, X427; G. ventral multiocular disk gland pores, the smaller, 
from the spiracular group, the larger from the anal plate region, 
X427. 

Plate 7. 

Fig. 1. Saissetia argentina, 11. sp., all figures from adult female : A. antenna, 
X427; B. leg, X427; C. surface view of spiracle, X223; D. anal 
plates from dorsum showing dorsal setae (solid) and ventral setea 
(broken), X223; E. anal ring, X427; F. margin of body with mar- 
ginal and spiracular spines, X427; G. section of dorsal derm from 
center to lateral margin of body showing dorsal pores and relative 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 91 

size and arrangement of derm pores, X33; H. dorsal derm, showing 
relative size and arrangement of derm pores in anal plate region, 
X110. 

Fig. 2. Ceroplastes deciduosus, n. sp., all drawings from adult but not fully- 
developed female: A. antenna, X223; leg, X223; C. anal plates 
and ring from dorsum, showing dorsal setae (solid) and ventral 
setae (broken), X223; D. spiracular spine group, X223; E. spiracle 
X223; F. dorsal pores and a spine, X427; G. chitinized anal plate 
cone as flattened on slide, X33. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF 
BUPRESTIDAE FROM ARIZONA (COL.). 

BY W. S. FISHER, Bureau of Entomology. 

TRIBE ACMAEODERINI. 
(Julodini Lee. and Horn, not Lacordaire.) 

The classification used below is to a large measure based upon 
that proposed by Kerremans although alterations have been 
made to suit our fauna, and the tribe name has been changed 
in accordance with our established rules of nomenclature. For 
this tribe Kerremans used the name Polycesiini, based on the 
genus Polyccsta described by Solier in 1833, but as Aanaeodera 
was described by Eschscholtz in 1829, the tribe must take its name 
from the latter genus, and in fact, Kerremans used this name in 
his earlier works. 

Key to the Nortli American genera. 

1 . Tarsal claws simple Polycestti Sol. 

Tarsal claws toothed 2 

2 . Scutellum visible 3 

Scutellum not visible Acmaeodera Esch. 

3 . Metasternal episterna covered by elytra 4 

Metasternal episterna not covered by elytra Chrysophnnu Lee. 

4 . Tarsal claws deeply toothed Ptosima Sol. 

Tarsal claws with inconspicuous tooth at base ."> 

5. Tarsi cordiform (South American.) Tyiidaris Thorns. 

Tarsi slender, not cordiform Paralyiidaris Fisher. 

Thomson in describing the genus Tyndaris says that the tarsal 
claws are simple, but this was probably due to the fact, that he 
was comparing it with the genus Ptosima, which has the claws 
deeply toothed, but Kerremans corrects this statement in his 
Monograph, and says that the claws are lobed at the base. 
L,e Conte and Horn, and Kerremans places Chrysophana among 
the genera with simple claws, but Kerremans probably has not 
seen any specimens of ( 'hyrsophana, as the tarsal claws are almost 



92 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

identical with Tyndaris which he places in the group with 
toothed claws. In speaking of Chrysophana as having simple 
claws, we cannot use it in the same sense as it is used in Polycesta, 
so it is better to place it among those which have the claws 
toothed. Since the name Tyndaris has been used for our North 
American species, it is included in the above table for comparison. 

Paratyndaris, new genus. 

Form rather robust, cylindrical, narrower posteriorly. Head convex; 
clypeus deeply triangularly emarginate at middle; antennal cavities very 
small, situated in the lateral lobes of the clypeus near the eyes. Antennae 
very slender and not reaching to the middle of the prothorax, serrate from the 
sixth or seventh joint ; first two joints more robust than the following ; eleventh 
joint ovate. Prothorax a little wider than long, convex, sides moderately 
arcuate. Eyes large, elliptical. Scutellum small, slightly oblong. Elytra 
gradually narrowed posteriorly, shorter than the abdomen; apices separately 
rounded and quadridentate; lateral margins suddenly inflated towards the 
humeral angles and covering the metasternal episterna. Prosternum with the 
anterior margin only slightly concave. Last abdominal segment triangular, 
longer than the elytra, terminating into a spine which is visible from above. 
Tarsi shorter than tibiae; joints slender, first joint as long as the following 
two joints united. Tarsal claws with an inconspicuous tooth near base. 

Genotype. -Tyndaris olneyae Skinner. 

This genus is erected for the North American species which 
have been placed in the genus Tyndaris Thorns., but which are not 
congeneric with the species of that genus from South America. 
Besides the type, the following species are included: Tyndaris 
cincta Horn, T. prosopis Skinner, T. chamaeleonis Skinner, T. 
barberi Skinner, and Paratyndaris coursetiae Fisher. 

The genus is allied to Tyndaris Thorns., but differs from it by the 
the following characters : Form more cylindrical, antennae more 
slender and the joints serrate from the sixth or seventh joint, 
while in Tyndaris they commence at the fifth joint. Prothorax 
not twice as wide as long, tarsal joints not cordiform, and the 
abdomen, which is longer than the elytra, terminating into a 
spine and is visible from above. The species of Paratyndaris 
are also more densely punctured and clothed with silvery pub- 
escence. In general form Tyndaris resembles the genus Ac- 
maeodera while Paratyndaris is more closely allied to Ptosima. 

In 1857 Thomson (Arch. Entom. I, p. 1(38) founded the genus 
Tyndaris on Ptosima planata Cast, and Gory from Chile. Horn 
(1885, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XII, p. 147) described cincta, 
the first North American species and placed it in this genus and 
Skinner (190.3, Ent. News, XIV, pp. 2.30-239) described four 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 93 

more species and figured all the North American forms. In 1907, 
Kerremans (Mon. Bupr. Tome II, pp. 556-5(59) placed the four 
South American species together with the five species from North 
American under the genus Tyndaris, but since Kerremans never 
saw any of the North American species, it is easily explained why 
he placed these two forms together under the same genus. 

Paratyndaris coursetiae, new species. 

Male. Form robust, cylindrical, narrower posteriorly, black, clothed with 
silvery pubescence. Head convex, surface shining, slightly aeneous, coarsely 
punctured and clothed with recumbent silvery pubescence. Antennae 
slender, black, very short, and not reaching to the middle of the prothorax, 
serrate from the seventh joint. Scutellum small, slightly oblong. Prothorax 
a little wider than long; sides moderately arcuate, broadest a little before 
the middle, narrowing gradually towards the base; hind angles rectangular; 
front angles broadly rounded ; disc convex, surface shining, densely punctured 
and clothed with recumbent silvery pubescence; without a median depressed 
line, but with trace of a smooth spot at base, just in front of scutellum. Elytra 
at base, as wide as prothorax, gradually narrower posteriorly, black, each 
elytron with an oblong red spot on lateral margin about one-third of the 
distance from prothorax to apex, clothed with recumbent silvery pubescence, 
giving it a cinereous appearance; apices separately rounded and quadridentate; 
disc moderately convex, irregularly striate, striae punctate, intervals narrow 
and rugose. Beneath coarsely punctured and clothed with recumbent 
silvery pubescence. Third abdominal segment at middle with a large widely 
rounded lobe on the posterior margin, which is densely, very finely punctured 
and entirely denuded of pubescence. This lobe projects over the fourth 
segment, reaching nearly to the median part and may be a secondary sexual 
character. Legs black, with a slight violaceous lustre. 

Length 5.5 mm.; width 2 mm. 

Habitat. Tucker Canyon, vSanta Catalina Mts., Arizona. 
F. C. Craighead and Geo. Hofer Collectors. 

Type Cat. No. 22097 U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Described from a single male specimen recorded under Bureau 
of Entomology No. Hopk. U. S. KJGoOz and reared July 17, 1918, 
from pupae collected by Messrs. Craighead and Hofer on June 
20, 1918 in dead stems of a legume (Coursetia microphylla.) 

The species resembles olneyae and is closely allied to it, but 
differs from it, and the allied species, cincta and prosopis, in the 
absence of the linear median thoracic depression. From barberi 
and chamaeleonis it can be easily distinguished by the markings 
of the elytra and also by the intervals of the elytra being very 
narrow, irregular and rugose. 



94 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

ON SOME GENERIC SYNONOMY IN THE FAMILY GELECHIIDAE 

(LEP.). 

BY AUGUST BUSCK. 
Platyedra Meyrick; Pectinophora Busck. 

The genus Platyedra Meyrick was erected in 1895 (Handbook 
British Lepidoptera, p. 605) for the single European species 
vilella Zeller, which consequently is the type of the genus. The 
genus was separated from Gelechia on two characters only ; namely 
the parallel vein 5 in the hindwing and the flattened abdomen. 
The species malvella Hiibner, was considered in the handbook 
two pages before and w r as included in Gelechia. 

Recently (Exotic Microlepidotera vol. II, p. 136, 191S) Meyrick 
has included in the genus Platyedra, the so-called Pink Boll Worm 
of Cotton, gossypiella Saunders, and malvella Hiibner, with the 
remark that: "the best distinguishing character of the genus 
Platyedra from Gelechia is the possession of a distinct pecten on 
basal joint of the antennae" a character not even mentioned 
in the description of Plaiyedra. 

The genus Pectinophora Busck, was, as indicated in the name, 
erected mainly on this character, which is very rare in the family 
Gelechiidae, with gossypiella Saunders, as type and including 
malvella Hiibner. Several other pterogostic, larval and pupal 
characters were given (Journ. Agri. Research, vol. 9, p. 346, 
1917). 

If Meyrick is correct in referring gossypiella and malvella to 
Platyedra (and the writer is a priori inclined to accept any deliberate 
conclusion of his eminent friend), then Pectinophora must of 
course sink as a synonym of Platyedra. If so I believe Mr. 
Meyrick will be the first to admit, that the synonomy is due to 
his insufficient characterization of his genus Platyedra and no 
great harm will have been done; a good synonym, which adds to 
our knowledge, is rather an asset than otherwise. 

But the actual proof of this synonomy should in my judg- 
ment be awaited, before it is accepted and the name Pectinophora 
discarded. Pectinophora was erected and described very fully 
not only on the adult characters but on several important and 
prominent larval and pupal characters and until it is ascertained 
that the type of Platyedra, vilella Zeller, possesses these characters, 
the making of the synonomy is a little previous and may have 
to be upset again. If for example it should be found that the 
pupa of Platyedra is smooth and seta-bearing and not with the 
pubescence, characteristic of Pectinophora, or if it should differ 
in any other of the important characters given for Pectinophora, 
it would certainly indicate that the two genera arc distinct in 
spite of superficial adult resemblances. In other words we utv 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 4, APR., IQIQ 95 

absolutely sure that gossypiella is a Pectinophora, but we can as 
yet only strongly suspect that it is a Platyedra. 

Unfortunately no specimens of either stage of I'ilclla are at 
present available in United States, but our European colleagues 
should be in position this coming season to settle this question 
definitely and if the synonomy is proven, it will of course be 
adopted at once. 

Until then I should advise that the name Pectinophora be 
retained for gossypiella, especially in America, where this generic 
name has entered so deeply into the economic literature and 
even into our laws and courts. 
Anacampsis Curtis; Compsolechia Meyrick. 

In (Exotic Microlepidoptera vol, ii, p. 137-138) 1918, Meyrick 
has divided the well known cosmopolitan genus Anacampsis 
Curtis (type : populella Clerck) by the erection of the genus Com- 
psolechia (type: diortha Meyrick) which he states: "includes all 
those numerous South American species hitherto referred to 
Anacampsis and also such North American forms as agrimoniella, 
Inpinella, niveopuhella, and rhoifructella; it is distinguished by the 
smooth palpi, cubital pecten and hardly sinuate termen of 
hindwings and is undoubtedly natural and well defined." 

The name Anacampsis Meyrick applies to the genus Agriastsi 
Meyrick, "since the type, populella, possesses the characteristic 
structure: scales of second joint palpi roughly expanded above, 
slight but appreciable tufts of fore wings, cubital pecten and 
hardly sinuate termen of hindwings." 

The only characters, which Meyrick gives and is able to give to 
distinguish his Compsolechia from Anacampsis are the smooth 
second labial joint against the roughly expanded scales above and 
the smooth forewings against the slight but appreciable tufts in 
Anacampsis. Both of these characters are untenable and vary 
in otherwise closely allied species. Attempts toward a roughened 
upper edge of the palpi are found in most of the smoothly scaled 
species of the genus, and it depends merely on the length of the 
scales, whether they protrude and become "rough" or not; 
tendency to raised scales on the wings is also common in the 
genus and all gradations are found from the quite smooth wings 
of agrimoniella Clemens, to the very rough panamanian A. 
phytomiella Busck. 

Differences of opinion as to the generic value of these characters 
are of course dependable, but the impossibility of this generic 
division is made apparent by Meyrick's concluding remarks. 
After including the North American inocitlclla Zeller in Ana- 
campsis together with populella Clerck, of Europe against niveo- 
pnlvella Chambers, and rhoifructella Chambers, which he places 



96 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 4, APR., 1919 

in Compsolechia he adds: "undoubtedly populella and inocuella 
are closely allied to the niveopulvella and rhoifructella group, 
constituting the true phylogenetic connection between the two 
genera, but they are quite clearly distinguishable by structure." 

Large series, carefully bred from Populus both in eastern and 
western United States have proven that niveopulvella is merely 
a color variety of inocuella, exactly corresponding to the color 
variations of populella, in Europe. It is in fact very doubtful 
whether the American form can be separated specifically from the 
European species; the male genitalia are identical, while other 
closely allied species of the genus have very distinct specific 
differences in these organs, and the somewhat larger size of the 
average American specimen may well be due to the warmer 
climate; specimens as small as any of the European are common 
especially from the North West. 

We have thus the old joke realized of having one species be- 
longing in two genera. 

The genus Anacampsis Curtis, should be retained in its usually 
accepted entity with Compsolechia Meyrick, and Agriastis Mey- 
rick, as synonyms. 
Stomopteryx Heinemann; Aproaerema Durrant. 

The genus Aproaerema Durrant, was erected with anthyllidella 
Hiibner, as type [(Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 33, p. 221, 1897), Schutzeia 
Spuler (Schmett, Eur. vol. II, p. 373, 1910) with the same type, 
is a synonym)]. 

The genus Stomopteryx Heinemann, was a monotypical genus 
(type: detersella Zeller), (Schmett, Deutchlands, vol. II, p. 324, 
1870). Heinemann expressly separated it from the anthyllidella 
group and the genus has been so separated by all subsequent 
workers until Meyrick in the discussion of Anacampsis without 
any explanation or proof asserts that the name Stomopteryx 
Heinemann, is available for the anthyllidella group, superseding 
Aproaerema Durrant (Exotic. Microlepidoptera, vol. II, p. 138, 
1918). 

Here again different opinions may of course be maintained 
on the value of characters for generic separation and Meyrick 
may have intermediate forms which will excuse such generic 
lumping, but in the absence of any reason given, the two genera 
should not be merged by a mere assertion, clearly separable as 
they are on the form and venation of the hindwings, as well as in 
general appearance. 

Actual Date of Publication, May 2, ipl<? 



VOL. 21 MAY 1919 No. 5 

\ 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

ALDRICH, J. M. TWO NEW GENERA OF ANTHOMYIDAE (DIPT.) 106 

BAKER, A. C. AN UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OF DRYOPEA INJURIOUS TO 

PHYLLOSTACHYS (APHIDIDAE HOM.) 104 

BUSCK, AUGUST A NEW SPECIES OF BUCCULATRIX INJURIOUS TO HOLLY- 

HOCK(LEP.) 109 

CUSHMAN, R. A. NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF ICHNEUMON FLIES (HYM.) . . 112 
SNYDER, T. E. SOME SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS IN NEARCTIC 

TERMITES 97 

SNYDER, T. E. AND SHANNON, R. C. NOTES ON THE INSECT FAUNA OF BANK 

SWALLOWS' NESTS IN VIRGINIA 110 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C , 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President E. R. SASSCER 

First Vice-President W. R. WALTON 

Second Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Representing the Society as a Vice-President of the Washington Academy of 

Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

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PROCEEDINGS 
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PLATK S 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 





funwsus, Hag. 




Amiter'mes 

n. sp. c. 





:3 



Amitermes 

tnhifortnans, Buckley. 




A miter mes 
u'heeleri, Desn. 



Constrictotermes 
cinereus, Buckley. 




.4 mitermes 
n. sp. a. 




Constrictotermes 
teniiirostris, Desn. 



- 

r 



flavipex. Koll. 



SXYDER CONTRAST OF PROTHORACIC AND MESOTHORACIC TIBIAE OF 
THE LEOS OF WORKERS OF EARTH-INHABITING NEARCTIC 
TI'R MITES (X 20) 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 21 MAY, 1919 No. 5 



SOME SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS IN NEARCTIC 

TERMITES. 

BY T. E. SNYDER, Bureau of Entomology. 
Introduction. 

Certain facts in the biology of Nearctic termites and details 
of their structure appear to indicate adaptation to their environ- 
ment. The question as to whether such structural peculiarities 
have appeared as the result of use or as chance variations which 
have survived through adaptation to their surroundings, has 
long been discussed, but it is believed that these observations 
may furnish evidence which is important from an evolutionary 
standpoint. 

Modified Prothoracic Tibiae of Workers. 

The workers of some species of earth-inhabiting (subterranean) 
termites which occur in the southwestern states and Mexico 
have sub-fossorial prothoracic tibiae. The tibiae of the prothoracic 
legs are enlarged, /. e., somewhat swollen or sub-fusiform and 
spinose (Plate I). However, while there is a contrast between 
the pro- and meso-thoracic tibiae, the legs on the whole are not 
greatly modified. 

The prothoracic tibiae are used in digging and in the semi- 
arid regions where these termites occur the soil often becomes dry 
and remains caked hard for long periods of drought. 

Species with the tibiae of the prothoracic legs enlarged or sub- 
fusiform are Amitcmies tubiformans Buckley, Awitermcs n. sp. a, 
A. wheeleri Desn., Amitermes n. sp. c, and Anoplotermes fumosus 
Hag. In Anoplotermes fnnwsits the widened, flattened shape of 
the tibiae and tarsi give the leg a peculiar short and stubby ap- 
pearance. In addition, at the extremity of the prothoracic 
tibiae there is a chitinized area on the dorsal surface. 

The pro- and meso-thoracic tibiae of workers of ( 'onstrictotermes 
tcnnirostris Desn., C. cincrciis Buckley, l\cticitlitcrmcs 'lai'ipes 
Kol., and other species of the genus Rcticiilitcrmcs Holmg. are not 
in such marked contrast although the species are also earth- 

97 



98 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

inhabiting and occur in the same regions (except R. tlavipes). 
There are apparently no differences in the prothoracic tibiae 
of workers of species of Reticulitermes that occur in the arid 
West from those of the humid eastern portions of the United 
States. 

If all termite workers living in the hard, dry soil of the arid 
southwestern regions were modified like the five species above 
described, this might seem good evidence in favor of the view 
that the enlarged segments are the result of use or of response to 
the environment. It is, however, not true that the prothoracic 
tibiae are modified in all termite species inhabiting the earth of arid 
regions. The workers of Constrictotermes cinereus Buckley and 
C. tenuirostris Desn., living in similar earth burrows in the same 
dry regions of the Southwest, have the prothoracic tibiae scarcely 
at all, or very slightly, larger than those of the mesothoracic 
legs. Further, in workers of the genus Reticulitermes the pro- 
thorcic tibiae are very slightly enlarged, and there are apparently 
no differences in this respect between species of this genus living 
in the earth of arid western areas and other species from humid 
eastern sections of the United States. 

Since the two species of Constrictotermes and certain species of 
Reticulitermes live in arid areas, and use their legs for digging 
in hard earth, but have not acquired prothoracic tibiae of the 
sub-fossorial type which is found in the five species of Amitermes 
and Anoplotermes, it is obvious that the cause of the enlargement 
is neither the factor of use nor of response to environment, but 
is rather the survival of chance variations which were adapted to 
their environment. One is tempted to go a step farther in stating 
that the constant, non-fluctuating character of the prothoracic 
enlargements in each species points to its origin as a discontinuous 
variation. 

In the Scarabaeidae, the sacred beetle (Ateuchus sacer, Linn.) 
lacks tarsi on the front legs in both pupae and adults and has 
greatly modified tibiae especially adapted for digging, which 
must be of great aid in its digging operations. In other Scara- 
baeidae, species of Geotrupes, which make even deeper excavations 
in the earth, tarsi are present on the front legs. Fabre (1918) 
concludes that, in case of the sacred scarab, the absence of the 
tarsi on the front legs can not be a loss as a result of the digging- 
transmitted to posterity. 

"The workers of Anoplotermes fumosus are very characteristic 
and odd in appearance. They are of a dirty grey color and have a 
rather elongate, fusiform or bag-shaped body; the habit of crawling 
about in single file, closely following one another, is especially 
characteristic. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 5, MAY, 1919 99 

It might be stated in connection with the biology of termites 
that all subterranean, earth-inhabiting termites have a worker 
caste in colonies; while none of the primitive wood-inhabiting 
species which do not live in the earth have a worker caste with the 
exception of Prorhinotermes simplex Hag. of the sea coast of southern 
Florida and the keys. 

Sense Organs. 

Stokes (1.S93) records highly specialized sense organs on the 
legs of R. flampes. Grassi (1893) mentions tactile "very long, 
fine, readily vibratile" hairs on the body and states that the 
cerci also appeared to be essentially tactile. Snyder (191.1) 
states in regard to these highly specialized sense organs: 

"It is believed that there is a relation between the convulsive movements 
frequently observed, that is, the sudden jerking of the whole body, and these 
sense organs, and that individuals are thus enabled to communicate, or at 
least give danger or distress signals. The convulsive movements made by 
the workers and soldiers, when the royal pair are disturbed in the cell, are 
very violent and indicate great agitation. 

There is a characteristic musty or acrid odor which can be easily detected 
in colonies of Leucotermes \Rcticiditermes], and individuals frequently can be 
MTU to follow directly in the path taken by others, but as termites usually 
travel in well-worn channels this may be due to tactile sense alone." 

Body Pigment and Eyes. 

In species of termites which live in wood but not in earth, 
certain castes have a more deeply pigmented body than usual; 
these are the third form reproductive individuals of Termopsis, 
the soldiers and third form reproductive individuals of Kalo- 
termes, and the workers, soldiers and third form reproductive 
individuals of Prorhinotermes simplex. The castes of the sub- 
terranean genus Reticulitermes have pale or dirty white bodies, 
except the winged adults, w r hich at the time of swarming have 
a dark brown skin, although later, after the underground life- 
has begun, even this caste may lose some of its pigment. 

The compound eyes and the ocelli are large and well developed 
in all the castes of P. simpler, a species which lives in dead tree 
trunks or logs, so that there seems to be a correlation between 
the high state of development of the eyes and the habitat of 
these insects. 

In the subterranean Reticulitermes there are evidences of loss 
of pigment and the structural elements of the eyes in all castes 
except the winged insects. 

\Yheeler states (1913) that of the four groups of social insects 



100 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

the social bees and wasps, the termites and the ants -"adaptive 
plasticity attains its richest and boldest expression in the ants." 

Termites are soft bodied and often blind (degeneracy.) Un- 
like the ants, they are not dominant insects, despite the fact 
that they overrun or rather "underrun" certain tropical countries 
where they are numerous and their damage is great. Haviland 
(1902) states that ''Their chief means of defense is their power 
of burrowing and building," "Long legs" (longer 

than abdomen) "and long antennae go with much walking and 
foraging" -Constrictotermes Holmg. (Eutermes). In species of 
this genus in the southwestern portion of the United States, 
the workers and nasuti are also pigmented and wander about 
above ground. The pigment is developed as the result of light 
stimulus in species that come above ground into the sunlight. 
The worker is larger than the nasutus. Usually soldiers are the 
larger caste. "soldiers with short stout legs belong 

to species sluggish in their movements, and which venture but 
little from home." In soldiers of Kalotermes the hind femora 
are short and stout but in the closely related genus Neotermes 
Holmg. they are more slender and longer. Species of Kalotermes 
and Neotermes have similar habits and these structural varia- 
tions can not, with our present knowledge, be correlated or ex- 
plained as adaptions to their surroundings or as modifications 
arising from the formation of new habits, due to changed environ- 
ment. 

The peculiar cavate heads of the soldier caste in species of 
Cryptotermes Bks. might be explained as an adaptation for block- 
ing the passing of ants or other marauding predators through the 
narrow tunnels in the wood interconnecting the board chambers 
of the colonies. It is more likely that this type of head is a chance 
variation which has proved useful and has hence survived, for 
variations, if useless or injurious, often disappear but not always ; 
adaptations have not yet been proved to be the result of use and 
disuse. 

Swarming. 

In the semi-arid, sections of the country, such as in certain 
portions of the southwestern states, on the prairies and great 
plains, termites usually swarm after a rainfall or during a light 
drizzle, as is characteristic of many tropical termites. This is 
an adaptive habit, probably due to the fact that the ground 
is dry and hard and, unless the swarm occurred just after or 
during a rain, the termites could not establish or would have 
great difficulty in establishing new colonies. These conditions 
of soil do not prevail in the more humid eastern portions of the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 5, MAY, 1919 101 

United States, and rainfall is not a factor which influences swarm- 
ing; in fact, I have never collected termites swarming during a 
rain in eastern United States. Species of Reticulitermes earth 
inhabiting termites of eastern United States -swarm on a sunny 
warm day. Large, conspicuous termites swarm at night; small, 
inconspicuous species swarm during the daytime. Nocturnal 
swarming termites are attracted to lights in large numbers, 
which is an aid to mating, by bringing the sexes together. 

Wing Venation. 

There is the usual reduction or loss of veins in the wings of 
sexual adult termites from the lower to the simpler veined 
higher forms. 

In the more generalized members of the order Isoptera (Masto- 
tcrmes Froggatt), the humeral suture or line of weakness where 
the wings break off after the swarm is present only in the fore 
wings; but in the more specialized genera (Reticulitermes} it 
exists in the hind wings as well. In Termopsis angusticollis 
Walk, there is a complete humeral suture in the forewing, as in 
Mastotermes, and in the hindwing the anal area is crossed by a 
suture that appears to be the beginning of a humeral suture. 
In Reticulitermes there is a complete humeral suture in the hind 
wings as well as in the forewings (Comstock, 1918). 

After a short weak flight the swarm the subterranean 
species of Reticulitermes soon fall to the ground and lose their 
wings; species of Termopsis have a longer, stronger flight and 
do not lose their wings until they have located a new colony under 
bark of a tree or log. Species of Amitermcs belonging to the 
highest termites, in the southwestern United States sometimes 
lose the wings while in the air, during the swarm. 

Mobility of the Reproductive Forms. 

Queens of all three types of reproductive forms of Xearctie 
termites never lose their power of locomotion as do the queens 
of tropical species which are imprisoned in a permanent central 
royal cell in a stable colony. The Nearctic queens do not at- 
tain the size, they are less than one inch in length, nor is their 
rate of egg laying as great, as that of the tropical queens. This 
must be an advantage since they are able to go below the frost 
line in winter and adapt themselves to the most favorable con- 
ditions of temperature and moisture when either above ground 
in wood or in subterranean galleries. In tropical termites the 
queen often reaches very large dimensions, several inches in length 
and becomes an immobile egg laying machine. Adequate pro- 
tection is afforded to these large queens by the huge mounds of 



102 PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

great hardness or by the large spherical tree nests of tough tex- 
ture, in the case of species, the queens of which do not attain such 
large size, but are over one inch in length. The queens of Nearctic 
termites that live in wood only 1 are more mobile and their ab- 
domens become relatively less distended than those of subter- 
ranean species which are able to retreat to underground galleries. 

Apterous Reproductive Forms. 

Without going into the complex problems of polymorphism 
sexual dimorphism, or phylogeny of castes, the following facts 
are set forth. In the species Prorhinotermes simplex, whose 
habitat is the Coastal Region and the keys of southern Florida, 
and the West Indies (occurring mainly on islands), third form 
(Thompson and Snyder, 1919) or apterous reproductive forms 
are common. This may be an adaptation to the habitat; 
it is frequently stated that wingless forms are more numerous 
on islands, the winged forms being blown into the water. Colonies 
of this species are liable to be caught up by the waters and scattered 
broadcast. Such apterous forms are adapted to island life by 
their lack of wings. The isolation helps to perpetuate them and 
they are dispersed in drift-wood. 

So far as my own observations go, there are no third forms 
in the Nearctic genera of the M etatennitidae Holmg. the higher 
termites. In literature an "ergatoid" queen is recorded as 
occurring in Eutermes Fritz Miiller, it may not however be a 
typical third form but the second form with rudimentary wing pads. 

Soldiers with Wing Pads, Possibly Fertile. 

In colonies of Kalotennes that occur on islands, such as /\". 
Occident-is Walk, from Angel Guardia Island in the Gulf of Mexico, 
Lower California, and Kalotermes Schwarzi Bks. of the Florida Keys, 
soldiers with rudimentary wing pads and deeper pigmentation, 
are more common than usual, a probable ancestral condition; 
sometimes all the soldiers of a colony have these wing pads and 
the pads are also longer than usual. Possibly some of these 
soldiers are fertile; Wheeler (1907) records workers and soldiers 
with vestiges of wings in ants; he terms them "pterergates." 
The fertility if established together with the vestigial wing 
pads, should be looked upon as evidence of a primitive ancestral 
condition, when all termites were winged and fertile. Heath 
(1903) has recorded fertile soldiers in the species Teruwpsi* 
angusticollis Walk, that produced "normal progeny." 

1 Family Kalotermitidae. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 5, MAY, 1919 103 

Absence of Soldier Caste. 

The normal mandibulate soldier is lacking in some genera 
of the higher termites, the Metatermitide. The "nasutus"- a 
highly specialized sterile form with a "beak" -appears, or the 
soldier caste is entirely lacking as in the genus Anoplotermes 
Fritz Miiller, an "over specialization." Anoplotermes fumosiis 
is apparently a "social parasite" in the sense that Wheeler (1918) 
uses this term, since it is always found in the same colonies or 
closely associated with other earth-inhabiting termites species 
of Amitermes Silv., Constrictotennes or Reticulitennes. 

No wing pads have been found on mandibulate soldiers or 
nasuti in Nearctic species of the family Metaiermitidae. The 
nasutus is a highly specialized sterile caste and probably is 
adapted to special functions in the colony life. The mandibles 
of the nasuti of species of Nasutitermes Bks. or Constrictotennes 
are rudimentary. In general, there is a more highly specialized 
development of the mandibles of the soldier caste and a reduction 
of the number of, or a complete loss of, the marginal teeth from 
the lower to the higher termites. The soldier caste varies greatly 
in both size and structure; soldiers are nevertheless apparently 
not as effective combatants as the more numerous workers. 

The Frontal Gland. 

In the frontal gland, in the soldier caste, there is in general, 
a progressive development from the genus Reticulitennes in 
the family Mesotermitidae Holmg. where this gland appears 
to be in active secretion and functional to the genera Xasittitennes 
and Constrictotennes where the liquid exuded from the nasutus 
or beak is probably for the purpose of defense; the mandibles 
in the latter genera are rudimentary and are not functional. 
In primitive species in the lower termites in the family Pro- 
termitidae Holmg. the frontal gland is absent. 

This gland is of importance as a basis for systematic classifica- 
tion of the winged adults. Holmgren (1900) has studied the 
phytogeny of termites upon the basis of the morphology of the 
frontal gland and has divided all the sexual adults into three 
groups, according to whether the frontal fland has an opening 
in the higher termites; no opening; or an entire absence of the 
gland in the lower termites. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1893. Grassi, B., and Sandias, A. "Costituzione c Sviluppo della societa 
dei termitidi, etc." Dagli Atti dell Acad. Gioenia di sci. nat. in 
Catania, Vol. Vie ser. 4 Catania. 



104 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

1893. Stokes, A. C. "The sense organs on the legs of our white ants, Termes 
flavipes Roll." Science V. 22, no. 563, pp. 273-6, Nov. 

1902. Haviland, G. D. "Observations on termites or white ants." Ann. 

Rept. Smithsonian Institute for year ending June 30, 1901. 

1903. Heath, H. "The habits of California termites." Biol. Bull., vol. 4, 

no. 2, pp. 47-63, Jan. 
1907. Wheeler, W. M. "The polymorphism of ants, with an account of 

some singular abnormalities due to parasitism." Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Natl. Hist., vol. 23, Art. 1, pp. 1-93, pll. I-VI. New York, 

Jan. 15. 
1909. Holmgren, N. Termitenstudien 1. Anatomische Untersuchungen. 

K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., Bd. 44, No. 3, pp. 215, Taf. 

1-3, Uppsala & Stockholm. Die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen 

der Termiten, p. 208-213. 

1911. Holmgren, N. Termitenstudien 2. Systematik der Termiten. K. 

Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., Bd. 46, No. 6, pp. 86, Taf. 1-6, 
Uppsala Stockholm. Ordnung Isoptera, p. 10-11. 

1912. Holmgren, N. Termitenstudien 3. Systematik der Termiten. Die 

Familie Metatermitidae. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 
Bd. 48, No. 4, 166 pp., Taf. 1-4, Uppsala & Stockholm. Blick 
auf dem mutmasslichen, stammesgeschichtlichen Entwicklungs- 
verlauf der Termiten, p. 129-153. 

1913. Wheeler, W. M. "Ants, their structure, development and behavior." 

pp. 1-648. New York. 
1915. Snyder, T. E. "Biology of the termites of eastern United States 

with preventive and remedial measures." U. S. Dept. Agric., 

Bur. Ent. Bull. no. 94, Pt. II. 

1918. Comstock, J. H. "The wings of insects." Ithaca, N. Y. 
1918. Fabre, J. H. "The Sacred Beetle and Others," New York. 

1918. Wheeler, W. M. "A study of some ant larvae, with a consideration 

of the origin and meaning of the social habit among insects." Proc. 
Amer. Philos. Soc., vol. 57, no. 4. pp. 293-343, Phila. 

1919. Thompson, C. B., and Snyder. T. E. "The question of the phylo- 

genetic origin of the termite castes." Biol. Bull., Woods Hole 
Mass., vol. 36, pp. 115-132. 



AN UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OF DRYOPEA INJURIOUS TO 
PHYLLOSTACHYS. (APHIDIDAE-HOM.). 

BY A. C. BAKER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

On March 21, 1916 Mr. Harold Morrison of the Federal 
Horticultural Board collected at Yarrow, Md., a species of aphid 
attacking the roots of potted Phyllostachys. The presence of the 
insects was easily detected by means of the white wax secreted. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 5, MAY, 1919 



1 ( I.") 



When the plants were turned out of the pots the insects were 
found to be well distributed but they were more abundant upon 
those portions of the roots which came in contact with the pots. 

At the time of their discovery only apterous specimens were 
present. These apterous forms had five-segment antennae and 
gave all the appearances of stem mothers. We were unable to 
ascertain, however, with any assurance that they were stem 
mothers since no eggs were obtained and since all reared indi- 
viduals of the next generation proved to be winged. 

We were thus able to secure only two forms, the five-segmented 
apterous form and the alate form. The alate specimens not 
preserved for description left the plants which were then in a 
drying condition. 

Since the species may prove to be of some importance from an 
economic standpoint it is here described and named. 




FIG. 1 Dryopea morrisoni BAKER structural details 

Dryopea morrisoni, n. sp. 

Apterous form (Fig. 1A): Color pale yellowish with the appendages 
slightly dusky and the eyes dark brown. Length, about 1.12 mm. Width, 
about 0.88 mm. Body covered with rather delicate bluish white wax secreted 
by compound wax pores arranged in six longitudinal rows on the dorsum. 
These pores are composed of seven or eight individual pores closely grouped. 
Antennae (fig. IB) of five subequal segments each about O.O.'JJ mm. long. 



!()() PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 5, MAY, 1919 

Segment IV with a sensorium and Segment V with a distal group. Cornicles, 
chitinized rings on slightly elevated cones. Cauda and anal plate rounded. 

Alate form: Color yellowish with the appendages dusky and head and 
thorax almost black. Wings with the veins shaded with brown. Antennae 
(fig. 1C) as follows: I, 0.032 mm.; II, 0.048 mm.; Ill, 0.008 mm.; IV, 0.08 
mm. ; V, 0.096 mm. ; VI, 0.08 mm. Segment III with twelve to fifteen narrow 
transverse sensoria, IV with about five, V with about six and VI with about 
five and with several almost distal, small circular fringed ones. In one 
case a five segmented antenna was found (fig. ID). Wings (fig. IE) with 
heavy veins. Forewing with the media atrophied for some distance toward 
the base. Cubitus and anal arising very close together. Hindwing with 
the second vien arising near the base and being long and slightly curved. 
Cornicles mere rings slightly elevated, situated not on the margins of the 
abdomen but distinctly on the dorsum 0.16 mm. apart. Cauda somewhat 
conical. Anal plate rounded. 

Described from a number of cotypes, apterous and alate, on bal- 
sam mounts, all these specimens reared by the writer, and de- 
posited in the United States National Museum Collection. 



TWO NEW GENERA OF ANTHOMYIDAE (DIPT.). 

BY J. M. ALDRICH, Division of Insects, U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Pergandea, new genus. 

Sixth vein reaching margin of wing; hind calypters very narrow, more than 
covered by the front ones. On these two characters the genus goes in An- 
thomyinae, but differs from most of its congeners in having the scutellum 
bare below, the cruciate frontal bristles of female minute and somewhat 
vestigial, the vibrissae considerably above the oral margin but not approxi- 
mated, front in male almost one-third the head width, female destitute of 
cerci but with small thorns below on genital segment. Palpi and proboscis 
normal, hind coxae bare behind, pteropleura and hypopleura entirely bare. 
Third antennal joint hardly twice the second, the arista unique among Antho- 
myidae known to the writer in being almost exactly that of Musca domestica 
short but thin, greatly enlarged at base, with long and comparatively few rays 
above and below (see figure). Lower hind part of head considerably swollen, 
a deep groove behind the eye bounding this region upwardly. 

Type, Pergandia apivora, new species. 
Pergandia apivora, new species. 

Yellow, the following parts black or blackish: thorax except apex of scutellum 
and a few indistinct marks on sides, ocellar triangle and more or less of vertex 
and back of head, third antennal joint, middle of proboscis, the U-shaped 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 !()< 

sclerite in front of mouth (tormae), an indistinct wide interrupted dorsal 
stripe on abdomen, and the tarsi. Front of male almost one-third the head- 
width, that of female hardly wider, male with usually at least one very minute 
inner (cruciate) bristle; ocellar triangle small; parafrontals with light-brown 
pollen, changing to faintly silvery above antennal insertion; transverse im- 
pression wide, rather soft and wrinkled; bucca half the eyeheight. 

Thoracic chaetotaxy: dorsocentrals 4-2, anterior acrostichals only hair- 
like, humeral 2, interhumeral 1, posthumeral 1 , notopleural 2, intra-alar 1', 
supralar 1, prealar at largest half the following, but much reduced in sonic 
cases, even absent, scutellar 2 pairs, sternopleural 1-1, prothoracic 1 large. 




FIG. 1 Pergandia apivora ALDRICH head of male 

Front tibia with one bristle above middle on outer hind side, and one 
below middle on front; middle tibia with one stout bristle on outer front 
below middle, one on outer hind and one on inner hind at about the same 
level, above the latter two are two directly behind ; hind tibia of male with 
a few delicate cilia on inner and outer flexor, 3 behind and 5 on outer hind; 
in the female the hind tibia has 2 very small on outer flexor, 2 on hind and 3 
on outer hind. 

Abdomen of male broad at base, deep and a little compressed apically, 
the hypopygium rather large; fifth sternite excised in a deep I", the arms 
convergent and ending in a sharp, curved point, laterad of which are a few 
bristles; a short lunule of the fifth tcrgite is visible; first genital segment rather 
prominent, with a few bristles; second genital segment of moderate size, 
hairy; inner forceps very short, apparently coalescent, outer forceps very 
long and slender, almost parallel, the tips ascending and divergent; penis 
very long and slender, jointed at middle, almost attaining the hind coxae. 

Female genitalia not much visible, retracted; the penultimate segment 
bears a dense row of hairs which curl over the apex, last segment with a IV \\ 
thorns below. 



108 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, xo, 5, MAY, 1919 

Wings yellowish, veins decidedly yellow; third vein bare, costal spine small, 
hind crossvein straight, last segment of fourth vein hardly exceeding the one 
before it. 

Length, 4 1 / 2 to 6 mm. 

Twenty-two males, twenty-seven females; Carondelet, Mo. 
(Pergande); one male, Santa Fe, N. M. (Townsend); one male, 
Pecos, N. M. July 7 (Cockerell). 

Type, male, and allotype, female, from the Missouri material; 
all the rest paratypes (U. S. M. No. 22172). 

The Missouri specimens are numbered 86290, under which Mr. 
Pergande's note is as follows: "Oct. 9, 1877. Found in the clay 
banks north of Carondelet numerous cells of a species of Bombus 
(later determined as Anthophora abrupta Say). Some of the cells 
were infested by dipterous parasites, of which the empty cocoons 
could be found in large numbers; one cell contained cocoons 
which seemed to be sound yet, they are placed in bottle marked 
86290." Dates of issuing are marked on several labels, ranging 
from April 11 to May 2, 1878 all emerging apparently the fol- 
lowing spring. It is an interesting commentary on the state of 
Anthomyid classification, that this material should have stood 
unidentified in the Bureau and later in the National Museum for 
more than forty years. 

Sphenomyia, new genus, 
o- 4> t\' v, wedge; /j. v i a, fly. 

Belongs in subfamily Phaoniinae (sixth vein not reaching margin of wing, 
scutellum bare below, hind calypter projecting widely behind front one) 
in which it is one of the genera. Head as in Limiiophora except in 
having in the female a sharply-defined, long wedge-shaped frontal triangle 
which reaches to the lunule and is highly polished throughout; orbits 
dull, antennae, palpi and proboscis of ordinary form; arista bare (at 20 di- 
ameters), third antennal joint not twice the second, not quite reaching the 
vibrissae, which are at oral margin. Prealar and anterior acrostichal bristles 
lacking; dorsocentrals 4-2; sternopleurals 1-1; notopleurals 2; humeral 2; 
intrahumeral 1; posthumeral (presutural) 1; intra-alar 2; postalar 2; supra- 
alar 1 ; scutellar 2 pairs (female) ; pteropleura and hypopleura bare. Abdomen 
without trace of paired spots, the female genital segment as in Hebecnema 
(Xenaricia Malloch). Legs weakly bristled, as in Hebecnema, hind coxae 
bare behind. Wing as in Hebecnema, except for the half-dozen hairs above 
and the same below, on basal part of third vein. 

Type species, kincaidi, described below. 
Sphenomyia kincaidi, new species. 

Wholly black except bases of halteres, which are brown, and calypters, 
which are white; Parafacials in profile above as wide as third antennal joint. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 5, MAY, 1919 109 

silvery pollinose shading to gray on bucca and changing suddenly to brown 
just about the insertion of the antennae; bucca one-sixth eyeheight; orbitals 
six, ocellars and verticals strong; eyes bare. Thorax subshining, halteres 
including most of stem black. Abdomen oval, shining black with a slight 
satiny sheen, weakly bristled, terminal segment without jointed appendages, 
but with a few curved spines ventrally at apex. Wing subhyaline, fourth 
vein straight, its last segment I 1 /* times the preceding, costal spine small, 
hind crossvein straight. Legs black; front tibia with no bristles except at 
tip; mid tibia with two on outer hind side; hind tibia with two on outer flexor, 
two on outer extensor, and one small at middle on extensor, which might 
almost be called the calcar, but is of insignificant size. 

Length 4.1 mm. 

Type, female, collected at Fox Point, Alaska, by Professor 
Trevor Kincaid, on July 28, 1899, when he was on the Harriman 
Alaska Expedition. Type No. 22170, U. S. N. M. 



A NEW SPECIES OF BUCCULATRIX INJURIOUS TO HOLLYHOCK 

(LEP.). 

BY AUGUST BUSCK. 

Bucculatrix althaeae, new species. 

Face white, in some specimens suffused with light fuscous. Tuft on head 
light straw-colored mixed with darker yellowish brown hairs. Eyecaps straw- 
colored, suffused with light brown. Antennae light ochreous with black 
annulations. Thorax straw-yellow with deep ocher-yellow scales laterally 
and in the center and with dark fuscous posterior margin. Ground color of 
the forewings white, strongly suffused with yellow, ochreous and blackish 
brown scales; four large illdefined costal patches of yellow, heavily mottled 
with reddish brown; one covering the base of the wing, the second at basal 
third, the third at apical third and the fourth just before apex; these costal 
patches are vaguely continued across the wing as illdefined fasciae with the 
white ground color showing between them as three narrow outwardly oblique 
costal streaks; on the middle of dorsum just within the edge is a large tuft 
of black-tipped raised scales. Cilia yellowish with a broken black transverse 
line. Hindwings and cilia dark fuscous. Abdomen yellowish fuscous with 
light yellow anal tuft. Legs dark brown with narrow yellow tarsal annula- 
tions. 

Alar expanse 910 mm. 

Habitat: Standford University, California (Miss Isabel Mc- 
Cracken); Ventura, California (S. H. Essig). 
Foodplant : Hollyhock. 
Type U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 22195. 
The species is close to B. quadrigemina Braun, but considerably 



!10 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

larger. As I did not know this species except from description 
I sent Miss Braun specimens of the present species for com- 
parison and she was good enough to give me the following notes: 
"Quadrigemina is much smaller and paler in color; the second 
costal patch is relatively a little larger than in althaeae and the 
dorsal patch of raised scales is slightly more posterior. In spite 
of the almost identical position and extent of the markings the 
t\vo do not look alike and I believe they are distinct species." 

Caterpillar. The free feeding mature caterpillar is 6 mm. long. Head 
light yellow with black continuous eyespots. Thoracic shield light gray 
with numerous (20) small black dots. Body light gray with darker gray 
transverse band across each joint, on which the large whitish tubercles stand 
out prominently. Setae blackish. Legs gray with two transverse darker 
lines and with last joint yellow. Abdominal legs well developed, normal 
in number, each with two posterior and one anterior crotchet. Anal legs 
with but one crotchet. 

Cocoon a mm. long, white, with a yellowish tint, loosely woven with but 
slight indicated longitudinal ridges. 

The species appears to be doing considerable damage to Holly- 
hock in California, skeletonizing the leaves, As Hollyhock is 
not a native plant, the normal foodplant of this Bucculalrix will 
probably be found to be some other malvaceous plant. 



NOTES ON THE INSECT FAUNA OF BANK SWALLOWS' NESTS IN 

VIRGINIA. 

BY T. E. SNYDER AND R. C. SHANNON, Bureau of Entomology. 

The waters and banks of the beautiful and historic Potomac 
River in the vicinity of Washington will be long remembered by 
those who have explored them for wild plant or animal life. The 
brightest and most cheerful denizens of the wooded shores of the 
river are the great variety of beautiful song birds. On the stretch 
of river extending between Georgetown and Chain Bridge one 
of the most noticeable and companionable of these birds is the 
bank swallow (Riparia riparia (Linn.) Sharp and Wyatt). This 
cosmopolitan bird excavates primitive nests in the soil of the 
hillsides of the Virginia shore where the trap rock has been 
quarried, leaving steep, rocky bluffs. The bird is not at all shy 
and often flies near boats. 

During the spring, summer and autumn these twittering 
swallows are constantly on the wing from dawn until night, 
gracefully skimming over the surface of the water in search of 
insects which they catch while flying. 

The horizontal rows of openings to the primitive nests may be 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, IQIQ 111 

plainly seen from the river about 05 feet below. The birds are 
gregarious and many nests are close together just below the crest 
of the bluff where the sandy soil cover of the rock has been exposed 
by the blasting out of the hillsides. The holes are out of reach of 
one on the crest of the bluff and extend about one foot nearly 
horizontally into the hill. The openings are just large enough to 
admit the mature bird. The nest material consists of feathers 
(chicken), soft straw, oak and chestnut catkins, etc. 

It was thought that these nests might contain an insect fauna 
of interest, so early in June, 1916, one of the writers, after being 
lowered over the bluff on a rope, explored them. 

The commonest insect in the nests is a Staphylinid beetle 
determined by Dr. A. Fenyes as Microglotta n. sp. A species in 
this same genus occurs in nests of this swallow in Europe. The 
insect is probably predaceous on other insects occurring in the 
nests. Both larvae and adults were found, not only in the nest 
material but also in and on the soil beneath. 

The Danish entomologist, E. C. Rosenburg, in 1913, published 
an interesting paper 1 in which are included many notes on the 
beetle fauna of the nests of various animals. Dr. A. Boving has 
kindly referred us to this article and has translated some of the 
notes. 

The bank swallow "Digesvalens" (-- H. riparia) occurs in 
Denmark and in its nests the Staphylinid beetle Microglossa 
nidicolla Fairm. is very common. On July 9, larvae were found 
in numbers. In a gravel-pit near Ravneholm in November, 4 
specimens of a variety of this beetle with black wings were found 
in the nest of this bird. 

Microglossa pulla Gyll. has been found in birds' nests in hollow 
trees. Some specimens of Microglossa marginalis Gyll. ( = = rufi- 
pennis Kr., Heer) were found in a bird's nest in a hollow tree 
(Alnus). 

Among the many interesting records of the beetle fauna of 
nests of other animals are notes of the occurrence of species in 
fox burrows, the nests of moles and mice, wasps' and bees' nests, 
and in the burrows of the wood-boring larvae of a moth (Cossus). 
The works of previous writers on the beetle fauna of the nests of 
mammals and birds are referred to by Rosenburg. 

Larvae, cocoons and adults of a flea, tentatively determined by 
F. C. Bishopp as Ceratophyllus sp., come next in order of abund- 
ance. The active larvae crawl through the nest material but 

1 Rosenburg, E. C. ("Contribution to the knowledge of the biology, 
nirtamorphosis, and taxonomy of beetles, III.") "Kntomologiske Med- 
delelser," vol. 10, p. 37, Copenhagen, I'.M.'l. 



112 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

also occur in the soil beneath. The dark colored, oval, oblong 
cocoons spun by the larvae, to which particles of sand and dust are 
attached, were sifted from the nest material and from sand; 
mature larvae were in the cocoons early in June and on June 2s, 
1910. These numerous fleas must be very troublesome to both 
old and young birds. This flea is closely related to Ceratophyllus 
gallinae, but apparently is distinct. 

Lepidopterous larvae were found in the feathers of the nest 
material but were not common. They were determined by C. 
Heinrich as a species of the family Tineidae. These larvae feed 
on the feathers. 

Hymenopterous parasites were reared from the nest material ; 
probably they were parasitic on the Lepidopterous larvae. 

On the nearly mature nestlings parasitic Mallophaga were 
found to be common. The species is Menopon dissimile Kellogg, 
according to J. H. Paine. This parasite also occurs on the purple 
martin (Progne sub-is), a bird which probably once nested in holes 
in cliffs. The Mallophaga may be more easily located on the 
outstretched wings of the birds; they rapidly retreat to the base 
of the feathers when exposed. 

Adults of the Staphylinid beetle were found flying about the 
entrance to the swallows' nests at 6 P.M. on July 11, 1916. 

On June 22, 1918, the swallows' nests were again visited. 
Larvae of the Staphylinid Micro glotta and larvae and cocoons 
of the flea Ceratophyllus were common. 

H. S. Barber on a later trip June 27, 1918, with T. E. Snyder, 
found the young of an antlion, which he believes to be Dendroleon 
sp., on the soil beneath nest material. The young had not dug 
a pit but was free, being covered, however, with debris and dried 
bodies of its prey. It is undoubtedly predaceous on other insect 
life in the nests. At this date most of the birds were able to fly 
and had left the nests. 

In order to know in what conditions the nests were in the 
winter, on December 23, 1918 a. bright warm day the nests 
were visited. One living adult flea was the only insect found in 
the nests which the birds had abandoned in the autumn. Flea 
cocoons found were all empty. The nest material and the soil 
beneath were carefully sifted, the ground not being frozen. 

NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF ICHNEUMON FLIES (HYM.). 

BY R. A. CUSHMAN, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

This paper contains the descriptions of three new genera, 
three new species, and a new variety of Ichneumonidae and one 
new species of Braconidae. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 11.'! 



Genus Derocentrus, new genus. 

* 

Runs in Ashmead's key to Nematopodius and is probably what 
he used in the construction of his key to the Mesostcnini; but is 
conspicuously different from the genotype, Nematopodius for- 
mosns Gravenhorst. The ovipositor is much longer than the 
body; the first tergite not parallel-sided, but has the postpetiole 
much broader and higher than the petiole and the spiracle much 
behind the middle; and the other tergites broad, not long and 
narrow. Also the antennal annulus embraces flagellar joints 
6-9, not 15-16 as in formosus; the front coxae normal, without 
a transverse ridge on the outside; the pronotum short medially; 
the propodeum not extending beyond the base of the coxae, the 
basal carina strongly angulate medially; the second joint of hind 
trochanters nearly twice as long as first joint. In all the species 
referable here the entire insect is without contrastingly colored 
maculation except more or less blackish stains principally in the 
alar region, and the head and thorax are sculptured. 

The following generic description is based entirely on the 
female, the male being unknown. 

Slender, with legs and antennae long and slender, abdomen clavate, ovi- 
positor much longer than body. Head transverse; temples strongly convex, 
much narrower than eyes; frons deeply concave ; eyes large, subparallel within; 
face with oblique impression each side of middle; clypeus broad, convex, 
broadly subtruncate; labrum exserted; teeth of mandibles of equal length; 
malar space nearly as long as basal width of mandible; thorax shining, punc- 
tured; notauli deep, meeting on disk of mesoscutum; propodeum subconcave 
behind, basal carina strong, strongly angulate medially; basal area small 
quadrate; apical carina distinct laterally, obsolete to wanting medially as 
is also that portion of median longitudinal carina lying between the trans- 
verse carinae; wings long, stigma narrow lanceolate; areolet very small, 
much longer than wide, second intercubitus incomplete; second recurrent 
slightly antefurcal with respect to the second intercubitus; legs very slender; 
hind trochanters half as long as femur, second joint cylindrical and nearly 
twice as long as first ; basitarsus as long as other joints combined, apical joint 
shorter than third ; abdomen long, clavate, polished; first tergite completely 
fused with sternite, spiracles at apical two-fifths; postpetiole slightly wider 
than petiole; second tergite subsequal in length to first, constricted at base, 
much wider at apex; other tergites barely half as long as second, broader than 
long; ovipositor nearly or quite twice as long as body; lanceolate at apex. 

Uniform ferruginous with more or less black in alar region, antennae black, 
ferruginous at base, with an incomplete white annulus embracing more or 
less of flagellar joints 6-9; wings suffused with brownish. 

Type. (( 'olcoccntrns) Xcmatopoilins ic\\iuus (Ashmead). 



114 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

Derocentrus texanus (Ashmead). 

Mesostenus longicaudis Cresson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., vol. 4, 1872, p. 164, 
(not Brulle). 

Coleocentrus texanus Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 12, 1890, p. 444. 
Mesostenus macrunis Dalla Torre, Cat. Hym., vol. 3, 1901-1902, p. 544. 

(New name for longicaudis Cresson, not Brulle.) 

Nematopodius exclamans Viereck, Trans. Kans. Ac. Sci., vol. 19, 1904. p. 318. 
Nematopodius longicaudus Viereck, loc. cit., p. 318. 

Careful comparison of fourteen specimens from Texas, New 
Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Maryland, and Virginia, including 
Cresson's type, Ashmead's paratype, and a homotype (Gahan) of 
Viereck's specimen discloses no differences of specific value. 
There is considerable variation in the propodeal carinae, the 
sides of the areola and the median portion of the apical carina 
being weakly developed or absent; and the black color of the 
thorax is as described by Viereck to entirely absent. 

Ashmead's type has disappeared unless, as I suspect, it is the 
same specimen as Cresson's type. 

Derocentrus gracilipes (Cresson). 

Mesostenus gracilipes Cresson, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1878, p. 36o. 
Nematopodius gracilipes Viereck, Trans. Kans. Ac. Sci., vol. 19, 1904, p. 3 is. 
There is nothing in the description of this species to distinguish 
it from texanus (Ashmead), and no specimen is available for com- 
parison. 

Genus Cyrtobasis, new genus. 

In Foerster's, Ashmead's, and Schmiedeknecht's keys to 
Hemitelini runs to Naetes Foerster, but the type is apparently 
not congeneric with the genotype of Naetes and only included 
species, Naetes rufus Brischke, differing structurally from the 
original description of that species as follows: propodeum with 
posterior face concave, the bounding carina very high and angulate 
on each side, median longitudinal carina lacking except at base, 
the areola open at the sides; first tergite with strong dorsal 
carinae; ovipositor not nearly as long as abdomen. Certain 
of the color characters mentioned by Brischke which I believe 
to be of generic value are also lacking in the present genus: 
antennae not annulated; wings not fasciate. 

Body robust, densely, coarsely sculptured; head strongly transverse, temples 
flat and narrow; vertex broad, ocelli in a very low triangle ; eyes parallel within ; 
face broad, convex, with a median rounded elevation; cylpeus barely distinct 
from face, broadly truncate; mandibles short, stout, and with very small 
teeth; malar space long; checks convex; antennae nearly as long as body, 
somewhat thickened beyond middle and tapering to the apex; first two joints 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 5, MAY, 1919 1 1 ."i 

of flagellum about three times as long as broad, subequal in length, other 
joints gradually shorter to apex; notauli shallow but distinct; sternauli deep 
but ending abruptly in middle of pleura; scutellum slightly convex, immar- 
gined; propodeum declivous concave behind with prominent laterial angles, 
basal median area large, nearly as long as areola, areola hexagonal in position 
but open laterally, though sometimes adventitiously closed by the longi- 
tudinal rugosity, median longitudinal carinae also lacking behind apical 
carina; areolation otherwise complete; spiracles small, round, legs slender; 
stigma narrow, lanceolate, radius slightly before middle; second intercubitus 
entirely lacking; third discoidal cell very broad at base; nervulus very oblique, 
strongly recurved below middle ; nervellus strongly antefurcal, sharply broken 
below middle; first tergite evenly widening from base to apex, not separated 
into petiole and postpetiole, slightly decurved and strongly arched, almost 
swollen, above, with strong converging dorsal carinae extending nearly to 
apex, lateral carinae distinct from base to apex; middle tergites strongly 
transverse, subcallose apically; ovipositor short, the sheath subclavate. 

Type. Cyrtobasis rogae, new species. 

Cyrtobasis rogae, new species. 

Female. Length 8 mm. antennae 6.5 mm., ovipositor 1.25 mm. 

Head opaque; temples and cheeks polished, sparsely punctured; vertex 
behind ocelli arcuately rugose; frons above obliquely and below transversely 
rugose; face finely, densely punctate and pilose; malar space somewhat 
longer than basal width of mandible; thorax opaque; pronotum and meso- 
pleura partly polished; pronotum rugoso-punctate ; mesoscutum minutely 
punctato-shagreened, rugose in region of notauli; scutellum punctate; meso- 
pleura and sternum densely punctate, more or less rugosely so around margins; 
metapleura and propodeum densely punctate, basal area polished; abdomen 
densely, coarsely punctate; first tergite nearly as wide at apex as long, polished 
between dorsal carinae and at apex, striate at sides; other tergites polished 
at apex ; second a little more than half as long as wide and with a very shallow 
broad transverse impression beyond middle, others progressively shorter; 
ovipositor about as long as first tergite. 

Black; mandibles rufous; palpi, front coxae trochanters, apical external 
spot on front femur, apical joint of middle trochanter, anterior dorsal margin 
of pronotum, tegulae, and wing-bases white; hind tibiae at apex and their 
tarsi black; legs otherwise testaceous; wings hyaline, venation blackish; 
tergites narrowly piceous at apex; sheath black. 

Host. Rogas spp. 

Type-locality. Flagstaff Mt., Boulder, Colorado. 
Other localities. Riley County, Kansas, and Lake Forest, 
Illinois. 

Type. Cat. No. HUTU, U. S. X. M. 

Described from three females; the type reared from a Rogas 



116 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

cocoon, March, 1910, by T. D. A. Cockerell; paratype a reared 
from a Rogas cocoon, April 17, by E. A. Popenoe; and paratype b 
from Lake Forest, Illinois, August 4, 1899, and bearing the label 
"Ceph. occ." (Cephus occidentalism). Both paratypes are prac- 
tically like the type. The two paratypes are labelled in Ash- 
mead's hand as belonging to his genus Neopimpla, the unde- 
scribed type of which was from South Africa. If arbitrarily 
placed in the Ichneumonini the species will run by default to 
Neopimpla, but to me it has neither the characters nor the general 
appearance of the Ichneumonini, but is distinctly Cryptine. 

Genus Atopognathus, new genus. 

In existing keys this very peculiar genus can run nowhere 
except to the Mesoleptini, where, in venational, body, and, leg 
characters, it is very similar to Ecbylus Holmgren as represented 
especially by pleuralis (Provancher) and perennis Davis, both 
of which differ from the genotype, Eclytus ornatus Holmgren, 
in lacking the second intercubitus. But the head is much more 
like that oilschnopsidea Viereck (== Ischnus Authors, not Graven - 
horst), Heterischnus Wesmael, and Oronotus Wesmael. In short, 
it apparently stands between the Phaeogenini and the Mesoleptini 
as now constituted. In the Phaeogenini, because of the obtuse 
abdomen and upcurved ovipositor, it agrees best with Heter- 
ischnus, but the abdomen is really very different in form, the 
antennae are much longer, and it differs in many other respects 
from specimens of Heterischnus rnfipcs Wesmael as determined 
by Schmiedeknecht. 

For the present, in view of its closer agreement with the 
Mesoleptini on the characters usually used in keys, it seems 
better to assign Atopognathus to that tribe, in spite of the very 
anomalous mandibles. 

Head broad behind eyes; eyes slightly convergent below; clypeus sube- 
marginately truncate at apex, subconvex, separated from the face by a shallow 
groove; mandibles sickle-shaped, edentate at apex, but with a large, strong 
tooth on inner margin; antennae filiform, about as long as body, flagellum 
about 25-jointed, basal joints several times longer than thick, the joints 
gradually decreasing in length until near the apex they are only about twice 
as long as thick, female with a white annulus embracing joints 9-12; thorax 
nearly as in Eclytus Holmgren; notauli and sternauli distinct; scutellum 
elevated; propodeum completely areolated, the areola broad: venation as 
in Eclytus except that the second intercubitus is lacking and radius originates 
beyond middle of stigma; legs as in Eclytus with basal joint of front trochanters 
and basitarsus of all legs very long, the latter nearly or quite as long as other 
joints combined, tibial spurs small; abdomen similar to that of Eclytus but 
first tergite narrower, slightly decurved, and with the spiracles strongly 






PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 



21, NO. 



5, MAY, 1919 



tuberculate, situated at about the middle; tergites beyond fifth in female, 
sixth in male, scarcely visible; hypopygidium in female reaching to apex 
of abdomen; ovipositor exserted, slightly upcurved; male genital sheaths 
exserted, narrow. 

Type. Atopognathus collaris, new species, described below. 

Atopognathus collaris, new species. 

Female. Length 5.5 mm.; antennae 5 mm. 

Head and thorax clothed with rather dense white pubescence; head polished, 
face and clypeus very minutely punctate ; eyes about as long as their distance 
apart at the antennae ; malar space about as long as basal width of mandible ; 
thorax polished but so densely pubescent that it appears opaque; notauli 
crenulate; propodeum polished; petiolar area about as long a rest of dorsal 
surface; areola about two-thirds as broad as long, costulae very close to base; 
abdomen polished; first tergite comprising about one-third total length,, 
about twice as wide at apex as at base, postpetiole obscurely striate and 
medially canaliculate, spiracles slightly behind middle; second tergite slightly 
shorter than first; third, two-thirds as long as second; others very short. 

Black; clypeus rufous; mandibles stramineous, the teeth blackish; palpi 
stramineous; antennae rufous at base, otherwise blackish with annulus 
white; prothorax and tegulae rufous; wings hyaline, venation brown; legs 
testaceous, front and middle trochanters and tibiae stramineous; hind tibiae 




FIG. I Atopognathus collaris CUSHMAN. a 'Front wing, b Side view 
of abdomen, c Dorsal view of first and second tergites. d Front view 
of head. 



118 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

infuscate basally and apically, their tarsi fuscous; abdomen piceous, tergites 
narrowly reddish apically. 

Male. Length 4.5 mm.; antennae 4.5 mm. 

Differs from female in practically no way except in sexual characters. 

Type-locality. Rosslyn, Virginia. 

Other localities. Georgetown, D. C., and Coleta, Alabama. 

Type. Cat. No. 19178, U. S. N. M. 

Described from two females from Rosslyn, Virginia, one male 
from Georgetown, D. C., and one male from Coleta, Alabama, all 
collected by H. H. Smith. 

The paratypes are very like the type and allotype, but slightly 
larger in each sex. 

Labrossyta ruficoxalis, new species. 

Differs from frontosa Davis most conspicuously in having the 
hind coxae testaceous instead of black. 

Female. Length 6 mm., antennae 5 mm. 

Head transverse, broad and strongly convex behind the eyes, subopaque 
shagreened; face sparsely, finely punctate, nearly twice as wide as long; clypeus 
about twice as broad as long, convex with a small impression on each side 
at apex, broadly germinate; malar space half as long as basal width of man- 
dible; eyes slightly convergent below, about as long as width of face, slightly 
sinuate opposite antennae; diameter of ocellus less than length of postocellar 
line, latter equal to ocell-ocular line; scape thick, scarcely oblique at apex; 
flagellum slightly attenuate at base and apex, first joint a half longer than 
second, joints beyond middle a third longer than thick; thorax laterally 
subopaque shagreened and sparsely punctate, mesopleura more or less striate 
above; mesocutum subpolished and more distinctly punctate; notauli ob- 
soletely impressed anteriorly; propodeum short, declivous behind, opaque, 
without carinae except the obsolete lateral longitudinal, distinctly separated 
from metapleura, spiracles small round; stigma narrow lanceolate, radius 
far before middle ; radial cell measured on metacarpus equal in length to stigma ; 
areolet oblique subtriangular, subsessile; nervulus postfurcal; nervellus 
slightly inclivous, broken slightly below middle; legs long, slender, hind 
tibia as long as femur and trochanter together, basitarsus nearly as long as 
rest of tarsus, longer calcarium nearly half as long as basitarsus; abdomen 
stout, compressed at extreme apex, opaque basally, polished apically; first 
tergite a half longer than wide at apex, sides nearly straight, with a median 
longitudinal impression, dorsal carinae strong at base, lateral carinae distinct 
to spiracles, latter in middle; second and third tergites subequal in length; 
tergites beyond fifth retracted. 

Black; abdomen, except first tergite, rufous; legs largely testaceous; face 
at sides, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, spots at origins of notauli, tegulae, humeral 
and ventral angles of pronotum, spot below tegula, and posterior margin 
of mesopleura yellow; antennae brown above, reddish below; scutellum 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 119 

piceous medially; first tergite reddish piceous at apex and sides; hind tibia 
yellow, broadly fuscous at apex, calcaria yellow; hind tarsus fuscous, paler 
at apex; wings hyaline, venation brown. 

Host. Spruce sawfly. 

Type-locality. Aweme, Manitoba. 

Type. Cat. No. 22202, U. S. N. M. 

Described from two females reared May 31 and June 1, 1915, 
by N. Criddle. 

The paratype has the yellow color much more extensive, in- 
cluding two broad longitudinal stripes on the face coalescing 
laterally with the orbital marks, malar space and cheeks, and 
most of propleura; scutellar spot also yellow. 

Hyposoter fugitivus variety pacificus, new variety. 

Differs constantly from the typical fugitivus in color as fol- 
lows : 

Female. Legs darker testaceous, almost brown, front coxae arid front 
and middle trochanters testaceous instead of white; femora only very ob- 
scurely tipped with white, the hind femur also only obscurely infuscate 
subapically; hind tibia with a distinct brownish ventral stripe in the larger 
white annulus; basal annulus of hind tarsus occupying only about a fourth of 
the basitarsus; apical third of tibial spurs brownish; humeral angle of 
pronotum brownish instead of whitish. 

Male. -Differs from female in having the legs paler, the front coxae and 
front and middle trochanters whitish; hind basitarsus with \vhite annulus 
almost wanting. From male of the typical fugitivus it differs in having the 
middle coxae testaceous, by the small tarsal annulus, and by the darker 
humeral angle of pronotum. 

Type host. Malacosoma pluvialis Dyar. 

Other host. Malacosoma ambisimillis Dyar. 

Type-locality. Takoma, Washington . 

Other localities. San Francisco Co., California; Monterey Co., 
California; Santa Cruz Mts., California. 

Type. Cat. No. 22146, U. S. N. M. 

Described from two females and one male (Bureau of Ento- 
mology No. 568) from the type-locality and type host, one 
female from San Francisco Co. (Bureau of Entomology No. 
360) evidently reared from a species of Malacosoma, one female 
from Monterey Co. (Bureau of Entomology No. 415) from 
Malacosoma ambisimilis Dyar, one male, the allotype (Bureau of 
Entomology No. 415) from Santa Cruz Mts. from Malacosoma 
ambisimilis, and one female without locality and bearing only the 
number 368 and the host remains. All but the last were reared 
bv Albert Koebele. 



120 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY, 1919 

Apanteles iselyi, new species. 

Closely allied to Apantelec (Pseudopanteles} etiellae Viereck. 
It is, however, noticeably smaller and differs from that species 
especially in having the whole dorsum of the abdomen, except 
at extreme apex, opaque though with only sparse and vague 
sculpture. 

Female. Length 2.5 mm.; antennae 2.0 mm. 

Head slightly wider than long; face and clypeus at base subpolished with 
rather coarse punctures; temples strongly, convexly sloping; coarsely, densely 
punctate; polished area of occiput extending triangularly onto vertex nearly 
to ocelli; mesoscutum densely, finely, opaquely punctate; scutellum polished, 
with uniform separated punctures, its lateral furrows crenulate and lateral 
areas polished impunctate; mesopleura densely, rather coarsely punctate, 
opaque; propodeum basally and medially opaque without distinct sculpture 
except medially where it has a distinct longitudinal carina flanked by short 
radiating rugae, laterally at apex polished; metapleura posteriorly opaque 
with scattered punctures; femora shagreened; abdomen dorsally opaque 
but not distinctly sculptured, apical tergites polished; first tergite very narrow 
at apex, arcuately widening toward base; second tergite very small, fully 
four times as wide as long; ovipositor sheath twice as long as first tergite, 
in side view long clavate. 

Black; tegulae transparent, pale yellowish; palpi pale; wings milky hyaline, 
stigma and metacarpus dark brown, other veins pale; legs black, front and 
middle femora at apex, front tibiae and tarsi, middle and hind tibiae except 
at apex, and middle tarsi at base testaceous; calcaria white. 

Male. Length 2.0 mm.; antennae 3.0 mm. 

Differs principally in having the scutellum polished medially and the dark 
color of all tibiae extending farther basally. 

Host. Canarsia hammondi Riley. 

Type-locality. Bentonville, Arkansas. 

Type. Cat. No. 22147, U. S. N. M. 

Described from two females and two males reared October 
8-10, 1918, under Quaintance No. 16356, by Dwight Isely, for 
whom the species is named. 

Actual Date of Publication, Jl/av 5, 



11 V 



VOL. 21 JUNE 1919 No. 6 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BURKE, H. E., NOTES ON A COCCOON MAKING COLYDIID (COLEOPT.) J 23 

BURKE, H. E. NOTES ON THE CALIFORNIA OAK WORM, PHRYGANIDIA, CAL- 

IFORNICA (LEPID.) 1 24 

BUSCK, AUGUST A MICROLEPIDOPTERON INJURIOUS TO AVOCADO 12") 

CRAMPTON, G. C. THE GENITALIA AND TERMINAL ABDOMINAL STRUCTURES 

OF MALES, AND THE TERMINAL ABDOMINAL STRUCTURES OF THE LARVAE 

OF "CHALASTOGASTROUS" HYMENOPTERA 12!) 

GAHAN, A. B. A NEW SPECIES OF THE SERPHIDOID GENUS DENDROCERUS 

(HYMENOPTERA) 121 

GREENE, CHARLES T. A NEW GENUS IN SCATOPHAGIDAE (DIPTERA ) 1 2ti 

ROHWER, S. A. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW CYNIPOID FROM TRINIDAD. . lot) 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

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Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C , 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

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ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

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Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00- Members are 
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OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President E. R. SASSCER 

First Vice-President W. R. WALTON 

Second Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

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Representing the Society as a Vice-President of the Washington Academy of 

Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 21 JUNE, 1919 No. 6 

A NEW SPECIES OF THE SERPHIDOID GENUS DENDROCERUS 

(HYMENOPTERA). 

BY A. B. GAHAN, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

The two interesting new forms here described both run di- 
rectly to the genus Dendrocerus in J. J. Kieffer's key (Andre's 
Spec. Hym. d'Eur. et d'Algerie, vol. 10, 1911, p. 10). Both differ 
from the male genotype in having the antennae serrate instead of 
ramose and would therefore appear to agree with Atritomus 
Foerster, which KiefTer, probably correctly, considers a synonym 
of Dendrocerus. According to Kieffer the male antennae are 
variable in the genus. 

Dendrocerus, as represented by the species described below, is 
characterized by having the head viewed from above transverse; 
antennae inserted at the clypeus,'n-jointed in both sexes, elon- 
gate and filiform in the female, joints i to 6 of the male flagellum 
more or less strongly serrate; pronotum entirely concealed from 
above, mesoscutum with a more or less distinct median longi- 
tudinal groove, the parapsidal grooves absent or only very faintly 
indicated at the lateral anterior angles; scutellum longer than 
broad, convex, very slightly compressed at apex but without 
an apical process; axillae meeting at inner angles and separated 
from the mesoscutum by a distinct fine groove; propodeum 
short, declivous from base or near base; abdomen fusiform, 
convex above, and about as long as the head and thorax. 

The host record for the species is apparently new for the genus 
Dendrocerus, other species of which are recorded as having been 
reared from Cecidomyid and Cynipid galls, and one species from 
a Coccid on maple. 

Despite the differences pointed out and the widely separated 
type localities the writer is of the opinion that the two forms de- 
scribed below r are nothing more than varietal forms of the same 
species. The greater distinctness of the mesonotal groove and 
the line on vertex in the paler form are believed to be accounted 
for by the lighter color which causes them to stand out more con- 
spicuously. The color of the paler form shows a distinct ten- 
dency to shade into black and it is possible that a larger series 
would demonstrate that the differences are merely variations. 

121 



122 PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

Dendrocerus conwentziae, new species. 

Closely related to D. californicus Kieffer but apparently differs 
from the description of that species, which is based on a male, 
by having the fifth flagellar joint, as well as the first to fourth, 
distinctly three-cornered and hairy, their apices arcuately emar- 
ginate and produced into a short neck to which the following 
joint is attached; sixth joint also slightly serrate; all flagellar 
joints distinctly longer than the apex is broad. 

Female. Length 2 mm. Uniformly dull black except the front legs, which 
are very dark brown; mandibles brownish; wings subhyaline, more or less 
stained with fuscous, the fuscous staining most apparent just behind the 
stigma and in the area between the stigmal vein and the anterior wing margin. 
Head finely closely punctate and opaque; viewed from above transverse . 
the occiput slightly concave and distinctly margined; ocelli in an obtuse 
triangle, the lateral ocelli a little more distant from the eye-margin than the 
diameter of an ocellus, postocellar line fully twice the ocellocular; vertex 
behind the ocelli with a very faint median longitudinal line connecting with 
the occipital carina; viewed from in front, the head is approximately as high 
as broad and only moderately narrowed below, the cheeks distinctly less 
than half as long as eye-height; antennal scape long, subcylindrical, thickest 
near the middle and somewhat more slender at base than apex, pedicel slightly 
more than twice as long as thick, first flagellar joint thicker and approximately 
one and one-half times as long as the pedicel, second about as long as pedicel, 
third to ninth flagellar joints successively decreasing very slightly in length, 
the ninth not much longer than thick, tenth somewhat longer than the ninth; 
mesoscutum, scutellum, and axillae sculptured like the head, the mesoscutum 
with a very delicate median longitudinal line which is not deeply impressed; 
sides of pronotum, mesopleura, and metapleura more shallowly punctate 
than the dorstim, subopaque; propodeum with the declivous posterior por- 
tion slightly concave and bounded by a distinct curved carina, the enclosed 
area more or less horse-shoe-shaped, polished within, with a few more or less 
distinct longitudinal striae laterally and apically and usually with a delicate 
median carina; abdomen polished, the first tergite extending to or a little 
beyond the middle, ovipositor sheaths slender and exserted approximately 
the length of the fourth tergite. 

Male. -Length i .7 mm. Head viewed from in front much broader than 
high; antennal scape a little less than four times as long as thick; pedicel 
small, subglobose; flagellar joints hairy, i to 5 strongly serrate, the sixth slightly 
so, 7 to 9 cylindrical; abdomen not longer than the thorax; wings hyaline. 

Type locality. --Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Type. Cat. No. 22277, U. S. N. M. 

Type female, one paratype female, and the male allotype 
reared by Mr. A. I. Bourne, from Conwentzia lia^cni, a small 
Neuropteron. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 6, JUNE, 1919 1 2o 

Dendrocerus conwentziae variety rufus, new variety. 

Female. -Length 2 mm. Color rufo-testaceous suffused with dark brown 
or blackish above on the head, thorax, and abdomen; the scutellum and 
axillae somewhat darker than the rest of the thorax; antennae black or brown- 
black, the base of scape paler; legs concolorous with the underside of the body, 
the hind legs more or less infuscated; wings distinctly infuscated with brown- 
ish, the base and apex hyaline; venation brownish black. Vertex behind with 
a delicate median longitudinal line running from the postocellar line to the 
occipital carina; median groove on the mesoscutum distinct. Otherwise like 
the female of conwentziae. 

Male. -Apparently agrees in every particular with males of the variety 
conwentziae. 

Type locality. Felida, Clark County, Washington. 

Type. Cat. No. 22278, U. S. N. M. 

Three females and three males reared by E. J. Newcomer 
from cocoons of Conwentzia sp. under Quaintance No. 14081, in 
May, 1918. Also a male and female from the same source reared 
June 3, 1918, and mounted on a slide. 



NOTES ON A COCOON MAKING COLYDIID (COLEOPT.). 
BY H. E. BURKE, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

In the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washing- 
ton for January, 1905, Dr. A. D. Hopkins published a note on 
a cocoon spinning Colydiid, probably Bothrideres contract us 
which he found to be a parasite of a Cerambycid larva. 

On July 22, 1914, at the Pyramid Ranger Station, Eldorado 
County, Calif, the writer collected a number of dark brown 
cocoons from the wood of an old fire scar on the side of a living 
incense cedar (Libocedrus dec^^rrens). The cocoons were taken 
from the pupal cells of the flatheaded woodborer, Trachykele 
opulenta Fall. Most of the cocoon makers had emerged but one 
larva could be seen through the walls of a cocoon which was taken 
from a cell containing a dead Trachykele beetle. Later a beetle 
emerged from another cocoon and was identified as Deretaplinis 
oregonensis Horn by Mr. W. S. Fisher. 

An adult of the same species was taken on August 2, 1915, 
from the bark of a dead Jeffrey pine (Finns jeffreyi) which con- 
tained a brood of the Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jejjreyi 
Hopk.). Several adults were taken at Onion Valley, Calif., on 
October 13, from the bark of a dead sugar pine (P. lambertiand) 
which contained a brood of the mountain pine beetle (D. monti- 
colae Hopk.) and broods of the flatheaded woodborers (Buprestis 
laeviventris I,ec. and B. aurulenta Linn.). Other specimens 
were taken at Yreka and Vade, Calif. 



124 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL,. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

Mr. J. D. Riggs took an adult from a yellow pine (P. ponder osa) 
at Bray, Calif., on May 6, 1915, and Mr. F. B. Herbert made the 
following observations: August 13, 1915, adults in cocoons in 
the wood of the red fir (Abies magnified) at the Pyramid Ranger 
Station; August 30, an adult from the cell of Trachykele nimbosa 
Fall in the wood of red fir at Meyers Station, Calif.; July 3, 1916, 
adults under the bark of a Jeffrey pine in the gallery of Dendroc- 
tomis jeffreyi; August 18, an adult in the wood of a lodgepole pine 
(P. murrayana) and a cocoon in the pupal cell of a Cerambycid. 
An adult Deretaphrus emerged from this cocoon on June 21, 1917. 

These records indicate that this species inhabits a number 
of host trees and lives on a number of insect hosts. Also, that 
it lives over one winter as an adult in the cocoon and probably 
follows its hosts in having a two or more year life cycle. 

At first sight the larva resembles an Ichneumonid larva, having 
a whitish fleshy body which tapers forward to the rather small 
head of the same color. Closer examinations shows that it has 
all f of the characteristics of the typical Colydiid larva including 
well developed legs and a pair of recurved caudal hooks. The 
cocoon is an elongate hemisphere in shape. The flat side is 
fastened to the rounded ones with a heavy seam or rim and con- 
tains a number of threads woven in the tissue. The rounded 
sides do not have the threads but are composed of a brownish 
celluloid like substance. 



NOTES ON THE CALIFORNIA OAK WORM, PHRYGANIDIA 
CALIFORNICA. (LEPID.) 

BY H. E. BURKE, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

Under the title "The Imprudent Phryganidian," Prof. Vernon 
L. Kellogg published in the Entomological News for June, 1896, 
an interesting account of how the mother moths of the fall genera- 
tion of this species doom many of their offspring to death by 
starvation because they lay part of their eggs on the leaves of 
the deciduous oaks which will soon fall and become unfit for 
food. Other eggs are laid on the live oak (Quercus agrifolia) 
and the species thus survives the winter. 

Observations made at the Forest Insect Laboratory, Los 
Gatos, during the past two winters indicate that the laying of 
the eggs on the deciduous oaks may not be such an imprudence 
as at first sight it seems. 

Both of these winters, due to different climatic conditions, 
numerous young caterpillars wintered over on the deciduous 
white oak (Quercus lobata) and produced normal broods of moths. 
In fact, at Los Gatos, the species appeared to winter better on 
the white oaks than it did on the live oaks. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 6, JUNE, IQIQ 125 

The winter of 1917-1918 was so mild that the 1917 leaves re- 
mained on the trees until March i, when the new leaves of 1918 
had unfolded. The young worms went from the old to the new 
leaves without difficulty and completed their normal develop- 
ment. During the first half of September, 1918, there was a 
heavy three days rain. This was followed by a month or more 
of warm weather. By November i many of the white oak leaves 
were well grown and the Phryganidia eggs of the fall brood were 
laid directly on these. Hatching took place normally and the 
young worms passed the winter of 1918-1919 in good condition 
and show every indication of reaching full development. 

The interesting question now arises as to whether, after feed- 
ing for five generations (summer, winter, 1917; summer, winter, 
1918; summer, 1919) on the white oak this particular strain of 
the species will have lost its taste for the live oak and will be- 
come exterminated the first winter the white oak leaves fall early. 
On the other hand, it is possible that practically every winter 
some of the white oak leaves remain on the trees until spring and 
at least part of the brood laid on the white oak winters normally. 

The principal natural enemies of the oak worm besides this 
peculiar habit of self destruction are a "wilt" disease which some- 
times kills the worms by the thousands; the spined soldier bug 
(Podisus maculiventris Say, 1 which punctures and sucks dry 
the eggs, all stages of the worms and the chrysalids; a small 
grayish fly (T'.ryptocera flavipes Coq. 2 ) which kills the larger 
worms and the black and yellow chalcid (Chalcis abiesiae Girault 3 ) 
and the oak worm ichneumonid (Itoplectis behrensi (Cress.) 4 ), 
which parasitise the chrysalids. 



A MICROLEPIDOPTERON INJURIOUS TO AVOCADO. 

BY AUGUST BUSCK. 
Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. 
(Biol. Ccntr. Amer., iv., p. 168, 1912). 

This species feeds in the fruit and seed of Avocado (Aguacate) 
Persea spp. and appears to be of considerable economic im- 
portance by its destructiveness. It is the species mentioned as 
Stenoma species, by Sasscer (Jour. Econ. Ent., vol. 2, p. 127, 1918), 
Barber (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 2 1, p. 59, 1919), and by Popenoe 

1 Identified by E. H. Gibson. 

2 Identified by C. T. Greene. 

3 Identified by S. A. Rohwer. 

4 Identified by R. A. Cushman. 



126 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

(U. S. Dept. Agri., Bull., 743, 1919). It has been received in 
bred series from Guatemala and Equador. According to Sasscer 
the caterpillar eats galleries in the seed similiar to those of the 
two large weevils which infest avocado, but easily distinguished 
from these by the presence of the loosely packed frasse pellets. 
Mr. J. Birch Rorer has sent a bred series from Equador and re- 
ports that the species does a great deal of damage to avocado 
there. The moth lays its eggs on the surface of the nearly ripe 
fruit and the larva eats through the flesh into the seed. It feeds 
on the seed until ready to pupate, three weeks or a month and, 
then eats its way out through the flesh to pupate. It is almost 
impossible according to Mr. Rorer to buy a single avocado in the 
market of Equador, which has not at least one of the worms in 
the seed; more often there are two or three. It would be a bad 
pest to introduce into the United States. 

The fullgrown larva is nearly an inch long. Head light brown 
with blackish eyespots and mandibles. Thoracic shield light 
brown with darker brown anterior edge; body light fuscous with 
small blackish brown tubercles. Spiracles on eighth abdominal seg- 
ment situated high up on dorsum. Anal shield dark brown. 
Legs and prolegs normal, a single complete circle of alternating 
long and short crotches. 



A NEW GENUS IN SCATOPHAGIDAE (DIPTERA). 

BY CHARLES T. GREENE, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 
This most remarkable fly, 1 described below, was in some ma- 
terial which was submitted for determination by Mr. J. M. 
Jessup, who was the geologist of a party from the Smithsonian 
Institution. The party made a journey from Rampart House 
on the Yukon River, northward along the Alaska- Yukon Boundary 
to the Arctic Ocean and returned by the same route. This fly 
was captured on the return trip. 

AMBOPOGON, n. gen. 

One pair frontal bristles, below each of them is a bristle-like hair which is 
larger than the other hairs of the front; ocellar bristles long and directed 
forward; inner and outer vertical bristles near the eye (inner vertical may 
stand more erect than shown in drawing) ; post-verticals very large and di- 
rected backward. Antennae missing. Proboscis small; palpi short, slender 
and with a number of very short hairs and two long bristle-like hairs on the 
under side; no large apical bristle. One pair dorsocentrals, one prothoracic, 
no stigmatic bristle, one humeral, two notopleurals (the larger one in front), 

1 Described through the courtesy of Dr. J. M. Aldrich, Custodian of 
the Diptera, U. S. National Museum. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 6, JUNE, IQIQ l-< 

i 

one presutrual, one supraalar, one postalar; no mesopleural, or pteropleural 
bristles, one sternopleural, a row of bristles on the sternopleura near the 
middle coxa; hind coxa with one large bristle on the outside. Scutellum with 
two large, marginal pairs of bristles. Wing normal, sixth vein to the wing 
margin; two small, basal cells. 

Type Ambopogon hyperboreus, n. sp. 

Cochliarutm (Becker, Dipterologische Studien I, Berliner 
Entomol. Ztg. Bd. XXXIX, 1894, p. 183, Heft i) is the nearest 
relative, although quite remote and very distinct. 

A . hyperboreus, n. sp. Male (Fig. i). -Brownish black, legs mostly yellow. 

From in front the head is slightly wider than high. Face very small and 
pale yellow, darker on the sides; antennae missing, antennal pits located about 
the lower fifth of the eye; front narrowing towards the antennae, yellow, a 
brownish area across the lunule, a broad V-shape depression in the middle with 
the upper ends more golden; vertex, ocellar triangle and upper part of the 
face along the orbits dark brown and shining; numerous dark, bristly hairs 
on apical half of front; eyes cover nearly half the side of the head; occiput 
well developed, nearly as wide as the horizontal diameter of the eye, upper 
half of occiput black with numerous black hairs which extend down on the 
yellow of the lower half; a group of closely set brownish, bristly hairs on the 
occiput close to the junction of the neck; lower edge of head nearly straight, 
a broad ridge starting at the front and extending half way along the lower 
edge of the head. On this ridge are the whiskers, which are extremely long, 
curved backward, blackish bristles, very pale toward the apex, back of these 
bristles the beard is more like bristly hairs; on the front end of this ridge 
are located several bristles which are directed slightly forward; no distinct 
oral vibrissae in the male; back of this heavy beard, along the oral opening, 
are very numerous whitish hairs which are curly or crinkly at the apex. 
These bristly hairs are more numerous towards the front. 

Thorax shiny and nearly black with numerous short black hairs; on the 
dorsum is a broad stripe from the apex to the scutellum and a narrow area 
above the pleural suture, from humeral callus to the wing, white, pruinose; 
scutellum very faintly white pruinose; halteres white, brownish at base. 
Abdomen nearly black with numerous black hairs; first segment quite long, 
sides parallel, second and third segments much shorter than the first, but 
both widen considerably toward their apices; fourth segment nearly twice 
the length of the third and narrowing slightly at the apex; next segment 
globular, chitinous, and with a tuft of bristly hairs in the middle and at the 
apex; last segment globular with a heavy brush of large, dark brown bristles 
which are yellowish and crinkly at the apex. These bristles are about three 
times the length of the segment. Forceps reddish brown, points widely- 
separated. Venter has numerous, long, yellowish hairs on second and third 
segments. Near the apical corner of the lirst and second segments, on the 



128 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

ventral side, is a long, black bristle. Front coxa quite long and yellow; 
middle and hind coxae more normal and brownish, darker at the base. Legs 
yellow except front femora, apical half front tibiae, front tarsi, apical half 
hind femora, apical fourth of hind tibiae, and last two joints of hind tarsi, 
blackish brown. 




Ambopogon hyperboreus GREENE. Fig. i, male; Fig. 2, forceps from 
above. 



Front femora with numerous long, black bristles on the outside, more 
closely set towards the base ; front metatarsus straight, cylindrical and slightly 
longer than the four following joints; middle coxae each have a long, black, 
hook-like spine on the inside and a long black bristle in front of it; middle 
femora shorter than the first and much swollen on front side near the middle 
with numerous, short, spine-like bristles on this swollen part; middle tibiae 
with a row of heavy black spines on the upper side, spines longer near the 
middle; middle metatarsus noticeably bent, with numerous short black 
spines on under side, larger at base and on the upper side with a row, the en- 
tire length, of black hairs, longer, curved and much closer set towards the 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 129 

apex; hind femora long with a row of very long, brownish yellow, stout 
bristles, which are very pale yellow towards apex and the tips bent. This 
row is located close to the under side of the femur and behind this row are 
numerous yellow shorter bristles. Hind metatarsus long, slender and only 
slightly bent. 
Length 4.75 mm. 

Type Locality. Lat. 69-10 X, Long. 141 \V. 

One specimen. Aug. 14-17, 1912. J. M. Jessup, Collector. 

Type, male, Cat. No. 22322, United States National Museum. 



THE GENITALIA AND TERMINAL ABDOMINAL STRUCTURES OF 

MALES, AND THE TERMINAL ABDOMINAL STRUCTURES OF 

THE LARVAE OF "CHALASTOGASTROUS" HYMENOPTERA. 

BY G. C. CRAMPTON, PH.D., Mass. Agr. College. 

In a paper published in vol. 27, 1916, p. 303, of the Ent. 
News, the insects here discussed were classed as a distinct order 
called the Prohymenoptera, or sawfly group a more inclusive 
division than MacLeay's "Bomboptera," which, according to 
Ashmead, 1896, included only the "Uroceridae" (i. e., the Siri- 
cidae), the "tenthredinid" sawflies being placed with the Tri- 
choptera, by MacLeay, who restricted the designation "Hy- 
menoptera" to the forms with apodous larvae. Rohwer and 
Cushman, 1917, would divide the sawfly group into two sub- 
orders, the Chalastogastra (Konow, 1897) and the Idiogastra 
(Oryssidae), but these investigators are unwilling to admit the 
sawfly group as a distinct order, because they consider that the 
Idiogastra (i. e., the Oryssidae) are intermediate between the 
rest of the sawfly group and the higher Hymenoptera called 
Clistogastra 1 by Konow, 1897. If the existence of intermediate 
forms, however, were sufficient grounds for "lumping" two 
related orders into one "homogeneous" order, on exactly the same 
grounds, we would have to group the . Lepidoptera and Trichop- 
tera together as merely one order, since the lepidopterous family 
Micropterygidae is unquestionably intermediate between the 
Lepidoptera and the Trichoptera, and has even been removed 
from the Lepidoptera and placed as a suborder of the Trichop- 
tera by Comstock, 1918, in his recent book on the wing veins 
of insects! The non-participation of the first abdominal seg- 

1 The division of the Hymenoptera into Symphyta and Apocrita by 
Gerstaecker, 1867, is exactly the same as Konow'* division of the Hymenoptera 
into Chalastogastra and Clistogastra, which it antedates by thirty years. 



130 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

merit (propodeum) in the formation of the thorax, the board 
junction of the thorax and abdomen, the more primitive type 
of head, wing venation, nature of the termal abdominal struc- 
tures, etc., are sawfly features which would differentiate this 
group from the higher Hymenoptera almost as markedly as the 
Lepidoptera are differentiated from the Trichoptera; but the 
weight one would give to these differences is largely a matter of 
personal preference, and for the sake of convenience, the sawfly 
group has been referred to as a part of the order Hymenoptera, 
in the following discussion. 

Those who have figured the genitalia of male sawflies usually 
make no attempt to homologize the parts with those of other in- 
sects, or even with those of the higher Hymenoptera, and since 
the workers in related groups such as the Diptera, Lepidoptera, 
Trichoptera, Hemiptera, etc., use their own special terminology in 
each group, without regard to other related insects, or the lower 
forms, it has seemed preferable to attempt to apply to the parts 
of the genitalia of sawflies, the uniform terminology worked out 
for the genitalia of lower insects, and the Neuroptera, Mecop- 
tera, Trichoptera, Diptera, etc., in papers by Crampton, 19183 
and iQiSb. In this way, the true significance of the parts is 
brought out in the sawflies, whereas, to attempt to apply to the 
parts such meaningless terms as "cardo," "stipes" and "lacinia" 
(which have always been used for structures of the maxillae) or 
the term squama (usually employed to designate the proximal 
calypter at the base of the wing in Diptera, or the scale at the 
base of the abdomen in ants, etc.) used by some workers to desig- 
nate the parts of the genitalia of higher Hymenoptera, would be 
grossly inexact and very misleading. It would be fully as de- 
plorable to use the terms cardo, stipes, etc., for parts of the geni- 
talia, as it would be to employ the terms mentum, submentum, 
etc., in this connection, since the former terms have always been 
used for parts of the maxillae, and if anatomical terms in ento- 
mology are ever to have any exact meaning at all, as they do in 
vertebrate anatomy, such ignorant or slovenly usage of terms 
must be done away with, each term must be applied only to 
homologous structures throughout the orders of insects. 

No attempt has been made in the present paper to trace the 
modifications of the larval structures through the pupal to the 
adult stages, since the material requisite for such a study is not 
at present available although I am hoping to carry out such a 
study in the near future. It has seemed advisable, however, to 
include a brief discussion of certain of the structures present in 
the larval stages, since some of the interpretations of the parts 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 6, JUXE, 1919 131 

i 

by MacGillivray, 1913, would appear to need revising, and a com- 
parison with the structures of lower insects would permit the de- 
termining of their homologies with a fair degree of certainty. 
For the greater part of the material upon which the present 
study was based, and for many valuable suggestions, I am deeply 
indebted to the kindness of Mr. S. A. Rohwer, whose generous 
assistance has made this work possible. 

In referring to the different abdominal segments of the male, I 
would count them in the dorsal region, beginning with the basal 
abdominal tergum (which is usually demarked into two sym- 
metrical halves), since the sternal region of the first abdominal 
segment has become lost through atrophy, or through uniting 
with the hindermost segment of the thorax. The presence of 
the first abdominal spiracle in the basal segment of the abdomen 
will serve to differentiate it from the thoracic region, if there is 
any question as to its identity. For studying the union of the 
first abdominal segment (propodeum) with the thoracic region, 
Cephus offers an extremely interesting intermediate condition 
between the lower and higher types of Hymenoptera; but the dis- 
cussion of this region can be better taken up elsewhere. 

In most sawflies, the tergum or "tergite" of the eighth abdominal 
segment (sometimes referred to as the eighth "dorsal segment") 
is clearly evident as in Figs. 42, 46, 49, 50, 55, 56, etc., where it 
is labeled "S 4 ." In Oryssus (Fig. 42) and many other sawflies 
(Fig. 56) it overlaps the terga of the succeeding segments, and may 
be referred to as the "pseudopygidium." In Tremex (Fig. 49), 
however, the eighth tergum does not overlap the succeeding ones to 
any great extent. The sternum or sternite of the eighth seg- 
ment is labeled "8 s " in the above-mentioned figures. 

In some sawflies, such as Hemitaxonus, etc. (Figs. 50, 56, 57, 
etc.), the sternum or "sternite" of the eighth segment "8 s " is 
greatly reduced and becomes so narrow in the mesal region that 
it is almost divided into two lateral halves. This fact, and the 
partial overlapping of the eighth sternum by the sternum of the 
seventh segment, caused Newell, 1918, to disregard the true eighth 
sternum in her figures of a male sawfly (Dolerus) and to designate 
the true ninth sternum (labeled "ha" in all figures), incorrectly, 
as the eighth. If one examines a sawfly such as Tremex (Fig. 49), 
however, it is very easy to identify the tergites and sternites, 
since the eighth sternite "8 s " is large, and. the ninth tergite, or 
pygidium, "9*-," which in Tremex and most siricids is demarked 
into two halves by a convolution along the mid-dorsal line, is 
not overlapped to any great extent by the eighth tergite "8 l " 



132 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

and is clearly the corresponding dorsal region (tergite) of the 
ninth sternite "ha." 

The sternite "ha" (Figs. 46, 49, 55, 56, etc.), situated below 
the male genitalia has been referred to as the hypandrium in all 
insects (Cramp ton, 191 8 a and 191813), regardless of whether it 
represents of the sternum of the eighth, ninth, or other abdominal 
segment. It is incorrectly referred to as the hypopygium in 
some insects; but this term always refers to the entire male 
genitalia, etc., in Diptera, or to the plate immediately below the 
anus (i. e., the ventral plate of the terminal segment labeled "ep" 
in Fig. 55, etc.) in other insects, so that in order to avoid ambiguity, 
the more appropriate designation hypandrium has been retained 
in the present paper for the plate labeled "ha," situated below 
the male genitalia. 

The apparent tenth tergite labeled "ep" in Figs. 49, 54, etc., 
probably represents the united tenth and eleventh tergites of 
lower insects. It frequently bears the small appendages "c" 
homologous with the cerci (Figs. 46, 54, etc.) and is situated 
above the anal opening "a" of Figs. 46, 50, 54, etc. The region 
below the anal opening is sometimes chitinized to form a subanal 
plate or hypoproct, while the supraanal plate "ep" is referred to 
as the epiprocl, in lower insects. In the Mecoptera, the entire 
region through which the anus "a" opens, including the epi- 
proct "ep" (Fig. 50) and hypoproct, is called the anal pappilla 
or proctiger. 

The supraanal plate or epiproct "ep" of Fig. 54, tends to unite 
with the tergite of the ninth segment "9*;" and in many sawflies, 
both are overlapped by the eighth abdominal tergum. In Oryssus 
(Fig. 42) not only the ninth and tenth tergites, but the genitalia 
also are retracted beneath, and are completely concealed by, 
the tergum of the eighth (and the sternum of the ninth) abdominal 
segment. Except in a few cases, however, such as that of Oryssus, 
mentioned above, the male genitalia are at least partially visible 
from the exterior. 

The copulatory apparatus of the male, is typically composed 
of a basal ring, "gg" (Figs, i, 27, 41, etc.) which bears a pair of 
genital forceps or claspers, each of whose arms is composed of a 
basal segment "gb" and distal segment "eg" (Figs. 27, 41, etc.). 
A pair of copulatory ossicles "gl" becomes differentiated from the 
basal segments of the forceps "gb" (Figs. 14, 17, 40, etc.), and be- 
side them there usually occurs a larger sclerite "pal" which is 
also probably a demarked portion of the basal segments of the 
genital forceps. On the opposite side of the "genitalia" there some- 
times occurs a pair of processes "pa" (Figs, i, 2 3, etc.), which 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, xo. 6, juxE, i gig 133 

are usually located rather close to the penis valves "pv." The 
penis valves "pv" (Figs, i, 7, 13, 21, 26, 27, etc.) may constitute 
the true penis, but there is some reason for considering that they 
form a "pseudopenis" enclosing a delicate structure which repre- 
sents the true penis. The enclosed delicate structure, however, is 
so fragile and poorly preserved in the material available for study, 
that I am unable to determine whether it represents the true 
penis, or is merely the coagulated seminal fluid although from 
its rather constant form in the insects studied, I am inclined to 
regard it as a definite structure representing the penis of other 
insects. 

In the lower sawflies and siricid group (Figs. 19, 28, 53, etc.) 
and also in Xiphidria and Ceplnts (Figs. 20 and 21) which are 
closely related to the siricids, the copulatory ossicles "gl" and the 
sclerites "pal" are located on that side of the "genitalia" which 
is ventral when in situ, and this very probably represents the 
original condition of the parts. In certain other sawflies, how- 
ever, such as Cimbex (Fig. 14), Dolerus (Fig. 40), etc., the copula- 
tory apparatus as a whole has been turned over (revolving on its 
long axis) so that the copulatory ossicles "gl" and the sclerites 
"pal" which were formerly ventrally located, now come to lie 
on the dorsal surface of the copulatory apparatus when in situ. 
The "twisted" appearance of the membrane and muscles at the 
base, of the "genitalia" frequently gives evidence of this revolu- 
tion of the copulatory apparatus through 180 degrees (on its 
long axis), but there is no sign of a "torsion" in the chitinous 
plates themselves, since the copulatory apparatus revolves as a 
whole, and if one were not prepared to look for such a revolution 
of the "genitalia" by the analogous condition occurring in some 
Diptera, etc. (in which there is a similar "inverting" of the parts), 
it would be rather confusing in attempting to homologize the 
parts of the "genitalia" in those insects in which such a "torsion" 
occurs. Thus Newell, 1918, was apparently unaware that there 
has been such a torsion of the copulatory apparatus in Dolerns, 
and attempts to homologize parts originally or primitively dorsal 
in sawflies (and only secondarily ventrally located in Dolenis 
through a revolving of its copulatory apparatus through 180 
degrees) with parts which are always ventral in Lepisma, etc. ; 
and many of the interpretations of the parts, especially in Neurop- 
tera, Mecoptera, sawflies, etc., given by Newell, 1918, are not at 
all in accord with the conclusions I have reached from an ex- 
amination of a rather extensive series of these insects, and the 
lower forms. 

In attempting to intepret the parts of the "genitalia" of a saw- 



134 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

fly, it is a comparatively simple matter to determine the corre- 
spondence of the genital forceps of a primitive sawfly such as 
Megaxyela (Fig. 27, "gb" and "eg") with the forceps called 
gonopods (Crampton, I9i8b) in such primitive Mecoptera as 
Merope (Fig. 35, "gb" and "eg"). In some Mecoptera as in 
the one shown in Fig. 31, the basal segments of the genital for- 
ceps "gb" unite to form a basal region bearing the distal segments 
"eg" of the gonopods, or forceps, and in the same way, in some 
sawflies, as in the one shown in Fig. 9, the basal segments of the 
genital forceps "gb" unite to form a basal region bearing the distal 
segments "eg" of the gonopods or forceps. This interpretation 
of the parts seems so self-evident, that it is difficult to understand 
how Newell, 1918, comes to such a different conclusion as to the 
homologies of the parts, unless the wrong labels were attached 
to her figures, and her tables of sclerites and appendages were 
inadvertently placed under the names of the wrong insects in 
some cases. Thus in her figure of the genitalia of Dolerus, Newell 
would interpret the distal segment of the forceps "eg" of Fig. 39 
(of the present paper) as "appendage IV" homologous with the 
cerci of lower insects, although she correctly figures the cerci 
of a male Dolerus elsewhere. The median plates with their 
processes "pa" of Fig. 39, Newell would interpret as the homo- 
logues of the distal segments of the gonopods "eg" (Fig. 31) of 
the Mecoptera, while the basal region of the gonopods of the 
Mecoptera ("gb" of Fig. 31) are homologized with the basal 
ring "gg" of Dolerus (Fig. 39) by Newell, who regards the basal 
ring "gg" of Fig. 39 as the sternum of the ninth abdominal seg- 
ment in Dolerus, although it probably belongs to the tenth seg- 
ment instead (the true ninth sternite being the large plate "ha" 
of all figures), and it comes to have a ventral position in Dolerus 
only secondarily, through a revolution of the copulatory appara- 
tus about its long axis. The homologies proposed by Newell 
for the Neuroptera, and other forms, are also not in accord with 
the interpreptation of the parts given in a paper dealing with the 
gonopods of these insects, Mecoptera, etc. (Crampton, 19185), 
but it is not necessary to take up the discussion of the gonopods 
of these insects here. 

Berlese, 1909, interprets the basal segments of the forceps of 
Cimbex (Figs, i and 14, "gb") as the sternite of the tenth ab- 
dominal segment, although they are clearly the homologues of 
the basal segments of the gonopods of lower sawflies (Fig. 27, 
"gb"), Mecoptera (Figs. 35,31, "gb"), etc. The distal segments 
of the forceps (Figs, i and 14, "eg"), Berlese calls "stili" in Cimbex, 
and applies the same designation to the styli of ephemerids 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, X(). 6, JUNE, 1919 loo 

(Figs. 29, and 58, "s"). If one compares the unsegmented styli 
of the ephemerid shown in Fig. 29, "s" with the unsegmented 
forceps of the sawfly shown in Fig. 8, "eg," there is apparent a 
strong resemblance between the two, and the basal ring "gg" 
of the sawfly (Fig. 8) resembles the sternite labeled "ha" in the 
ephemerid (Fig. 29) quite markedly. This interpretation of 
the nature of the forceps has much to recommend it. On the 
other hand, there is a possibility that the so-called parameres 1 
of certain lower insects (Figs. 30, 34, etc., "pm") may be the 
forerunners of the genital forceps. 

Tracing the ontogenetic development of the parts from the 
immature to the adult stages is one method of determining the 
correct interpretation of the parts; but unfortunately this has 
not been done in the case of the Hymenoptera. Klapalek, 1903, 
however, states that the gonopods of adult Trichoptera (Fig. 52, 
"gb" and "eg") correspond to the hindermost abdominal legs or 
"postpedes" of the larvae (Fig. 43, "pp"), and if this be true, 
we have a basis for determining the homologies of the forceps 
of the Hymenoptera (Fig. 27, "gb" and "eg"), since these struc- 
tures are homologous with the gonopods of the Mecoptera and 
Trichoptera (Figs. 35 and 52, "gb" and "eg"), and must there- 
fore also correspond to the postpedes of the larvae (Fig. 43, "pp"). 
These postpedes or "anal prolegs" do not represent styli (ap- 
pendages of the basal segment of the leg in Apterygota) but are 
now considered to represent true abdominal legs by most recent 
embryologists, so that if the forceps represent "anal prolegs" or 
postpedes, they can hardly he homologized with the styli of 
ephemerids (Figs. 29 and 58, "s"). If the genital forceps are 

1 Wheeler, 1910, in his book on ants, designates the entire copulatory 
apparatus of the male, as the"parameres." Escherich, 1905, following other 
students of the Apterygota, and Burr, with all modern dermapterists, have 
used the designation "parameres" to denote the structures labeled "pm" 
in Figs. 30, 34, etc., and there seems to be no valid reason for attempting to 
change this widespread and generally accepted usage of the term among the 
workers on the Apterygota and Dermaptera, especially since the application 
of the term "parameres" to the entire copulatory apparatus of the male, 
has been employed by only one or two students of the ants. I suggested 
using the term phallus for the entire copulatory apparatus, as is done in 
lower insects; but since there might be some objection to this usage of a term 
which is made a synonym of the term penis in Smith's "Glossary," I have em- 
ployed the designations genitalia, genital apparatus, or copulatory apparatus 
for the parts of the male alone, in the present paper, since we already have 
the designations ovipositor, sting, etc., for the "genitalia" of the female. 
The designation "copulatoria" has also been suggested for the entire copula- 
tory apparatus of the male. 



136 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

modified styli, they might be called gonostyli to indicate their 
true nature; but for the purpose of this paper, it is sufficiently 
accurate to designate the forceps of male sawflies as the gono- 
pods, since this term is applied to homologous structures in the 
nearly related Mecoptera, Trichoptera, Neuroptera, etc. 

The penis valves "pv" of Figs, i, 27, 40, 41, etc , composing 
the central structure called the "penis," by students of the saw- 
fly group, may possibly represent the paired structures labeled 
"eu" in Fig. 29 of an ephemerid, or the structures labeled "pm" 
in Fig. 30, or in Fig. 34, may be homologous with the penis valves. 
Whatever their homologues in lower insects may be, the penis 
valves of sawflies ("pv" of Figs. 27, 41, etc.) appear to be homol- 
ogous with the penis valves of the Mecoptera, labeled "pv" in 
Figs. 35 and 31, and provisionally, at least, I would adopt this 
interpretation of these parts. It has been suggested that the 
penis valves may be homologous with the structure sometimes 
called the uncus in higher Hymenoptera, but since the penis 
valves do not form an "uncus," or hook, in the sawflies, and since 
they do not appear to be homologous with the structure to which 
the term uncus is usually applied in the Lepidoptera, I prefer to 
refer to them simply as the penis valves when they are distinct, 
or as the "penis," when they are united although a subsequent 
study of the sawflies may indicate that the true penis is a deli- 
cate structure enclosed within the penis valves. 

The copulatory ossicles "gl" (Figs. 40, 16, 14, etc.) of sawflies 
may possibly be homologous with the structures termed "sagittae" 
(a designation usually applied to the markings of the wings in 
Lepidoptera) in higher Hymenoptera, and I have therefore 
provisionally designated them as the "sagittae" in the present 
paper, although I have not as yet been able to obtain the inter- 
mediate forms to enable me to determine whether this is the cor- 
rect interpretation of these parts, or not; and the same is true 
of the parts which I have provisionally homologized with the so- 
called volsellae of higher Hymenoptera (i. e., the sclerite labeled 
"pal," in the different figures of sawfly genitalia). I had former-h- 
ref erred to the structures "gl" and "pal" as the "gonossiculi" 
and "parossiculi;" but rather than to introduce new terms for 
parts already supplied with appropriate designations, it is pre- 
ferable to apply the terms sagittae and volsellae to them pro- 
vissionally, until the necessary material is available to determine 
whether this interpretation is correct or not. The terms prae- 
putium and manubria have (in a few instances) been applied to 
the plates and processes labeled "pa" in the different figures of 
sawfly genitalia; but I prefer to refer to these structures simply 
as the parapenis plates and processes. The designation prae- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 6, JUXE, 1919 l.'u 

putium has come to have a definite and universally accepted 
meaning among the dermapterists, who apply this term to that 
portion of the penis within which the "glans" is retracted, and 
since the other application of the designation praeputium to the 
basal segments of the gonopods by a few of the workers on the 
sawfly group is not recognized as a valid usage in any glossary, 
textbook, or general work, I prefer to give the term praeputium 
its general and widely accepted application namely to restrict 
its application to the above-mentioned parts of the penes of the 
Dermaptera, for which it is unusually appropriate. Similarly, 
the designation "manubrium" cannot be applied to the parapenes 
"pa" (Fig. i), as is done by a few students of the sawfly group 
without creating unnecessary confusion, since the term manu- 
brium has come to have a definitely established and widely ac- 
cepted application to the base of the spring in Collembola, and 
any attempt to apply it to other structures, such as the projecting 
portion of the mesosternum of the Elateridae, or to the adbominal 
sterna of certain earwigs, etc., should be abandoned if we are 
ever to have any uniform terminology applicable to all of the 
orders of insects as students of wing-venation are attempting 
to establish. 

In a male of the roach Periplaneta americana (shown in Fig. 
77 of a paper by Crampton, 19183), it may be seen that the pair 
of appendages borne on the plate situated below the anus, are the 
styli, while the cerci are situated above the anal opening. Simi- 
larly, in the ephemerid shown in Fig. 58 of the present paper, the 
segmented appendages "s" borne on a plate situated below the 
anal opening are arthrostyles, or segmented styli, while the*cerci 
"c" are situated above the anal opening. Since the segmented 
appendages borne on the plate situated below the anal opening 
"a" of the larva of Neurotoma shown in Fig. 44 occupy a situa- 
tion similar to that of the segemented appendages "s" of the ephe- 
merid shown in Fig. 58, I would homologize the segmented ven- 
tral appendages of the Neurotoma larva ("s" of Fig. 44) with the 
arthrostyli or segmented styli "s" of the ephemerid shown in 
Fig. 58. On the other hand, the small cornicles labeled "c" in 
Figs. 43 and 47 of the larvae of Pteronidea and Treinex are located 
above the anal opening "a" and are probably homologous with 
the cerci "c" of lower insects (Fig. 58, etc.). MacGillivray, 1913, 
would call both the structures labeled "c" in Figs. 43 and 47, 
and those labeled "s" in Figs. 44 and 48, "anal cerci." That the 
two types of structures are not the same may be readily seen by 
comparing together the larva of Cephus and that of Trcmcx 
(Figs. 47 and 48). In both of these wood-boring larvae, as well 
as that of Sirex and similar forms, there occurs of postcornus 



138 PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

"pc" analogous to, if not actually homologous with, the similar 
posterior horn of the wood-boring larva of the Coleopteron 
Cupes, etc., although it is not exactly comparable to the caudal 
horn of the lepidopterous sphingid larvae. Above, and to one 
side of the post cornus, "pc," of Figs. 47 and 48, is a lateral caudal 
groove "Ig," and above the base of the postcornus is a dorso- 
median caudal groove "dg" exactly similar in both larvae; but 
in Tremex (Fig. 47) a pair of cornicles "c" probably homologous 
with the cerci (although the homologies of similar cornicles of 
coleopterous larvae with cerci of lower insects have been dis- 
puted) is situated near the end of the dorsomedian caudal groove 
"dg" not far from the base of the postcornus "pc," while in Cephus 
(Fig. 48) these cerci are lacking. On the other hand, the ventral 
plate "hy" situated below the anal opening "a" of Cephus (Fig. 
48), bears a pair of appendages labeled "s" which cannot be 
homologized with the cornicles "c" of the similar larva of Tremex 
(Fig. 47) since they do not occupy the same position in the two 
larvae with respect to such "landmarks" as the dorsomedian 
cuadal groove "dg," lateral groove "Ig," postcornus "pc," anal 
opening "a," and ventral region "hy," which are practically 
the same in both larvae (Figs. 47 and 48). The ventral append- 
ages "s" of the larva of Cephus (Fig. 48), however, occupy a simi- 
lar position with respect to the anal opening "a," ventral region 
"hy," etc., as the structures "s" of the larva of Neurotoma (Fig. 
44) do, and there can be little doubt that the structures labeled 
"s" are homologous in the two larvae shown in Figs. 48 and 44. 
If the cornicles "c" of the larva shown in Fig. 47 are cerci (the 
designation "anal" cerci is not necessary, since the term cerci 
alone sufficiently defines the structures in question), then the 
structures labeled "s" in Figs. 48 and 44 are not cerci, and it 
would be incorrect to designate them as such (as is done by Mac- 
Gillivray, 1913, who calls them all "anal cerci") and the term 
arthrostyli, or segmented styli should be applied to the append- 
ages "s" of Fig. 44, since they are apparently homologous with 
the arthrostyli "s" of the ephemerids, etc. (Fig. 58). 

The half English, half Latin designation "prolegs" is usually 
applied to the abdominal limbs of larvae; but if the terms prono- 
tum, procoxae, protarsus, etc., indicate structures of the pro- 
thorax, then the term "prolegs" should refer to the legs of the 
prothorax alone, and in the interest of exact usage the designa- 
tion uropoda (which according to Smith's "Glossary" refers to 
the abdominal legs in general) should be applied to the limbs 
of the urites as the abdominal segments are commonly called 
among entomologists. Most recent investigators now admit 
that the abdominal appendages in question represent the vestiges 
of true limbs, so that there can be no objection to calling them 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 139 

uropods, from this standpoint. The terminal abdominal limbs 
are here referred to as "postpedes," merely for the sake of con- 
venience in order to distinguish them from the other uropods. 

The postpedes "pp" of the larvae of Megaxyela (Fig. 51) and 
certain other sawflies, bear a pair of postcalli "pea," or posterior 
callus-like structures, whose function is unknown. It is possi- 
ble that the region labeled "pea" in the larva of Pteronidea (Fig. 
43) may correspond to the united structures "pea" of the Megaxyela 
larva; but I am not certain of this point. The relation of the 
appendages labeled "s" in Figs. 44 and 48, to the postpedes 
"pp" of Figs. 43 and 51 (or to the structure "pea" of the latter 
figures) is largely conjectural; but, since styli occur on the basal 
segments of the limbs of such forms as Scolopendrella, Machilis, 
etc., I hardly think that the styli "s" of larvae (Fig. 44, etc.) 
represent entire limbs (or their vestiges), but are rather limb 
appendages which have been retained, while the remainder of 
the limb which bore them has become atrophied or lost. It 
would be an extremely interesting bit of investigation to trace 
out the relationship of the larval appendages "pp" and "pea" 
of Fig. 51, or the appendages "s" of the larvae shown in Figs. 
44 and 48, to the genital forceps of the adult male; but I have not 
the necessary material, to determine which of these types of 
larval structures form the forceps of the adult male, and must 
therefore postpone attempting to determine this question until 
the requisite material is available. 

It would be encroaching upon the province of the specialist 
who has spent a lifetime in the study of a group of insects, to 
attempt to determine the interrelationships of the different 
members of his group, so that it is not the purpose of the present 
paper to speculate upon the interrelationships of the forms here 
discussed, since the study of the terminal structures alone can 
furnish but a portion of the evidence necessary for such a study. 
On the other hand, the study of the terminal structures can con- 
tribute its share of the evidences of relationship which must 
be drawn from all available sources and it may be of some in- 
terest to briefly call attention to some of the more patent evi- 
dences of relationship afforded by a study of the terminal struc- 
tures. 

Rohwer and Cushman, 1917, would place the Oryssidae in a 
distinct suborder which they call the Idiogastra, and a stud}' of 
the terminal structures would indicate that the Oryssidae differ 
markedly from the remainder of the sawfly group, the parts being 
extremely highly specialized, or modified, in these forms. The 
genitalia of a male of Oryssus sayii are not visible from the ex- 
terior (Fig. 42), and the terminal segments are withdrawn into 



140 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE), 1919 

the cavity formed by the eighth tergite "S 1 " and the ninth sternite 
"ha." Unfortunately, in removing the genitalia from the male 
Oryssus loaned me by Mr. Rohwer, I did not realize the extreme 
rarity of the males of these insects, and, due to the great diffi- 
culty of handling the smooth segments which offer no means of 
securing a firm hold with the forceps, my mind was so occupied 
with removing the genitali intact, that I neglected to note which 
side of the genital apparatus was uppermost when in situ. It 
is a comparatively simple matter to identify that surface primi- 
tively uppermost (i. e., not displaced by a torsion of the copula- 
tory apparatus) in other sawflies, by comparing together the sur- 
faces on which the copulatory ossicles ("gl," of all figures) are 
located; but in the case of Oryssus the parts of the genitalia 
(while suggestive of a relationship to Cephus, and also to Tremex) 
are so different from those of other sawflies that it has been im- 
possible to determine their homologies with any degree of ac- 
curacy, although if I knew which side of the genital apparatus 
is uppermost when in situ, it would greatly aid in determining 
the homologies of the parts. The central structure "pv" of Figs. 
37 and 38 evidently corresponds to the penis valves of other saw- 
flies ("pv" of all figures); but I am unable to determine whether 
the structure labeled "eg?" in Fig. 37 represents the copulatory 
ossicle "gl" of Figs. 26, etc., of other sawflies (which is a strong 
possibility), or the distal segment of the forceps "eg" of Figs. 
13 and 26, or even the region labeled "pal," although I am in- 
clined to interpret the structure in question in the manner indi- 
cated by the label. The structure labeled "pal?" in Figs. 37 
and 38 may represent the distal segment of the forceps labeled 
"eg" in other figures, or the structure labeled "pal" in other 
sawflies; but I am unable to determine which, from the material 
available to me at present. From the foregoing discussion, it is 
quite evident that the Oryssidae differ from other sawflies quite 
markedly in regard to the parts of their genitalia (which, as a 
rule, do not vary greatly in the sawfly group), as well as in other 
anatomical details, and the peculiar character of the genitalia 
and terminal segments of the Oryssidae might therefore be in- 
terpreted as lending weight to the view that they constitute a 
distinct suborder of the sawfly group. The importance one would 
ascribe to such a small and highly modified group, however, is 
largely a matter of personal preference. The lack of intermediate 
forms has made it impossible to determine the closest affinities 
of the oryssids among the members of the sawfly group, and the 
genitalia offer no evident indications of a close relationship to 
any of the forms here studied, although an examination of a wider 
range of sawflies, may be more productive of results. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

With regard to the affinities of the cephids and xiphydriids, 
Rohwer, 1915, has described a cephid genus Syntexis, which com- 
bined characters common to the Xiphydriidae and Cephidae, 
and he considers that the cephids are like the ancestors of the 
xiphydriids. I have not examined the genitalia of a male of 
Syntexis, to be able to state whether these structures would bear 
out Rohwer 's contention concerning the ancestral nature of the 
cephid group; but the genitalia and terminal abdominal segments 
of the cephids which I have been able to examine, would seem to 
indicate that the Xiphydriidae in general are less specialized 
than the Cephidae I have seen (compare Fig. 7 with Fig. 8), in 
so far as the copulatory apparatus is concerned; and the shape 
of the terminal segments of the male, is a little more like that 
of the primitive Xyelidae and "Lydidae," in the Xiphydriidae 
(Fig. 46), than in the Cephidae (Fig. 55), although the latter fact 
does not necessarily imply that the Xiphydriidae are more primi- 
tive in this respect. 

So far as the terminal abdominal segments are concerned, the 
great "breadth" (measured along the long axis of the insect's 
body) of the eighth abdominal sternite "8 s ," and the lengthening 
of the ninth sternite "ha" in Cephus (Fig. 55) are characters sug- 
gestive of the condition found in the siricids (Fig. 49), as is also 
true of the non-overlapping of the ninth and tenth tergites by 
the eighth tergite, in these insects. The lack of cerci in the siricid 
shown in Fig. 49 would have no bearing in such a comparison, 
since other siricids, such as Sir ex,' etc., have well developed cerci. 
The copulatory apparatus of Xiphydria (Fig. 20) is quite like 
that of Sirex (Fig. 53) on the primitively ventral side (i. e., on 
that side which is ventrally located in those insects in which a 
torsion of the genital apparatus does not occur) ; but the copula- 
tory apparatus of Cephus (Fig. 8) is more like that of Sirex (Fig. 
45) on the primitively dorsal side (save for the fact that the basal 
and terminal segments of the forceps have united to form an ap- 
parently single segment), and the wide collar-like character of 
the basal ring "gg" of Cephus (Fig. 8) is especially suggestive 
of the condition occurring in the siricid group (Figs. 45, 36 and 
37> "gg")- The terminal structures of the larvae (Figs. 47 and 
48) are strikingly similar in the Siricidae, Cephidae, and Xiphy- 
driidae, and it is quite possible that the Cephidae and Xiphy- 
driidae are more closely related to the siricid group than they are 
to the "tenthredinoid" sawflies. As far as the torsion of the 
genital apparatus is concerned, the Siricidae, Cephidae, Xiphy- 
driidae (Oryssidae?), Xyelidae, "Lydidae" (Megalodontidae?) 
etc., appear to belong to the "Orthandria," or group in which 
no torsion occurs, while all of the other forms I have examined 



142 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

belong to the "Strophandria," or sawflies which exhibit a torsion 
of the genital apparatus. The interpretation of these resem- 
blances, however, depends upon the character of other structures 
as well as the genitalia, and the condition here mentioned is 
referred to merely to indicate a line of investigation which might 
possibly lead to some interesting results in connection with the 
study of other structures in addition to the terminal ones. 

In all of the siricids which I have been able to examine, there 
are small spine-like projections near the tip of the copulatory 
ossicles "gl" of Fig. 53. Similar ossicular spines occur on the 
region labeled "gl" in Tremex (Fig. 36), and I would therefore 
interpret this region as the homologue of the copulatory ossicles 
(i. e., the region "gl" of Fig. 36), although it is not demarked 
from the sclerite "pal" (Fig. 36). 

The copulatory ossicles "gl" are small in most of the lower 
sawflies (Figs. 32, 33, 28, etc., and in Megaxyela (Fig. 28) they, 
and the region "pal," have become folded inward, and come to 
lie on the mesal surface of the base of the forceps "gb," making 
it very difficult to detect them in this hidden location. This con- 
dition may have been due to a shrinking of the parts in the dried 
specimen of Megaxyela which I examined; but since I was able to 
study only one representative of these rare insects (males of 
which are extremely scarce), I am unable to state whether this 
condition would occur in "normal" specimens, or those not 
shrunken by drying, although I suspect that this infolding would 
not occur in fresh material. 

The processes labeled "pa" in Figs, i, 2 and 3, and the plates 
labeled "pa" in Figs. 4 and 5, do not occur in those xyelids, 
"lydids" (pamphilids) , xiphydriids, cephids and siricids I have ex- 
amined, and appear to be a modification developed in the "twisted 
genitalia" group alone, although they are not developed in all 
the members of this group. Even in the comparatively highly 
modified genitalia of such forms as Cephus (Fig. 8) among the 
"non-torsion" group there is no marked tendency for the basal 
segments of the forceps "gb" to unite; but in the members of the 
"torsion group shown in Figs. 10, 12, 13, etc., the basal segments 
of the forceps "gb" become rather closely approximated, and in 
such forms as Perga (Fig. 9) there is a marked tendency for these 
basal segments "gb" to unite, and I should be inclined to interpret 
such a union as representing a rather high degree of specializa- 
tion or departure from the primitive condition. 

The "gonocondyle" labeled "b" in Figs, i, 14, 24, etc., appears 
to be better developed and more elongate in the "torsion" group 
of sawflies (i. e., those in which a torsion of the copulatory ap- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 143 

paratus occurs) ; but I doubt that this feature will be found to 
hold good in attempting to differentiate between the two types, 
if the torsion of the genital apparatus should prove to have any 
meaning from the standpoint of the study of the interrelationships 
of the members of the sawfly group or their mating habits. This, 
and similar question of the affinities of the sawflies can best be 
taken up by specialists in these groups, or by those having ac- 
cess to a wide range of types, so that the present paper is intended 
merely to furnish a basis for the more intensive study of the 
different types of genitalia and terminal structures present in 
the sawfly group, and to attempt to determine the meaning and 
homologies of the parts met with in the terminal structures of 
these insects. 

Mr. S. A. Rohwer has made a preliminary study of the genital 
apparatus of the males of sawflies based largely upon the genitalia 
of Tremex, and he has very kindly permitted me to include in 
the present paper his table of the parts of the genitalia (for which 
he has adopted the terminology employed by other workers in 
this group) in order that the different views as to the homologies 
of the parts may be here discussed, in an effort to determine the 
correct interpretation of the parts, and the designations which 
should be applied to them. Mr. Rohwer's views of the nature 
of the genital apparatus, which he considers to be made up of 
three parts, are briefly set forth in the following table: 



Third Gonapophyses Forcipes 



Cochlearium (Claspers of authors, 
aussere Haltezange of 



(Outer pair of appendages Enslin, 1912) 



Of the ninth sternite) 



Stipes 



Cardo 

First Gonapophyses Praeputium I Sagittae of authors, ( Praeputium 

(Paired appendages of the < innere Haltezang 

eighth sternite) [ of Enslin, 1912 [ Manubria 

Second Gonapophyses Penis 

(Inner pair of appendages 
of the ninth sternite) 

Mr. Rohwer informs me that Hartig, 1837, applies the term 
"manubria" to the processes labeled "pa" in Fig. i ; while the 
basal portion of these processes (i. e., the plates labeled "pa" in 
Figs. 4, 5, etc.), together with the copulatory ossicles "gl" of 
Fig. 14, and the sclerites labeled "pal" in Fig. 14, constitute the 
structures designated as the "praeputium" by Rohwer, 1912 (pp. 
215-217). The "third gonapophyses" or "forcipes" mentioned 
in the table given above, are the gonopods "gb" and "eg" of the 



144 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

present paper, together with the basal ring "gg," which is the 
"cardo" mentioned in the table. The "stipes" is the basal seg- 
ment "gb" of the gonopods, and the "cochlearium" is the distal 
segment "eg" of the gonopods. The "penis" mentioned in the 
table as composed of the "second gonapophyses," is represented 
by the penis valves "pv" of the present paper, and the "first 
gonapophyses," which constitute the "praeputium" according 
to Rohwer, are made up of the structures labeled "gl," "pal" 
arid "pa" in the figures of the present paper. 

While it is quite possible that the foregoing table may repre- 
sent the actual meaning and relationships of the parts of the 
genitalia to one another, I do not find myself entirely in accord 
with all of the interpretations Mr. Rohwer has given them. 
The gonopods or forceps may or may not be the appendages of 
the ninth, or even of the tenth segment; but one can not deter- 
mine this point with any degree of certainty until the develop- 
ment of these structures has been traced through the larval to 
the adult stages. Furthermore, I would not interpret the "cardo" 
or basal ring "gg" (of all figures) as a part of the forceps proper, 
but rather as a basal plate which bears the forceps, and which 
may possibly represent the sternal region of the tenth or other 
abdominal segment, although, as stated above, this question can 
be best settled by making a study of the ontogenetic development 
of the parts in question. 

The sclerites referred to as the "praeputium" in the table, 
to my mind are merely detached basal portions of the forceps, 
and therefore would not belong to part of a segment which does 
not bear the forceps. As far as the "penis" is concerned, I am 
inclined to consider that it does not belong to the same segment 
as that bearing the forceps, since the penis rods ("pr" of all figures) 
extend forward to the segment in front of the basal ring of the 
forceps; but here again, I would not care to give any definite 
opinion on the subject, until the ontogenetic development of the 
parts in question has been worked out; and reference to the sup- 
posed "segments to which the different parts of the copulatory 
apparatus belong has been purposely omitted from the appended 
table of the parts according to the interpretation here given. 

The choice of Hartig's term "praeputium" is, to my mind, a 
rather unfortunate one, if there is to be any uniformity of applica- 
tion of terms used in the comparative anatomy of all insects, 
since the designation praeputium has been universally used by 
students of the earwig or Dermapteron group (e. g., Zacher, and 
others included in the list of papers dealing with the genitalia of 
males of Dermaptera given in the bibliography of a paper on the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 145 

genitalia of male insects by Cramp ton, 19183, page 63) to refer 
to the structure labeled "eu" in Fig. 34 of the Dermapteron 
figured in the present paper, and the application of the term 
praeputium should be restricted to structures homologous with 
those labeled "eu" in the figure of the Dermapteron (Fig. 34) in 
all insects. Smith, 1906, (Explanation of Terms Used in Ento- 
mology), defines the praeputium as "the external membranous 
covering of the penis; specifically a spherical muscular mass at 
the base of the penis in some Orthoptera," and, as so defined, the 
structures in question cannot be called the praeputium in saw- 
flies, if the term is to have a general application. Similarly, the 
designation "manubrium" cannot be used for the processes 
labeled "pa" in Fig. i, without creating confusion, since the term 
manubrium is applied to a ventral plate of the abdominal region 
in Dermaptera, to the anterior projecting portion of the mesoster- 
num of elaterid beetles, and to the base of the spring in Collem- 
bola (a usage accepted by most entomologists), thus making it 
far preferable to use some other term for the structures in ques- 
tion in the sawflies, if we are to avoid confusion in the established 
application of the term manubrium. 

While the designation genital forceps is extremely appropriate 
for the gonopods, the same term is applied to the forceps-like 
cerci (which are not homologous with the gonopods) in the Dermap- 
tera, and since the gonopods of sawflies are not homologous with 
the cerci of Dermaptera, but are possibly homologous with the 
structures near the penis in these insects, it is preferable to em- 
ploy the term gonopods for the genital forceps of sawflies, since 
they clearly correspond to the structures called gonopods in 
Mecoptera, Trichoptera, Neuroptera, etc. 

The term "cochlearium" (which I take to be the Latin word 
meaning "a spoon"), while very appropriate for the spoon-like 
or shell-like terminal segment of the gonopods of sawflies, is 
hardly suitable for the slender, claw-like terminal segment of 
the gonopods of Mecoptera, etc., which is nothing like a spoon, 
and since the term harpes has been universally applied to the 
terminal segments of the gonopods in Lepidoptera, it has seemed 
preferable to retain the designation harpes for the terminal seg- 
ments of the gonopods of insects in general. The use of the terms 
cardo and stipes for the basal ring and the basal segment of the 
gonopods is greatly to be deplored, since the designations cardo 
and stipes have always been applied to sclerites of the maxillae, 
and if we are ever to have a uniform application of terms in ento- 
mology (as is insisted upon in vertebrate anatomyj, such inde- 
scriminate usages must be abandoned. On this account, in place 
of the designations cardo, stipes (pleural "stipites"), and lacinia as 



146 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

applied to the parts of the genitalia, I have substituted the designa- 
tions gonocardo, and gonostipes, and have retained the alternate 
term volsella (in place of lacinia). It should be borne in mind, 
however, that the designation "stipes" is usually applied to the 
entire arm of the "outer forceps" (i. e., the gonopods) in higher 
Hymenoptera, instead of being restricted to the basal segment of 
the arm of the "outer forceps," as is the case with the designation 
"gonostipes." 

The term sagittae is a very appropriate one for the copulatory 
ossicles "gl," and I have provisionally adopted this designation 
for these ossicles, in the present paper, although a subsequent 
study, with material not at present available to me, may indicate 
that these ossicles are not homologous with the sagittae of higher 
Hymenoptera. They were called "gonossiculi" in a former paper. 
In Mr. Rohwer's table, both the ossicles "gl," and the sclerites 
"pal" are grouped under the designation sagittae, and Enslin, 
1912, in his Fig. 15 of the genitalia of Sir ex, considers them as 
merely parts of the "innere Haltezang" (or inner forceps). The 
two, however, are distinct structures, and I have therefore re- 
stricted the designation sagittae to the ossicles "gl" alone, and I 
have designated the sclerites "pal" (all figures) as the "volsellae," 
provisionally homologizing them with the parts called volsellae 
or "laciniae" in higher Hymenoptera, although subsequent in- 
vestigations may indicate that this interpretation is not entirely 
correct. The sclerites "pal" were formerly termed the "parossi- 
culi." 

The term "penis" has been retained for the structure formed 
by the penis valves "pv," in the present paper, since this term is 
applied to the median structure in higher Hymenoptera as well; 
although I am not certain that what Mr. Rohwer designates as 
the penis in sawflies is really the penis, or a sheath enclosing the 
true penis. The material at present available, however, is not 
sufficiently well preserved to determine whether the delicate 
structure occurring within the penis valves of many sawflies is a 
true penis, or merely the coagulated seminal fluid, and until this 
point has been definitely determined, I have provisionally ac- 
cepted Mr. Rohwer's interpretation of the structure formed by 
the penis valves, as the penis. 

The following table will serve to briefly summarize the views 
here expressed regarding the conpositiom of the genital apparatus 
of male sawflies, and the terms applied to its parts. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 147 





Gonocardo, "gg"....Gonocondyle, "b," 




or basal ring or basal "condyle." 






Harpes, "eg," 






or distal segments 






of gonopods. 








"Sagittae," "gl," 


Genitalia < 


Gonopods, "eg" 




or copulatory 


Copulatory or 


and "gb" 


. 


ossicles. 


genital appar- 


claspers, or 






atus of male 


genital forceps 


Gonostipes, "gb" 


"Volsellae,""pal," 


sawflies. 




or basal seg- 


or copulatory 






ment of gono- 


sclerites. 






pods. 










Parapenes, "Pa." 




Penisvalvae, "pv," Penis Rods, "pr" 


plates of pro- 




or valves compos- 


cesses on either 




ing "penis." 


side of "penis." 



The following comparison may be of some aid in interpreting 
the parts here described, in terms of the table given by Mr. 
Rohwer: 

I Gonopods, "eu" and "gb" Forcipes (Third gonophyses). 

(1) Harpes, "eu" Cochlearia. 

(2) Gonostipes, "gb" Stipes. 

a. Parapenes, "pa" Praeputium (Manubria). 

b. Sagittae, "gl" Praeputium. 

c. Volsellae, "pal" Praeputium. 

II. Gonocardo, "gg" Cardo. 

III. Penisvalvae, or Penis, "pv" Second gonopophyses, penis. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1896 Ashmead. Phylogeny of Hymenoptera. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, 

3> P- 323- 

1909 Berlese. Gli Insetti. 
I9i8a Crampton. Terminal Adbominal Structure and Genitalia of Male 

Apterygota, and Lower Pterygota. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., 13, p. . 

49- 
I9i8b Crampton. Genitalia and Terminal Abdominal Structures of Male 

Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Psocidae, Diptera, Trichoptera, etc. 

Psyche, 25, p. 47. 
1912 Enslin. Tcnthrcdinoidea Mitteleuropas. Deuts. Ent. Zeitsch., Jg. 

1912, Beiheft, p. i. 

1867 Gerstaecker. Gattung Oxybelus. Arch. Xaturg., 20. 
1837 Hartig. Familien der Blattwespen und Holzwespen. 



148 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

1903 Klapalek. Genitalsegmente und Anhaenge bei Trichopteren. Bull, 
internal. Acad. Sci. Boheme, 8, p. i. 

1897 Konow. Systematik der Hymenopteren. Ent. Nachr., 1897, p. 148. 

1913 MacGillivray. . Immature Stages of Tenthredinidae. 44 Ann. Rpt. 
Ent. Soc. Ontario, p. 54. 

1918 Newell. Comparative Morphology of Genitalia of Insects. Ann. Ent. 
Soc. America, u, p. 109. 

1912 Rohwer. Notes on Sawflies: Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 43, p. 205. 

1915 Rohwer. Remarkable Genus of Cephidae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washing- 
ton, 17, p. 114. 

1917 Rohwer and Cushman. Idiogastra, New Suborder of Hymenoptera. 
Ibid., 19, p. 89. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

a Location of anal opening. 

b Process of basal ring (gonocondyle). 

c Cerci. 

dg Dorsomedian caudal groove. 

eg Harpes, or distal segments of the genital forceps, also termed cochlearia. 

ep Epiproct, or tergite located above anal opening, regardless of segment 

it represents, or number of segments composing it. 
eu Eupenes, or parts of true penis, 
gb Gonostipes, or basal segment of genital forceps (incorrectly called 

stipes; . 
gg Gonocardo, or basal ring of copulatory apparatus (incorrectly called 

cardo). 

gl Copulatory ossicles probably homologous with sagittae of higher Hy- 
menoptera. 

gm Gonomaculae, or sensory areas, 
h Hernitergite. 
ha Hypandrium, or sternite located below male genitalia, regardless of 

segment to which it belongs. 
hy Hypoproct, or sternite below anal opening, regardless of segment it 

represents, or number of primitive segments composing it. 
Ig Lateral caudal grooves, 
mp Median plate. 

p Male genitalia, genital or copulatory apparatus ("copulatoria"). 
pa Parapenes or parapenis plates, also called praeputium and manubria. 
pal Probably the volsellae of higher Hymenoptera, (also incorrectly called 

laciniae). 

par Paraprocts, or plates on either side of anus, 
pc Postcornus, or caudal horn above anal opening in many wood-boring 

forms. 

pea Postcalli, or Callus-like structures above "anal prolegs." 
pm Parameres, or structures on either side of true penis. 
po Puppis, or caudal prolongation of hypandrium. 
pp Postpedcs, or "anal prolegs." 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUXE, 1919 149 

pr Penis rods. 

pv Penisvlavae, or penis valves which unite to form the so-called penis. 

Styli, or arthrostyli (segmented styli). 
t Telonlum, or median terminal filament, 
v Virga, or chitinized terminal portion of ejaculatory duct. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

The designation "ossicular surface," refers to that surface of the copula- 
tory apparatus which bears the copulatory ossicles "gl" of all figures. The 
designation "abossicular surface," refers to that surface of the copulatory 
apparatus on the side opposite the ossicular surface. The designation "(prim- 
itively) ventral," refers to that surface of the genital apparatus which was 
originally ventrally located in the primitive sawflies, and has remained so 
in the insect in question. The designation "(secondarily) ventral" denotes 
that surface of the copulatory apparatus which was originally dorsal in the 
primitive sawflies, but, in the insect in question, has come to occupy a ventral 
position through a revolution of the copulatory apparatus on its long axis, 
through 1 80 degrees. 

Mr. S. A. Rohwer has identified the specimens and has furnished most of 
the material used in the preparation of this paper. All figures except those 
of larvae are of male insects. 

Fig. i. Genitaliaof Cimbex americana, var. luctifera, Klug, abossicular sur- 
face (secondarily ventral). 

Fig. 2. Genitalia of Polyselandria flavipes (Nort.), -abossicular surface 
(secondarily), ventral. 

Fig. 3. Genitalia of Pteronidea ventralis (Say), abossicular surface (sec- 
ondarily) ventral? 1 

Fig. 4. Genitalia of Tenthredella verticalis (Say), -abossicular surface, 
(secondarily) ventral. 

Fig. 5. Genitalia of Hemitaxonus dubitatus (Nort.), abossicular surface 
(secondarily) ventral. 

Fig. 6. Genitalia of Cephaleia fascipennis (Cress.), abossicular surface 
primitively) dorsal. 

Fig. 7. Genitalia of Xiphydria mellipes (Say), abossicular surface (primi- 
tively) dorsal. 

Fig. 8. Genitalia of Cephus cinctus (Nort.), abossicular surface (primi- 
tively) dorsal. 

Fig. 9. Genitalia of Perga dorsalis (Leach), abossicular surface (second- 
arily) ventral? 

Fig. 10. Genitalia of Eriocampoides amygdalina (Rohwer) (paratype), 
abossicular surface (secondarily), ventral? 

1 The question mark following the designation of the surface of the 
copulatory apparatus figured, indicates that the genitalia were removed from 
the insect before it came into my hands, and the designation dorsal or ventral 
is purely conjectural. 



150 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

Fig. ii. Genitalia of Zachizonyx montana (Cress.), abossicular surface (sec- 
ondarily), ventral? 

Fig. 12. Gentialia of Philomastix naucarrowi (Froggatt), abossicular sur- 
face (secondarily), ventral? 

Fig. 13. Genitalia of Pterygophorus cinctus (Klug), abossicular surface 
secondarily), ventral? 

Fig. 14. Genitalia of Cimbex americana, var. luctifera (Klug), ossicular 
surface (secondarily), dorsal. 

Fig. i5. 2 Genitalia of Polyselandria flavipes (Nort.), ossicular surface (sec- 
ondarily), dorsal. 

Fig. 16. Genitalia of Pteronidea ventralis (Say), ossicular surface (second- 
arily), dorsal? 

Fig. 17. Genitalia of Tenthredella verticalis (Say), ossicular surface (sec- 
ondarily) dorsal. 

Fig. 18. Genitalia of Hemitaxonus dubitatus (Nort.), ossicular surface (sec- 
ondarily) dorsal. 

Fig. 19. Genitalia of Cephaleia fascipennis (Cress.), ossicular surface 
(primitively) ventral. 

Fig. 20. Genitalia of Xiphydria mellipes (Say), ossicular surface (primi- 
tively) ventral. 

Fig. 21. Genitilia of Cephus cinctus (Nort.), ossicular surface (primitively) 
ventral. 

Fig. 22. Genitalia of Perga dorsalis (Leach), ossicular surface (secondarily) 
dorsal. 

Fig 23. Genitalia of Eriocampoides amygdalina, Rohwer (paratype) ossicu- 
lar surface (secondarily), dorsal? 

Fig. 24. Genitalia of Zachizonyx montana (Cress.), ossicular surface, (sec- 
darily) dorsal? 

Fig. 25. Genitalia of Philomastix naucarrowi (Froggatt), ossicular surface, 
(secondarily) dorsal? 

Fig. 26. Genitalia of Pterygophorus cinctus (Klug), ossicular surface, (sec- 
darily) dorsal? 

Fig. 27. Genitalia of Megaxyela aenea (Nort.), abossicular surface, (primi- 
tively) dorsal. 

Fig. 28. Genitalia of Megaxyela aenea (Nort.), ossicular surface, (primi- 
tively) ventral. 

Fig. 29. Styli and genitalia of ephemerid Blastunis cupidus, male, ventral 
view. 

Fig. 30. Parameres and penis of apterygotan (Machilis polypoda, male, 
ventral view (after Crampton, igiSa). 

Fig. 31. Terminal segments and gonopods of Mecopteron Xannochorista 
dipteroides, male, dorsal view (from Crampton, 191 8b, after 
Tillyard). 

- The upper right hand label "pa" in Fig. 15 should read "pal." 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 6, JUNE, IQIQ 



Fig. 32. Genitalia of Cephaleia frontalis (Westw.), -ossicular surface (primi- 

tively) ventral. 
Fig. 33. Genitalia of Pamphilius persicus (MacG.), ossicular surface 

(primitively) ventral? 
Fig. 34. Genitalia of Dermapteron (Euplexopteron) Echinosoma occidental*, 

ventral view. 
Fig- 35- Terminal segments and gonopods of Mecopteron Merope tuber, 

male, dorsal view (after Crampton, 19180). 
Fig. 36. Genitalia of Tremex columba (Linn.), ossicular surface, (primi- 

tively) ventral. 
Fig. 37. Genitalia of Oryssus sayii (Westw.), abossicular surface? (primi- 

tively) dorsal? 
Fig. 38. Genitalia of Oryssus sayii (Westw.), ossicular surface? (primi- 

tively) ventral? 
Fig. 39. Genitalia of Dolerus collaris (Say), abossicular surface, (second- 

arily) ventral. 
Fig. 40. Genitalia of Dolerus collaris (Say), ossicular surface, (secondarily) 

dorsal. 
Fig. 41. Genitalia of Tremex columba (Linn.), abossicular surface, (primi- 

tively) dorsal. 

Fig. 42. Terminal structures of Oryssus sayii (Westw.), male, lateral view. 
Fig. 43. Terminal structures of larva of Pteronidea, lateral view. 
Fig. 44. Terminal structures of larva of Neurotoma, lateral view. 
Fig. 45. Genitalia of Sirex edwardsii abossicular surface (primitively) 

dorsal. 
Fig. 46. Terminal structures of Xiphydria mellipes (Say), male, lateral 

view. 
Fig. 47. Terminal structures of larva of Tremex columba (Linn.), lateral 

view. 

Fig. 48. Terminal structures of larva of Cephus, lateral view. 
Fig. 49. Terminal structures of Tremex columba (Linn.), male, lateral view. 
Fig. 50. Terminal structures of Hemitaxonus dubitatus (Nort.), male, lateral 

view. 

Fig. 51. Terminal structures of larva of Megaxyela, lateral view. 
Fig. 52. Terminal structures of Trichopteron Philopotamus sp., male, 

lateral view. 
Fig. 53. Genitalia of Sirex edwardsii ossicular surface (primitively) ven- 

tral. 

Fig. 54. Terminal segments, dorsal view, Xiphidria mellipes, Say. 
Fig- 55- Terminal structures of Cephus cinctus (Nort.), male, lateral view. 
Fig. 56. Terminal structures of Megaxyela aenea (Nort.), male, lateral view. 
Fig. 57. Terminal ventral segments of Megaxyela aenea (Nort.), male. 
Fig. 58. Terminal structures of ephemerid Heptagenia inter punctate, male, 

lateral view (after Crampton, 



PLATE 9 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 




CRAMPTON CHALASTOGASTROUS GENITALIA 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 



PLATE 1" 




CRAMPTOX CHALASTOGASTROUS GEXITALIA 



PLATE 1 1 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 




CRAMPTON CHALASTOGASTROUS GENITALIA 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 



I'l.ATK 12 




URAMPTOX CHALASTOGASTROUS C.IIXITAI.IA 



156 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, XO. 6, JUNE, 1919 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW CYNIPOID FROM TRINIDAD. 

BY S. A. ROHWER, Bureau of Entomology. 
Diglyphosema anastrephae, new species. 

In Dalla Torre and Kieffer (1910 Das Tier. p. 245), this species 
runs best to Diglyphosema flavipes Ashmead, but there are many 
differences from that species. The wings are bare and the sculp- 
ture of the scutellum is different. There is some doubt in my mind 
as to the generic position, but in structure it is similar to Jiavipes 
Ashmead. 

Female. Length, 2 mm. Length of antennae, 2 mm. Head polished 
without sculpture; face with two impressed, slightly diverging, lines above 
the cypeus; inner margins of the eyes evenly rounded so they are closest 
together a short distance below the antennae; lateral ocelli placed on sides 
of elevations so they look laterally; postocellar line subequal with ocellocular 
line; seen from above the posterior orbits sharply converge and then become 
parallel; seen from the side the posterior margin of the head is angulate 
a short distance below the top of the eyes; antennae 13-jointed; scape and 
pedicellum of subequal length; third joint longer than fourth or fifth and 
about one-fourth shorter than the scape and pedicellum combined; joints 
beyond the fourth strongly moniliform and striate, the apical joints wider 
than the basal joints; apical joint one-fifth longer than the preceding; pro- 
notum truncate anteriorly and carinate, lateral angles dentate and with 
two dorsal teeth medianly; mesonotum polished; basin of scutellum rather 
large nearly circular in outline; scutellum carinate laterally, the lateral 
carinae extended so the apex is subdentate; dorsal surface of scutellum with 
radiating rugae from the raised basin; posterior face of scutellum reticulate; 
propodeum seen from behind hexagonal, shining with dense hairs medianly; 
mesopleurae polished ; anterior margin of second abdominal segment trun- 
cate, foveolate laterally ; wings bare; venation weak, apical abscissa of subcosta 
present but not attaining margin of wing. Black; mandibles and legs (except 
infuscate hind femora) rufous; wings hyaline. 

Male. Length 1.75 mm. Length of antennae 2 mm. Agrees well with 
female; antennae 15-jointed, flagellum strongly moniliform and striate, the 
median joints somewhat compressed. 

Type locality. Trinidad, B. W. I. Described from five fe- 
males (one type) and one male reared in June and July, 1917, 
from Anastrepha sp. by F. W. Urich and recorded under his 
numbers F-I3 and F-i6. 

Type. Cat. No. 22029, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

If the base of the abdomen can be said to have a hair ring 
(there is a hair band laterally but it is not complete) this species 
will go to Lytosema Kieffer. 



Actual Date of Publication, June 18, 1919. 



VOL. 21 OCTOBER 1919 No. 7 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

GAHAN, A. B. DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVEN NEW SPECIES OF OPIUS (HYMENOP- 

TERA BRACONIDAE) 161 

HERBERT, FRANK B. A NEW SPECIES OF MATSUCOCCUS FROM PINES IN 

CALIFORNIA (HEMIP.-HOMOP.) 157 

TAKAHASHI, RYOICHI NOTES ON SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDAE 173 

WICKHAM, H. F. SCAPHINOTUS (PSEUDONOMARETUS) MANNII N. SP. 

(COLEOPTERA CARABIDAE) 170 



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VOL. 21 OCTOBER, 1919 No. 7 



A NEW SPECIES OF MATSUCOCCUS FROM PINES IN 
CALIFORNIA (HEMIP.-HOMOP.). 

BY FRANK B. HERBERT, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 
Coccidae Subfamily Margarodinae. 

Matsucoccus fasciculensis, new species. 

Adult Female. 3 to 3.5 mm. long and 1 to 1.4 mm. broad, elongate oval 
somewhat narrowed anteriorly (Plate 14, H.). In life the insect is of a 
brownish color, with margin of abdomen and appendages tinged with yellow. 
The derm is rough or crinkled. Antennae are transversely striate, nine- 
segmented, bases approximate. The first segment is large, slightly longer 
than broad, 2nd nearly as broad but much shorter, the remaining segments 
becoming successively more slender, each being widest near the outer end. 
Each segment bears three or more slender spines, segments 5 to 9 each also 
bear two heavier spines (Plate 14, C.). Legs are moderately large, trans- 
versely striated, the tarsus attached at the apex of the tibia and strongly 
curved outward. Trochanter bears one long spine, the femur, tibia and 
tarsus each bear a number of small spines. There are no digitules borne 
on the tip of the tibia as in the genus Kuwania but instead the tarsus bears 
two hair-like digitules and the tarsal claw two knobbed digitules (Plate 14, 
D.). Eyes are present, mouthparts sometimes present. There are seven 
abdominal and two thoracic pairs of spiracles from each of which 8 or more 
tracheae arise (Plate 14, G.). The dorsum of the abdomen bears transverse 
rows of large, simple pores (Plate 14, F.), while both the dorsum and the 
venter bear internal ducts, which, viewed from above, have the appearance 
of 8-shaped pores (Plate 14, E-). Small spines are present on both the dor- 
sum and venter. Without a marsupium. Anal tube absent, anal ring not 
discernible. 

Larva, first stage. Body is oval, acute at both ends (Plate 13, E.). An- 
tennae are approximate, 7-segmented, segment 1 is large and broad, 2, 4 and 
6 are long, 3 and 5 are short, 7 is medium, segment 2 bears 3 long spines and 4 
and 6 each bear 2 broad stiff spines, 7 bears 4 long spines on its tip (Plate 13, D.). 
The legs are rather small, the femur broad, the tibia and tarsus slender, the 
latter bearing two knobbed digitules (Plate 13, C.). The trochanter bjars 
one slender spine. Segmentation of the abdomen is distinct. There are 

157 



PLATE 13 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 








F 



HERBERT MATSUCOCCUS FASCICULENvSIS 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 



PLATIi 14 




HERBERT MATSUCOCCUS FASCICULENSIS 



160 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

seven pairs of abdominal spiracles, resembling a row of buttons on each 
side of the abdomen, with smaller button-like processes alternating between 
them (Plate 13, B.). There are also two pairs of thoracic spiracles. The tip 
of the abdomen is truncate, bearing a long slender seta on each side. The 
derm, especially of the abdomen, is lineate. 

The cast skins of the first stage are similar except that the cephalothorax 
is enormously extended and rounding (Plate 13, F.). 

Larva, second stage. -Cast skins only have been found: these resemble 
those of the first stage in every way, except that they are very much larger. 

Larva, third stage. -Without eyes, legs or antennae (Plate 14, A.). The 
spiracles are large and conspicuou , 7 abdominal and 2 thoracic being pres- 
ent. They are surrounded by a number of small ducts and are set at the 
inner end of rather long slanting tubes (Plate 14, B.). In life, wax threads 
extend from these tubes inclining posteriorly. The derm is somewhat chit- 
inized. The anal tube is absent, anal ring not discernible. 

Mouthparts present in all larval stages. Parts well separated, the in- 
ternal framework being central with the mentum considerably posterior to it. 

Male . -Unknown . 

Types. Holotype, an adult female (Hopk., U. S. No. 15406B), 
mounted with the immature stages of the same individual, from 
within the fascicles of digger pine (Pinus sabiniana) needles, Mt. 
St. Helena, California. Paratypes of adults and larvae (Hopk., 
U. S. Nos. 15406B, 15409B and 15813A) from within the fascicles 
of digger pine and yellow pine (P. ponderosd) needles, Mt. St.. 
Helena and Placerville, California. Author, collector. Holotype 
and paratypes in the National Collection of Coccidae. Paratypes 
also in Forest Insect Collection at Los Gatos, California. 

Besides the above localities, it has been taken recently on digger 
pine at The Pinnacles, San Benito County, California, by Mr. G. 
F. Ferris. 

This is a most peculiar coccid occurring in the very interesting 
and peculiar subfamily, Margarodinae. According to Mr. Ku- 
wana's description and figures of Matsucoccus matsumurac 
(Kuwana), this new scale is apparently quite closely related to it 
in this genus. The adult is especially similar in the transversely 
striated legs and antennae, and the larva in the odd shaped 
antennae. This is the second species of the genus Matsucoccus 
Cockerel!, and is the first representative of the genus in America. 
The author has also seen an undescribed species of this genus 
in Mr. G. F. Ferris' possession, taken on Pinus monophylla, 
which forms a connecting link between fasciculensis and matsu- 
initnie, lacking several of the peculiarities of the former. Were 
it not for this undescribed species, fasciculensis would appear to 
be distinct enough to belong to a separate genus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 l6l 

In life, this scale is usually found between the pine needles 
just at the point where they emerge from the sheath. Occa- 
sionally specimens are found within the fascicular binding or out 
on the needles not over an inch away. They are usually on the 
needles which are one and two years old. 

There is no doubt whatever about the last three stages for the 
adult female has been found within the apodous form, the latter 
having the cast skin of the preceding stage covering the posterior 
part of the body. A smaller cast skin, presumably of this indi- 
vidual, was beneath. There is a decided difference in the size 
of these two cast skins which also would indicate that there 
are two larval stages preceding the apodous form. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate 13. 
Matsucoccus fasciculensis, n. sp. 

A. Several individuals situated in a fascicle of pine needles. (Enlarged.) 

B. vSpiracles and alternate button-like processes of first stage larva, side 

and top view. (Very much enlarged.) 

C. Leg of first stage larva. (Very much enlarged.) 

D. Antenna of first stage larva. (Very much enlarged.) 

E. First stage larva, vantral view. (Greatly enlarged.) 

F . Cast skin of first stage larva, ventral view. (Much enlarged.) 

Drawn by F. B. HERBERT. 

Plate 14. 
Matsucoccus fasciculensis, n. sp. 

A. Apodus form or third stage larva, ventral view. (Much enlarged.) 

B. Spiracle of apodous form, top and side view. (Very much enlarged.) 

C. Antenna of adult female. (Very much enlarged.) 

D. Leg of adult female. (Very much enlarged.) 

E. Duct of adult female, which, viewed from above, has the appearance 

of an 8-shaped pore. (Very much enlarged.) 

F. Large simple pores of adult female. (Very much enlarged.) 

G. Spiracle and tracheae of adult female. (Very much enlarged.) 
H. Adult female, ventral view. (Much enlarged.) 

Drawn by F. B. HERBERT. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVEN NEW SPECIES OF OPIUS iHYMENOP- 

TERA-BRACONIDAE . 

BY A. B. GAHAN, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

This paper contains descriptions of seven new species belonging 
to the genus Opius. Types of five of the new species are from 



162 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

continental North America while types of the other two species 
are from Trinidad, British West Indies. In order to indicate 
relationship and facilitate identification, the place at which each 
species runs out in the writer's previously published key to the 
North American species of the genus Opius (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 49, 1915, pp. 68-72) is given at the beginning of each 
description. 

Opius cupidus, new species. 

In the writer's key to species of Opius (I. c.) this species runs to 
category 24 and agrees best with the first alternate of that couplet. 
It is at once distinguished from provancheri Dalla Torre, how- 
ever, by the fact that the recurrent nervure is interstitial with 
first intercubitus instead of joining the second cubital cell; and 
also by the fact that the thorax, with the exception of the meso- 
sternum and propodeum, is reddish testaceous like the head. 
Resembles canaliculatus Gahan, but differs in that the median 
impression on the mesoscutum is not nearly so elongate, the pro- 
podeum lacks the transverse carina near base, and the first ter- 
gite is different. 

Female. Length 3 mm. Head viewed from above more than twice as 
broad as long; ocellocular line more than three tirnes the length of the greatest 
diameter of an ocellus; vertex and frons polished; face polished, moderately 
hairy, with weak setigerous punctures and a distinct median ridge; malar 
space about equal to the width of mandible at base; clypeus with sparse, 
irregular punctures and separated from the mandibles by a narrow trans- 
verse opening; eyes ovate, moderate in size, and broader than the posterior 
orbits; antennae inserted opposite the middle of the eyes, 34-jointed in the 
type, the first two flagellar joints subequal and approximately two and one- 
half times as long as thick, following joints shorter but all distinctly longer 
than broad. Thorax polished, very sparsely hairy, the mesoscutum and 
scutellum mostly bare above, the former with a few pale hairs on the an- 
terior portion and a very few posteriorly on each side of the short, elliptical 
median depression; parapsidal grooves foveolate and deeply impressed at 
the anterior lateral angles of the mesoscutum, entirely effaced on the pos- 
terior two-thirds of the mesoscutum; transverse groove separating the scu- 
tellum from mesoscutum broad, deep, and strongly crenulate; mesopleura 
with a broad and strongly crenulate longitudinal depression below the mid- 
dle; propodeum irregularly rugoso-punctate, with an incomplete and poorly 
defined median longitudinal carina basally; wings with the stigma broad; 
first radial abscissa about equal to one-half the width of stigma, second 
abscissa approximately one and one-fourth times the length of the first inter- 
cubitus; radial cell rather broad and terminating some distance before extreme 
wing-apex; recurrent nervure exactly interstitial; first brachial cell closed 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 163 

at apex; second cubital cell slightly narrowed toward apex. Abdomen about 
as long as thorax, broadly elliptical ; first tergite bicarinate basally, depressed 
between the carinae, the apical half broadly elevated and aciculate-punctate 
medially", the lateral margins smooth; tergites beyond the first smooth and 
polished; ovipositor concealed from above, retracted within the large cavity 
formed by the last dorsal and last ventral segments. Spot enclosed by 
ocelli, eyes, antennae entirely, prothorax beneath, mesosternum and lower 
part of mesopleura, metathorax, propodeum, first tergite, and ovipositor 
sheaths, black; palpi, all tarsi, and more or less of the abdomen beneath 
blackish; wings faintly fuscous on basal half, subhyaline on apical half, the 
veins and stigma blackish; remainder of the insect reddish testaceous. 

Type locality. New York City, New York. 

Type. Cat. No. 22373, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Type and one female paratype labelled "Collected on beet; 
New York, N. Y.; July 11, 1916; H. B. Shaw, collector; Chittenden 
Number 4972 Ol ." Also one female paratype labelled "Parasite, 
on Pegomyia hyoscyami Panzer; Brooklyn, N. Y.; August 9, 
191S; Montague Free, collector." 

Opius turneri, new species. 

In the writer's previously mentioned key to species of Opius 
(1. c.) this species runs to category 50 where it agrees with the 
first character of the second alternate but not with the second 
character of that alternate, the propodeum being broadly pol- 
ished medially. Besides the differently sculptured propodeum 
it differs from oscinidis Ashmead by having the mesopleural 
impression not crenulate, the first tergite granularly sculptured 
instead of irregularly striate, and the cavity between mandibles 
and clypeus more distinct. From americanus Gahan it differs 
in addition to the differently sculptured propodeum, by lacking 
the tooth on ventral margin of mandible, by the distinct cavity 
between clypeus and mandibles, and by the much more weakly 
sculptured first and second tergites. Resembles bruneipes Gahan 
but is at once distinguished by the sculptured first and second 
tergites and the partially sculptured propodeum. 

Female. Length 1.25 mm. Head viewed from above more than twice 
as broad as long; ocellocular line more than twice the diameter of an ocellus; 
head polished, impunctate, the face very sparsely hairy, without punctures 
and without a distinct median ridge; malar space a little shorter than the 
basal width of mandible; cavity between clypeus and mandibles transverse- 
linear but distinct; eyes ovate, moderately large, about twice as wide as 
the posterior orbits; antennae inserted above the middle of eyes, 22-jointed 
in type, the first flagellar joint fully three times as long as thick, following 
joints gradually decreasing in length but none less than twice as long as thick. 



164 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

Thorax polished, nearly glabrous; mesoscutum without a median dimple 
posteriorly, and without parapsidal grooves except at the extreme anterior 
lateral angles where they are barely indicated; transverse groove separating 
mesoscutum and scutellum foveolate; mesopleural impression weak and 
smooth; propodeum polished medially, distinctly though finely sculptured 
laterally; forewing with the stigma long and narrow; first radial abscissa 
very short, not much longer than thick, second abscissa nearly twice the 
first intercubitus, third abscissa distinctly longer than the first and second 
combined and attaining the wing margin considerably before the extreme 
wing-apex; recurrent vein nearly interstitial; second cubital cell narrowing 
apically; first brachial cell closed at apex. Abdomen as long as the thorax; 
first tergite granularly opaque and without carinae; coalesced second and 
third tergites without a distinct separating suture, weakly sculptured on the 
basal half, with two short oblique furrows diverging from middle of the 
anterior margin, posterior half and all of the following tergites smooth; tip 
of ovipositor barely visible from above. Black; scape, mandibles, palpi, 
legs including all coxae, first tergite and greater part of the coalesced second 
and third tergites pale reddish testaceous; abdomen except as noted blackish 
brown; tarsal claws black, hind tibiae and tarsi slightly fuscous; wings hyaline, 
veins and stigma dark brownish. 

Male. Similar in every way to the female, the allotype antennae 23- 
jointed. 

Type locality. Greenwood, Mississippi. 

Type Cat. No. 22734, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Three females and one male reared from dipterous leaf-miner 
on cowpeas, July 31, 1916, by C. F. Turner and recorded under 
Greenwood No. 385. The species is named for the collector. 

Opius downesi, new species. 

This species runs in the writer's classification of the Opiinae 
(1. c.) to category 48 of the key to females of the genus Opius 
but does not agree with either alternate on account of the ovi- 
positor which is exserted distinctly more than half the length 
of abdomen. It also differs from all of the species included under 
category 48 of the key by the fact that the mesoscutum has a 
deep, nearly circular median impression posteriorly in front of 
the scutellum. 

Female. Length 3 mm. Head viewed from above more than twice as 
broad as long; ocellocular line about three times the diameter of the lateral 
ocellus; vertex and frons polished; face polished, sparsely hairy, with very 
faint setigerous punctures and a distinct median longitudinal ridge; malar 
space slightly shorter than the width of mandible at base; mandibles fitting 
close to clypeus, without an opening between; eyes moderately large, ovate; 
antennae inserted above the middle of face, 36-jointed in the type. Thorax 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. J, OCT., 1919 165 

polished and moderately hairy; mesoscutum with a distinct deep dimple- 
like impression posteriorly, the parapsidal grooves distinctly impressed at 
the lateral anterior angles of mesoscutum but mostly effaced on the dorsum; 
mesopleura smooth, without a distinct impression below the middle; pro- 
podeum rugoso-punctate, opaque, without longitudinal carinae; stigma of 
forewing long and narrow; radial cell long, terminating slightly before the 
extreme wing-apex; first abscissa of radius distinctly longer than the width 
of stigma opposite, second abscissa approximately one and one-half times 
as long as the first intercubitus ; second cubital cell long, not narrowed at 
apex; recurrent nervure joining the second cubital cell, the abscissa of 
cubitus between first intercubitus and recurrent vein nearly as long as the 
nervulus, first brachial cell closed at apex; abdomen about as long as the 
thorax; ovate, first tergite about as long as broad at apex, distinctly though 
rather irregularly longitudinally striate, and bicarinate basally; coalesced 
second and third tergites with the suturiform articulation distinct though 
not deeply impressed; second tergite throughout and basal one-third of 
third tergite strongly longitudinally striate, the striae terminating abruptly; 
apical two-thirds of the third tergite and all of the following tergites polished ; 
ovipositor protruding beyond the apex of abdomen approximately four- 
fifths the length of abdomen. General color blackish; head, antennal flagel- 
lum, dorsum of thorax, propodeum, and ovipositor sheaths black; the pos- 
terior middle of mesoscutum and region surrounding scutellum more or less 
piceous; first tergite for the most part, lateral margins of second arid third 
tergites, apex of third and the following tergites entirely, piceous or black- 
ish; scape, pedicel, more or less of clypeus, mandibles except at apex, pro- 
notum, pleura for the most part, legs including all coxae, and the abdomen 
except as noted, fusco-testaceous to reddish testaceous; hind tibiae and 
apical joint of all tarsi fuscous; wings hyaline, venation blackish with the base 
of the veins paler. Male unknown. 

-Type locality. Victoria, British Columbia. 

Type. Cat. No. 22372, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Host. Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh. 

Described from four female specimens reared by Mr. W. 
Dowries, of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, from pupae 
of the above-named host. A single paratype deposited in the 
national collection of the Dominion of Canada at Ottawa, Canada. 
Holotype and two paratypes in the U. S. Nat. Mus. Named in 
honor of the collector. 

Opius richmondi, new species. 

Runs to category 22 in the writer's key (1. c.) and agrees fairly 
well with the first alternate. The infuscation on the wing is 
very faint, however, while the ovipositor is exserted slightly more 
than the full length of the abdomen. This species is still further 



i66 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

distinguished from fuscipennis Gahan by the fact that the vertex 
is not so strongly arched above the top of eyes, the eyes are 
larger, the flagellar joints are all distinctly longer than broad, 
the ocelli are much larger, and the propodeum is more rugosely 
sculptured. It may be separated from all of the species falling 
under category 21 of the key by the much longer ovipositor. 

Female. -Length 2.5 mm. Head viewed from above more than twice as 
broad as long; ocelli rather large; ocellocular line about two and one-half 
times the diameter of an ocellus; vertex and frons polished and rather more 
than ordinarily hairy, the hairs pale yellowish; face moderately hairy, shin- 
ing, with conspicuous setigerous punctures, and a broad, low, median 
ridge; malar space approximately equal to width of mandible; cavity be- 
tween clypeus and mandibles rather broad and transverse; eyes moderately 
large, ovate; antennae inserted a little above the middle of eyes, 34-jointed; 
first flagellar joint about two and one-half times as long as broad; following 
joints gradually decreasing in length and thickness, those near the apex 
one and one-half to two times as long as broad; thorax polished, with rather 
conspicuous pubescence; mesoscutum with a slit-like depression posteriorly, 
extending from the middle to near the posterior margin; parapsidal grooves 
deeply impressed anteriorly for about one-third the length of mesoscutum, 
entirely effaced beyond; transverse suture separating mesoscutum and scu- 
tellum with about five carinae, the median one more conspicuous than the 
others; mesopleura smooth with the impression below the middle distinctly 
crenulate; propodeum coarsely rugose with a distinct, irregular, transverse 
carina before the middle; stigma of forewing moderately broad, sub triangular ; 
radial cell long, terminating slightly before the extreme wing-apex; first 
abscissa of radius slightly shorter than the width of stigma; second abscissa 
approximately one and one-third times the length of first intercubitus ; third 
abscissa much longer than the first and second combined; recurrent vein 
joining the second cubital cell; second cubital cell narrowed apically; first 
brachial cell closed at apex; abdomen about as long as thorax, elliptical; 
first tergite strongly bicarinate on the basal half, more weakly so on the 
apical half, the space between carinae on the apical half elevated and weakly 
rugulose; laterad of carinae practically smooth; tergites beyond the first 
smooth and polished, sparsely hairy; ^ovipositor exserted the length of the 
abdomen, measured from the base apparently nearly as long as head and 
thorax combined. Color uniformly dark reddish testaceous; eyes and ovi- 
positor sheaths black; antennae brownish black, the base of scape paler; 
wings faintly fuscous on basal half, the apical half hyaline, stigma and veins 
dark brown. 

Male. Essentially like the female but with the vertex, occiput, and thorax 
very dark reddish, almost piceous. 

Type locality. Cherryfield, Maine. 
Type. Cat. No. 22375, U. S. Nat. Mus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., IQIQ 167 

Described from three females and one male received from Mr. 
E. Avery Richmond, and said to have been swept on the blue- 
berry "Barrens" at Cherryfield, Maine, by Mr. W. Colcord Woods, 
August 20, 1915. 

This species occurs coincidentally with Optus melleus Gahan 
(= Boisteres rhagoletis Richmond, as already pointed out by the 
writer in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 55, 1919, p. 123) and may 
have the same host, viz., Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh. Specimens 
of melleus are in my possession swept by Mr. Woods on the same 
date and apparently at the same place as the types of richmondi. 
In his account of the blueberry insects of Maine (Maine Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 244, 1915, p. 203) Mr. Woods makes mention of 
having swept Opius melleus on August 20, 1915, but does not 
mention the occurrence of another species. Since melleus and 
richmondi are superficially quite similar it is possible that Mr. 
Woods' observations and remarks may have been based in part 
on richmondi. 

While superficially alike the two species are quite distinct and 
easily separated by the fact that in melleus the second abscissa 
of cubitus is no longer than first intercubitus, the parapsidal 
grooves are complete, the second tergite is distinctly striated, and 
the ovipositor is exserted the length of the body. 

Opius lectus, new species. 

This species, like richmondi (ante), runs to category 22 in the 
writer's key (1. c.) and is very similar to both fuscipennis and 
richmondi. It differs from fuscipennis by having the eyes and 
ocelli larger, vertex less strongly arched above the top of eyes, 
posterior orbits less than one -half the width of eye, basal half 
of wing very faintly infuscated, propodeum a little more rugosely 
sculptured, and the head and thorax in part black. It may be 
distinguished from richmondi by the following description. 

Female. Length 3 mm. Setigerous punctures of the face distinct though 
small; malar space shorter than width of mandible at base; antennae 33- 
jointed in the type; flagellar joints thicker than in richmondi, those in middle 
of flagellum barely longer than broad; stigma broad; first radial abscissa 
about half as long as the width of stigma; second abscissa very slightly more 
than one and one-third times the length of first intercubitus; ovipositor 
exserted about one-third the length of abdomen, measured from base prob- 
ably not as long as the abdomen. Antennal flagellum, eyes, frons and ver- 
tex except a broad orbital line, occiput medially, prothorax for the most 
part, mesopleura, metathorax, propodeum, more or less of first tergite, ovi- 
positor sheaths and tarsal claws black; abdomen beyond the third tergite 
tinged with brownish, remainder of body and legs dark reddish testaceous; 



168 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

wings faintly infuscated on basal half, hyaline apically, venation blackish. 
Otherwise agrees with the description of richmondi. 

Male. -Like female except that the black on frons is confined to a large 
rounded spot embracing the anterior ocellus and confluent above with the 
black on vertex; the propodeum is largely concolorous with mesoscutum 
and lacks a definite transverse carina, while the spiracles of first tergite are 
more prominent than in the female. 

Type locality. Cherryfield, Maine. 

Type. Cat. No. 2237S, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Two females and one male received from E. Avery Richmond, 
who states that they were swept by Mr. W. Colcord Woods, 
August 26, 1915, on the blueberry "barrens" at Cherryfield, 
Maine. 

The types of this species were apparently collected at the same 
time and under the same conditions as those of Optus richmondi. 
The remarks appended to the description of the latter species 
would therefore apply equally to this one and the species may be 
parasitic on Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh. 

Opius trinidadensis, new species. 

This species is at once distinguished by its large size and lack 
of sculpture from the blackish species included by Brues and 
Richardson in their key to known species of Opius inhabiting 
South and Central America (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 
32, 1913, p. 502). In the writer's key (1. c.) it runs to crawfordi 
Viereck, and is very closely related to that species but may be 
distinguished by slight differences in the clypeus as well as by 
the color of the mesoscutum. 

Female. Length 5.5 mm.; length of ovipositor 6 mm. Head viewed 
from above fully twice as broad as long; ocellocular line approximately two 
and one-half times the diameter of an ocellus; ocellar triangle distinctly 
elevated and bounded laterally by shallow grooves; posterior orbits equal to 
about half the eye-width; frons and vertex polished with very few hairs; 
vertex nearly straight, not arched above the top of eyes; face rather thickly 
hairy, shining, with distinct setigerous punctures, and a strong median, 
longitudinal ridge extending from the antennal fossae to the middle of clypeus ; 
anterior margin of clypeus very slightly angulated at the middle and at 
each lateral angle; these angulations similar to those in crawfordi but less 
prominent; malar space slightly longer than width of mandible at base; 
cavity between the clypeus and mandibles transverse, about half as broad 
as the median length of clypeus; antennae inserted far above the middle 
of eyes, longer than body, 54-jointed, the flagellar joints all longer than 
broad; thorax polished; mesoscutum with distinct, complete, non-foveolate, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., IQIQ 169 

parasidal grooves and broadly depressed posteriorly but without a median 
dimple-like impression before scutellum; transverse suture between meso- 
scutum and scutellum crossed by only one carina ; mesopleura smooth, without a 
distinct impression below the middle ; propodeum polished and glabrous above, 
more or less weakly sculptured and thickly hairy on the posterior half; pro- 
podeal spiracles at the anterior end of a distinct shallow depression; abdomen 
about as long as head and thorax combined, smooth and polished throughout; 
first tergite strongly bicarinate from base to near apex and distinctly longer 
than broad; stigma of forewing broad; radial cell terminating some distance 
before the extreme wing-apex; first radial abscissa equal to about half the 
width of stigma; second abscissa twice as long as first and a little shorter 
than the first intercubitus; recurrent vein interstitial; second cubital cell 
narrowed towards apex; first brachial cell closed. Antennae, head except 
mouth, mesoscutum, tegulae, legs for the most part, ovipositor sheaths, and 
the venation, black or blackish; clypeus, mandibles except apex, front coxae, 
median coxae on inner side, fore and median tarsi except apical joint, pale 
testaceous; wings uniformly dark fuscous; remainder of thorax and the 
abdomen very dark reddish testaceous. 

Male. Length 5 mm. In other respects agrees with the description of 
female. 

Type locality. Trinidad, British West Indies. 

Type. Cat. No 22376, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Hosts. -Anastrepha striata Schiner and A. serpentina Wiede- 
mann. 

Described from five females and four males reared in June 
and July by F. W. Urich, from the two above-named Trypetids. 

This species may be only a geographic race of crawfordi Viereck. 

Opius cereus, new species. 

Runs in the writer's key (1. c.) to category 6 where it disagrees 
with the first alternate by having the second tergite not striated 
'and it will not agree with the second alternate, since the wings 
are hyaline. In Brues and Richardson's key (1. c.) it runs to 
areolatus Szepligetti and differs from the description of that 
species mainly in slight color characters. 

Male. -Length 4 mm. Head viewed from above transverse, fully twice 
as broad as long; frons and vertex polished, rather more than ordinarily 
hairy, the former with distinct, though small, setigerous punctures; vertex 
nearly straight, and only slightly elevated above the top of eyes; ocellocular 
line about three times the diameter of an ocellus; face shining, distinctly 
hairy, with distinct setigerous punctures and a low broad median ridge; 
malar space distinctly longer than the width of mandible at base; anterior 
margin of clypeus sinuate, slightly angulated at the middle and at each 
lateral angle, separated from the mandibles by a narrow transverse cavity; 



1 70 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

eyes moderately large, ovate; posterior orbits equal to half the width of 
eye; antennae inserted slightly above the middle of eyes, 48-jointed in the 
type, the flagellar joints all distinctly much longer than thick; thorax pol- 
ished, sparsely hairy; mesoscutum with the parapsidal grooves complete, 
deep, broad, and non-foveolate ; transverse groove separating the meso- 
scutum from scutellum deep, with one longitudinal carina in the middle; 
mesopleura smooth, the impression below the middle non-foveolate; pro- 
podeum thickly covered with pale yellowish hairs, rugulose-punctate, with 
a short strong median carina anteriorly and distinctly areolated on the pos- 
terior face; the areolation comprised mainly of an elongate pentagonal me- 
dian area extending from a little before the middle to the posterior margin 
and on either side of this a broader, deeply depressed, irregularly shaped 
area which is limited outwardly by a strong curved carina that runs from 
the posterior nearly to the anterior margin; propodeal spiracles on low tubercles, 
stigma of forewing rather long and moderately broad ; radial cell long, termi- 
nating considerably before the extreme wing-apex; first abscissa of radius 
about equal to the breadth of stigma; second abscissa one and one-half times 
the first abscissa and slightly shorter than the first intercubitus; third radial 
abscissa fully twice as long as the first and second combined, nearly straight; 
recurrent nerve interstitial; second cubital cell narrowed toward apex; first 
brachial cell completely closed; posterior wing with a very distinct post- 
nervellus; abdomen about as long as thorax; first tergite smooth, strongly 
bicarinate on the basal half, the carinae fading out slightly behind the mid- 
dle; tergites beyond the first entirely smooth and polished; coalesced second 
and third tergites showing no trace of the suturiform articulation. General 
color pale reddish testaceous; antennae, apex of mandibles, eyes, ocellar 
triangle, tegulae, hind tibiae except a broad median band, their tarsi, and 
the apex of abdomen above, black or blackish; wings hyaline, with veins 
and stigma black. 

Type locality. Trinidad, British West Indies. 
Type. Cat. No 22377, U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Host. Anastrepha species. 

Described from three males reared in June, 1917, by F. W. 
Urich. 



SCAPHINOTUS (PSEUDONOMARETUS) MANNII N. SP. (COLEOPTERA 

CARABEDAE). 

By H. F. WICKHAM. 

Elongate, not very convex, minutely pubescent, elytral disk distinctly 
flattened, sutural region impressed. Black, faintly tinged with brown, scarcely 
shining, minutely alutaceous, beneath piceous. Head very long, the genae 
slightly more prominent than the eyes which are small and circular, only a 
little protruding, emargination of labrum very deep, apices of the processes 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. J, OCT., 1919 171 

with golden yellow pubescence, supra-antennal ridges strong, parallel behind 
the antennal insertion but, viewed from above, slightly convergent in front 
of it. Immediately behind the eyes is a very faint constriction posterior 
to which the neck gradually becomes a little wider. The vertex shows a few 
inconspicuous transverse wrinkles but there are no punctures on the head 
except the setigerous ones. Prothorax impunctate, length, along median 
line, almost exactly equal to its greatest breadth, narrowly cord form, base 
slightly narrower than the apex, broadest a little in front of the middle whence 
the sides are regularly arcuate anteriorly but convergent and nearly straight 
posteriorly to near the hind angles where they are sinuate, the angles somewhat 
obtuse and rounded, marginal bead strong but narrow, median impressed 
line distinct, of nearly uniform depth throughout, anterior transverse impres- 
sion moderate, basal impressions so indented as to give a bilobed aspect to 
that part of the pronotal disk. As in allied species, the disk is narrowed be- 
hind more rapidly than the flanks so that these latter are visible from above 
on each side near the base. Elytra elongate oval, bluntly pointed behind, the 
humeri so broadly rounded as to fade gradually into the sides which are gently, 
hardly visibly, arcuate in median third but rather rapidly narrowed towards 
the apex. Margin fine but strong, rerlexed, disk with eleven fine and nearly 
regular striae (the ninth, however, rather confused), these striae finely but not 
closely nor deeply punctured, the space between the eleventh and the outer 
margin becoming rugose by confluence of the punctuation and obliteration 
of the striae. Intervals impunctate except an indistinct series of two or three 
punctures behind the middle of the fourth and a few similar impressions on 
the eighth and ninth, these, however, not alike on the two sides. Legs 
long, front tarsi with three joints dilated and densely papillose beneath, 
middle tibiae with a brush of moderately long golden pubescence externally, 
extending over about the apical third. Body beneath impunctate. 

Two females are similar to the male in form and general characters and with 
brush of hair on the middle tibiae. In them, thirteen or fourteen striae can 
be made out rather plainly, but this is true also of a second male, the type 
specimen being more rugose towards the sides than any of the paratypes. 
There is also a decided variation in the number and position of the scattered 
punctiform impressions on the elytral intervals. 

Length, male type, 17.3 mm.; greatest width 6.3 mm.; Female paratype, 
length 22 mm.; width 7.75 mm. 

According to Dr. Roeschke's description of his subgcnus Pseudo- 
nomaretus [Annales Musei Xationalis Hungarici V. 1907, 117 
and 154] there should be a bristle in the prothoracic hind angles 
as well as the median marginal one on each side. In a later 
paper [Memoirs on the Coleoptera, V. 1914, 30] Col. Casey re- 
stricts this name to the group centering in ( 'yclints relictus Horn. 
In the four specimens of mannii at hand, only the median bristle 
is visible nor can any puncture be made out in the hind angles 



PLATE 1 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL 21 




WICKHAM SCAPHINOTUS MANNII 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., IQIQ 173 

which might indicate the position of another seta. The anterior 
and middle femora bear setigerous punctures as specified by 
Dr. Roeschke for the subgenus Brennus, but examination shows 
these punctures present and strong in relictus and regularis while 
they are absent in some Brennus, for example marginatus, fulleri, 
fallax and closely allied forms. With this note, I leave the new 
species in proximity to relictus and regularis, where it would 
naturally be placed by its facies. It recalls most closely ( . 
regularis Lee., but is easily distinguished by the much greater 
relative length of the head, prothorax and elytra, as well as by 
its longer and more slender legs and antennae. In a female of 
regularis the prothorax is at least one-fifth wider than long, much 
more strongly rounded in front of the point of greatest width 
and more rapidly narrowed behind than in the corresponding sex 
of mannii. In a male of relictus the combined length of antennal 
joints 2, 3, 4 and 5 is 4.3 mm., while in the type of mannii they 
measure 5.3 mm. 

Type, a male in the United States National Museum. Of the 
three paratypes, one male is deposited with the type while two 
females remain in the collection of W. M. Mann. 

Locality, Wawawai, Wash., March 20, 27 and 28, W. M.Mann; 
and May 14, C. V. Piper. 

Messrs. Schwarz and Barber have kindly afforded aid in ad- 
vice and in use of the facilities of the National Museum while the 
very characteristic figure is from a drawing made by my friend, 
Dr. Adam Boving. Three of the specimens were loaned me 
by the collector, Dr. W. M. Mann, after whom the species is 
named. 



NOTES ON SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDAE. 

BY RYOICHI TAKAHASHI, Forest Experiment Station, Meguro, Tokio. 

Myzocallis zelkowae, new species. 

H 'inged viviparous female. 

Color: General color pale yellow, mesothorax yellow. Eyes pale green. 
Antennae pale yellow, apices of the third and the following two joints and base 
of the spur black. Wings hyaline, stigma yellow, veins pale brown. Each 
abdominal segment with a pair of small, round, brown spots. Legs, corni- 
cles and cauda pale yellow. 

Morphology: Body rather narrow, without hairs. Antennae slender, 
not on frontal tubercles, the relative length of the third and the following 
joints is as follows: 111-33, IV-17, V-17, VI-17(10+7); sensoria on the 
third joint transversely narrow, twenty-five in number, the fourth joint 
wanting sensoria. Rostrum reaching the second coxae. Wings narrow, 



174 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

stigmatic vein obsolete, booklets two. Both the first and second abdom- 
inal segments with two small tubercles on the dorsum, the tubercles on the 
second larger; abdominal segments 1 to 4 inclusive, bearing small lateral 
tubercles. Cornicles very short, broader than long, broadest at the base, 
not constricted in the middle. Cauda globular. Anal plate bilobed. Legs 
slender, with short fine hairs, empodial hairs present. 

Length of body 1.6 mm. 

Length of antenna 1.2 mm. 

Length of forewing 1.7 mm. 

Host Zelkowa keaki. 
Locality, Tokio. 

This interesting aphis is common on the underside of the 
leaves of Zelkowa keaki and often it is found also on the leaves 
of cultivated beans. 

The viviparous females always have wings and as is charac- 
teristic of the Callipterina they are sporadic in habit and are 
easily roused, the least disturbance causing them to jump from 
the hosts. 



^ 

FIG. i Myzocallis zelkowae antennal structure. 

I have not found the sexuales of the species. 
Described from a number of co-type slides, one sent to the U. 
S. National Museum and the others retained by the writer. 

Greenidea kuwanae (Pergande). 

This aphis is very common on the young shoots of Onerous 
from May onwards throughout the summer. The stem-mother 
is apterous and many winged forms, as well as wingless ones, 
appear in the second and the following generations and the 
oviparous female which appears in December has wings. I have 
never collected the male insect. 

The oviparous females of Aphididae are usually wingless, but 
I have found that the oviparous females of the following species 
always have wings: 

(1) Greenidea kuwanae Pergande. 

(2) Trichosiphum tenuicorpus Okajima. 

(3) Cervaphis quercus Takahashi (Zool. Mag. Tokio, vol. XXX, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 175 

p. 458). Greenidea and Trichosipkum belong to Trichosiphina, 
and Cervaphis belongs to Cervaphidina. 

In Trichosipkum pasaniae Okajima the winged viviparous fe- 
male is very rare, as in Cervaphis and the sexuales probably have 
wings. 

Nippolachnus piri Mats. 

This aphis is one of the most injurious pests of the pear-tree in 
Japan, and it is found on the underside of the leaf. 

Most of the aphids belonging to Lachnina have no alternate 
hosts and may be found on the branches or stems of trees. But 
Nippolachnus piri Mats is double-hosted, spending the winter 
and spring on Eriobotrya japonica and the summer and early 
fall on the pear-tree. 

The viviparous females of the second generation and the sex- 
uparae have wings, but the other females are wingless. The 
sexuales appear in November and the male has wings. 

This very interesting aphis somewhat resembles Anoecia, but 
belongs to Lachnina doubtlessly. 

Chaitophorinella acerifoliae Takahashi. 

C. acerifoliae Takah., Zool. Mag. Tokio, vol. XXXI, 1919. 

Closely related C. testudinata Thorn., differing, however, in the 
following point: 

The proximal part of the last antennal segment is nearly one 
half the length of the distal part. This species is common on 
the leaves of Acer palmatum in spring and often it is found on 
Acer carpinifolium and Aescnlus sp. The dimorphs margined 
with many lamellae are produced by the females of the second 
and the following two or three generations and in summer only 
the dimorphs may be seen. The stem-mother is wingless, and 
winged forms appear in the second and the subsequent genera- 
tions very commonly as in some Chaitophorus . 

Chaitophorinella koelreuteriae Takahashi. 
C. koelreuteriae Takah., Zool. Mag. Tokio, vol. XXXI, 1919. 

This species is distinguishable from C. acerfoliae Takah. in the 
following characters: 

1. Body larger. 

2. Eyes smaller. 

3. Larva (first instar) yellow or yellowish green. 

4. Wingless viviparous female yellow or black. 
Host. Koelreuteria macroculata . 

Many dimorphs margined with lamellae are produced by the 
females of the second and the following generations. I found in 



1 76 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 7, OCT., 1919 

1917 many wingless viviparous females which do not produce 
dimorphs at all in August and in September. Winged females 
appear only in spring. 

Chaitopjorinella kuwanaii, n. name. 

Chaifophorus japonica Essig and Kuwana, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. VIII, 
No. 3, p. 83 (preoccupied by japonica Baker). 

The host plant is Acer pictum. The stem-mother is wingless 
and some of the females of the second and third generations and 
the sexuparae have wings and the other females are wingless. 
The dimorphs, margined with lamellae, are produced by the 
females of the second and third generations. In summer the 
wingless viviparous females can be seen. I have not seen the 
dimorph described by Dr. Baker. 

Stomaphis yanonis Takahashi. 

S. yanonis Takah., Zool. Mag. Tokio, vol. XXX, p. 368, 1918. 

In 5. quercus L. winged females appear three times in a year, 
but in 5. yanonis Takah. only some individuals of the second 
generation have wings usually. As is characteristic of Stomaphis 
the male is apterous and its rostrum is rudimentary. The stem- 
mother, as well as the male, is without cornicles. 

Host. Celtis sinensis. 

Rhopalosiphum sambucicola Takahashi. 

R. sambucicola Takah., Zool. Mag. Tokio, vol XXX, p. 372, 1918. 

This species is closely related to R. magnoliae Essig et Kuw. 
The species spends the winter and early spring on Sambucus 
racemosa, but the summer on Dioscorea japonica, Lagerstroemia 
indica, Celastrus articulatus and Citrus sp. 



(Actual date of publication October 13, 1919). 



IV. INSECT' 
VOL. 21 NOVEMBER 1919 No, 8 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BUSCK, AUGUST, HUNTER, W. D., AND HEINRICH, CARL EMERSON LISCUM 

DIVEN 177 

FISHER, W. S. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW NORTH AMERICAN PTINIDAE, WITH 

NOTES ON AN INTRODUCED JAPANESE SPECIES 

MOSIER, C. A. AND SNYDER, T. E. NOTES ON THE SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF 

TABANIDAE IN THE LOWER EVERGLADES OF FLORIDA 

WICKHAM, H. P. TWO NEW SPECIES OF ASAPHIDION FROM NORTH 

AMERICA (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE) 178 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



PLATE 16 



PRCC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 2'. 




EMERSON LISCUM DIVEN 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 21 NOVEMBER, 1919 No. 8 

EMERSON LISCUM DIVEN. 
BY AUGUST BUSCK, W. D. HUNTER AND CARL HEINRICH. 

On August 7, 1919, one of our youngest members, Emerson 
Liscum Diven, met his death in an aeroplane accident near 
Eagle Pass, Texas, in the performance of official duty, scouting 
for cotton areas along the Rio Grande River. For several months 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture had been using an aero- 
plane for the purpose of locating and mapping cotton areas in 
Southern Texas, in the fight against the Pink Bollworm of cotton. 
The aeroplane had been found extremely useful in locating hid- 
den fields in regions not otherwise easily surveyed. 

This work had been undertaken with the cooperation of the 
Army Aviation Corps and an expert aviator, Lieut. Wm. H. 
Tillisch, had been detailed a pilot. An extensive survey of the 
border region along the Rio Grande was under way with Mr. 
Diven in charge as scout and he had already successfully finished 
the work from Brownsville as far as Eagle Pass. 

On starting from Eagle Pass for Del Rio while the machine 
had reached an altitude of only a hundred feet it fell into a nose 
dive and both Lieut. Tillisch and Mr. Diven were instantly 
killed. 

Young Diven's sudden death cuts short a career of an unusual 
promise. As a young boy he was interested in insects and from 
his fifteenth year had been a member of our Society. Those 
in close contact with him held him in high regard as a man and 
a student. They were impressed by his keen interest, imagina- 
tion and the painstaking genuineness of his scientific observa- 
tions, and had high hopes for his future, which gave every prom- 
ise of brilliant achievements. 

He was born at Elmira, N. Y., on April lil, IS()<I; graduated 
from the Elmira Academy and entered Cornell University on a 
state scholarship in the fall of 191(5. In 191S he enlisted in the 
U. S. Army and was sent to Camp Lee as a candidate in the 
< )fficers Training School, from which he was discharged after 
the signing of the armistice. During the past three summers 

177 



178 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

he was employed with the Federal Horticultural Board on the 
Pink Bollworm investigations in Texas. He had intended re- 
turning to Cornell this fall to finish his education preparatory 
to embarking on an active entomological career. 

A promising scientist, a keen student and a warm-hearted 
lovable young man, who won all who met him, he leaves a sweet 
memory behind him. To his mother and brother who survive 
him our Society extends its profound sympathy. 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF ASAPHIDION FROM NORTH AMERICA 

(COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE). 

BY H. F. WICKHAM. 

The genus Asaphidion is represented in Europe and Asia by 
several species and is better known to Coleopterists under the 
preoccupied name Tachypus. Belonging to the tribe Bembidiini, 
it is easily distinguished at sight from Bembidion by the pubes- 
cent surface and lack of elytral striae, while the large eyes and 
greenish or olivaceous colors give it a facies recalling Elaphrus. 
In fact the resemblance is so marked that several writers have 
commented upon it. The only species credited to North America 
is Tachypus elongatus Mots., described by that author as doubt- 
fully from Sitka, Alaska, and accepted as native by Le Conte 
and Henshaw. The type was loaned, for redescription, to Manner - 
heim (Bull. Soc. Imp. des Nat. de Moscou, 1853, 146), who 
emphasizes this doubt, while Mr. E. A. Schwarz, to whom I 
am greatly indebted for assistance in tracing the references to 
the European species, tells me that the vessel carrying the expe- 
dition (Kotzebue's First Voyage), which collected the type, did 
not touch at any Alaskan point, and that the specimen is prob- 
ably from Kamchatka. In any event, the description given by 
Mannerheim does not agree with either of the species in hand, 
both of which inhabit the interior districts of the northwest. 

Asaphidion alaskanum, sp. nov. 

Form oblong, recalling a narrow Elaphrus. Piceous above, with metallic 
green irrorations which become nearly solid on the sides of the pronotum 
and of the elytra. Upper surface minutely alutaceous, finely and, in gen- 
eral, sparsely punctured, the punctures tending to become somewhat muri- 
cate, each having a short, subrecumbent seta, these setae silvery in most 
places but more or less brownish or golden in restricted areas on the elytral 
disk. Mandibles at apex and palpi (except the penultimate joint of the 
maxillary, which is metallic) rufous. Antennae with the first four joints 
more or less rufous basally, the remainder piceous. Legs rufous, the front 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 179 

and middle coxae darker, hind coxae reddish at apices only, all the tarsi 
and the hind tibiae infuscate. Head, with the eyes, only slightly narrower 
than the prothorax, front a little impressed each side and with a fine, rather 
obscure median longitudinal carina, closely and relatively coarsely punc- 
tured, vertex sculptured similarly to the pronotum. Prothorax cordate, 
four-fifths as long as wide, sides moderately strongly arcuate from the basal 
constriction to the apex which is distinctly broader than the base. Anterior 
margin nearly straight, front angles obtuse but not rounded, marginal bead 
fine, distinct, basal sinuation of the sides sudden, behind which they are 
practically straight and parallel, hind angles almost exactly right. Disk 
finely and sparsely punctured, rather strongly alutaceous and appearing 
transversely sifbrugose in certain lights. Median impressed line strong, 
extending in front of the moderately well-marked arcuate anterior line, 
but not reaching the base nor the apex. Basal impressions vague, broad, 
nearly circular. Elytra conjointly two-thirds as wide as long, oblong, broadest 
well behind the middle, humeri broadly rounded and not prominent, apices 
rather strongly sinuate. Along the side margin are three well-marked broad 
impressions, one antemedian, one postmedian and the third about one-fifth 
from the apex. On the disk, the pubescence is so arranged as to give the 
effect of longitudinal lines in one light or transverse bands in another. Each 
elytron has a row of shallow foveiform impressions (three on one elytron, 
five on the other) following the course of the third interval, external to which 
is a shorter row of three smaller indentations. Marginal stria represented 
by a row of rather deep elongate punctures, discal striae not impressed and 
traceable, if at all, by the arrangement of the pubescence and of the minute 
superficial sculpture. Beneath piceous with a distinct greenish cast which 
is less strong on the abdomen, smooth except a few fine wrinkles near the 
bases of the ventral segments. 

Length 5.50 mm. 

Type and one paratype (United States National Museum No. 
22562), taken by J. M. Jessup on the Porcupine River, Alaska, 
15 miles below New Rampart House, June 5, 1911. One para- 
type in the collection of the United States Biological Survey, 
taken by A. H. Twitchell, Iditarod, Alaska, July 27. 

The presence of a bristle within the hind angles of the pro- 
thorax places this species in the same category as the European 
A. cyanicornis, A. festivus and A. flavipes, from all of which it 
is immediately separated by the small head, this, with the eyes, 
measuring less than the thoracic width. From A. flavipes it 
differs also in having the penultimate joint of the maxillary 
palpi metallic. The Japanese A. semilucidum Mots, is smaller, 
more parallel, with broader head, more pronounced punctuation, 
somewhat differently shaped prothorax and dark antennae. By 
description, the present species differs from A. elongatum in being 



ISO PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

smaller and in having differently colored antennae and legs as 
well as a relatively smaller head. 

Asaphidion yukonense, sp. nov. 

Form oblong, moderately elongate. Color blackish green, metallic, 
strongly shining, pubescence short, scant and silvery. Antennae and penul- 
timate joint of the maxillary palpi dark, legs rufescent, tibiae and tarsi bluish 
with metallic reflections. Head large, about as wide as the prothorax, 
front rugosely and confluently punctured, not carinate nor impressed. Pro- 
thorax cordate, about three-fourths as long as wide, broadest well in front 
of the middle, base and apex truncate, the latter perceptibly wider, sides 
strongly rounded, more rapidly narrowing posteriorly. Antebasal sinuation 
strong, hind angles sharply rectangular, front angles obtuse. The marginal 
bead is strong and the sides are distinctly reflexed near the base. Surface 
coarsely and in part confluently punctured, more closely laterally. Median 
longitudinal line deeply impressed, distinct from the basal constriction almost 
to the 'apex. Basal foveae rather deep but vaguely defined. Elytra con- 
jointly a little more than one and one-half times as long as wide, oblong, 
very little broadened posteriorly, brilliantly polished and with moderate or 
coarse often confluent golden punctures, fairly closely placed and so arranged 
as to form four nearly evenly spaced irregular bands which are more or less 
confluent along the suture, the anterior and posterior ones strongly diver- 
gently oblique, the intermediate ones more transverse. The entire basal 
area for nearly a fourth of the elytral length is similarly punctured. Each 
elytron has two large, vague, purplish foveae on the space which represents 
the position of the third interval. The courses of two or three discal striae 
can be faintly traced by a subseriate arrangement of a few punctures but 
the marginal one is scarcely to be made out at all except in its posterior 
hall", where it is faintly irregularly impressed, and marked by a row of uneven 
punctures. Body beneath nearly smooth. 

Length, 4 mm. 

Type. United States National Museum No. 22563. It was 
collected at Yukon Crossing, Yukon Territory, Canada, May 
24, 1911, by J. M. Jessup. 

The brilliantly shining surface may be due, in part at least, 
to abrasion. Aside from this it readily separates from A. alas- 
kanwn by the small size, which would distinguish it immediately 
from A. elongatum. In comparison with the few foreign species 
known to me, it is most like the Japanese A. semilucidum Mots., 
which is a little larger, much flatter, especially in longitudinal 
profile, more elongate, and which has pale antennae. The type 
of A, yukonense has lost the median marginal prothoracic setae, 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 181 

although the puncture from which they spring is clearly visible 
on each side. I cannot satisfy myself that there is any setigerous 
puncture inside of the hind angles and believe that the basal 
bristle is absent in this species. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW NORTH AMERICAN PTINIDAE, WITH 
NOTES ON AN INTRODUCED JAPANESE SPECIES. 

BY W. S. FISHER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

In arranging the material which has accumulated during the 
past two years in the family Ptinidae in the National Museum 
Collection, the following new species were found. The types of 
all these new species are deposited in the United States National 
Museum. 

Ptinus mitchelli, new species. 

Female. -Moderately elongate, nearly parallel, brown with the median 
part of the elytra only slightly darker. Antennae with second joint sub- 
quadrate, about one-half the length of the third; joints 3 to 9 subequal in 
length and about two and one-half times as long as wide, each slightly in- 
creasing in width from base to apex (joints 10 and 11 broken off). Eyes 
moderately prominent, separated on the front by about two times their 
vertical diameter and about equal in width to the combined length of the 
second and third joints of the antennae. Head densely, finely granulate 
and pilose. Prothorax coarsely granulate and hirsute, the hairs yellowish, 
with a distinct longitudinal series of whitish hairs on each side of the middle, 
extending from the basal constriction to near the frontal margin, and with 
a transverse series of whitish hairs in the constriction which are separated 
at the middle. Elytra at base nearly twice as wide as the prothorax and 
fully three times as long; humeri prominent; sides nearly parallel, slightly 
wider at apical third; surface moderately strongly punctate-stria te, the 
intervals a little wider than the punctures, each with a series of brownish 
or yellowish suberect hairs which vary somewhat in length, the longest nearly 
equaling the distance from the suture to the third stria; setae of the strial 
punctures somewhat shorter and more inclined; at base and apical fourth 
a conspicuous fascia of white recumbent, squamiform hairs; the anterior 
oblique fascia reaching from near the humeral angle to third stria; the pos- 
terior transverse fascia reaching from near the lateral margin to the third 
stria, and also a short subsutural spot of similar hairs behind the middle on 
the third interval. Scutellum densely clothed with whitish recumbent 
hairs. Metasternum and abdomen densely clothed with fine whitish re- 
cumbent hairs; the former as long as the second and third ventral segments 
united. Fourth ventral segment fully two-thirds as long as the third and 



182 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

only slightly shorter than the fifth. Legs slender, first tarsal joint subequal 
to the two following joints united. 
Length 3 mm. ; width 1.3 mm. 

Habitat. "Brewster County, Texas; Rio Grande." Described 
from a single female specimen collected by "Mitchell and Cush- 
man," June 13-17, 1908, on "Prosopis grandulosa." 

Type. Cat. No. 22387, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

This species is closely allied to paulonotatus Pic, but the elytra 
are darker, especially on the median parts, the markings on the 
thorax and elytra are more conspicuous, the abdomen more 
densely pubescent and the hairs on the elytra longer. This 
species might be placed in the group near bimaculatus but the 
dark and light markings of the elytra are not so distinctly sep- 
arated, only becoming gradually a little darker on the lateral 
median part, so it is best placed with the species having the elytra 
nearly uniform in color. 

Ptinus barberi, new species. 

Male. Moderately elongate, parallel, uniformly reddish brown through- 
out. Antennae four-fifths as long as the entire length of the body; second 
joint subquadrate, about one-half the length of the third; joints 3 to 10 
subequal in length, about two times as long as wide, each rapidly increasing 
in width from base to apex; eleventh joint one-fifth longer than the tenth, 
cylindrical with the apex pointed. Eyes very large and prominent; front 
of head a little narrower than their vertical diameter. Head densely, finely 
granulate and pilose. Prothorax rather coarsely granulate, hirsute, the hairs 
varying in color from brown to luteous ; disk not prominent at middle before 
the constriction. Elytra at base two times as wide as the pro thorax and 
fully three times as long; humeri prominent; sides parallel; strial punctures 
rather fine; interspaces fully twice as wide as the stria, each with a row of 
suberect hairs varying but little in length, the longest about equaling the 
distance from the suture to the second stria; setae of the strial punctures 
shorter and more inclined; the surface is also clothed with irregular patches 
of recumbent yellowish, squamiform hairs, giving it a motley appearance. 
Scutellum densely clothed with very fine inconspicuous cinereous pubescence. 
Metasternum and abdomen densely clothed with fine recumbent cinereous 
hairs intermixed with longer erect ones of the same color, the former scarcely 
as long as the second and third ventral segments united; fourth ventral seg- 
ment fully two-thirds as long as the third and a little shorter than the fifth; 
fifth without apical tubercle. Legs slender; first tarsal joint subequal to 
the two following joints united. 

Length 2.5 mm.; width 1 mm. 

Habitat. Brownsville, Texas. Described from a single male 
specimen collected by H. S. Barber, May 18, 1904. 
Type. Cat. No. 22386, U. S. Nat. Mus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 183 

In the general uniform color this species resembles paulonotaius 
Pic, but the squamiform hairs on the elytra instead of forming 
transverse fascia, are irregularly placed, giving it a motley appear- 
ance; the interspaces of the elytra being fully twice as wide as 
the strial punctures, and the suberect hairs of the elytra not 
quite as long as in that species. 

I take pleasure in naming this after Mr. Herbert S. Barber. 

Neohedobia, new genus. 

Mentum triangular, labrum very short and transverse, palpi short, basal 
joint smallest, not curved; second and third joints obconic and a little elon- 
gate; terminal joint longer, widest at about the middle, the apex pointed. 
Antennae inserted at the sides of the front before the eyes, filiform (not 
compressed); basal joint oval, stout, a little longer than wide; second, third 
and fourth joints subequal in length, moniliform; joints 5 to 10 subequal 
in length, scarcely triangular, a little longer than wide; eleventh joint dis- 
tinctly longer than the tenth, oval and pointed at the apex. Head deflexed; 
eyes globose, prominent but not large; front not margined over the base 
of the antennae. Prothorax narrower than the elytra, not margined at 
sides nor excavated beneath. Elytra parallel, seriate-punctate. Pro- 
sternum without intercoxal process; mesosternum short, the coxae narrowly 
separated; metasternum as long as the two ventral segments; hind coxae 
not sulcate, moderately separated, the intercoxal process broadly rounded. 
Ventral segments 1 to 4 nearly subequal in length, the third and fourth 
just visibly shorter; fifth segment two times as long as the fourth with a 
shallow depression near the apex. Legs rather short and stout; femora not 
elavate; tibiae longer than tarsi, the former straight, nearly parallel, with 
one small spur; the latter narrow, slightly pubescent beneath, first joint 
equal in length to the three following joints united; third and fourth joints 
short, the fourth distinctly transverse, not emarginate; last joint oblong; 
claws strongly divaricate. 

Genotype. Neohedobia texana Fisher. 

This genus is closely allied to Hedobia but differs from it by 
having the third and fourth antennal joints moniliform, not 
subtriangular nor compressed; tarsi not as long as the tibiae; 
tarsal joints less broad and scarcely pubescent; also by having 
the elytra seriate-punctate. From Eucrada it differs by having 
the antennae filiform and not pectinate or strongly serrate as in 
that genus. 

Neohedobia texana, new species. 

Male. Oblong, moderately elongate, piceous, antennae and tarsi piceo- 
testaceous. Antennae rather short, a little more than half the length of 
the body; the tenth joint one-fifth longer than wide. Head rather densely 



184 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

granulate, sparsely clothed with short recumbent cinereous hairs; front 
nearly three times as wide as the vertical diameter of the eyes. Prothorax 
one-sixth wider than long, slightly constricted behind the apex, wider pos- 
teriorly, where it is nearly equal in width to the elytra at the base; front 
angles nearly right; hind angles rounded; disk obtusely elevated at mid- 
dle; surface densely granulate and sparsely clothed with short recumbent 
cinereous hairs. Elytra only slightly wider than prothorax, seven-tenths 
as wide as long, parallel to posterior fourth then broadly rounded; margin 
finely serrulate posteriorly; surface closely, coarsely striate-punctate, sparsely 
clothed with short recumbent cinereous hairs. Scutellum triangular rather 
densely clothed with recumbent cinereous hairs; apex broadly rounded. 
Beneath shining, rather densely, finely punctate, sparsely pubescent; fifth 
ventral segment truncate at apex, with a shallow round apical fovea. Tibiae 
serrate along the exterior margin, the outer apical angles not prominent. 
Length 3 mm.; width 1.75 mm. 

Habitat. Dallas, Texas. Described from a single male spec- 
imen collected April 5, 1912, by W. D. Pierce on "Phoradendron." 
Type. Cat. No. 22388, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Trichodesma pratti, new species. 

Oblong, moderately robust, more than two times as long as wide. An- 
tennal club subequal in length to all the preceding joints united; the inter- 
mediate joints all a little longer than wide. Prothorax very nearly equal 
in width to the elytra; sides a little arcuate and converging posteriorly; hind 
angles rounded; disk strongly gibbose; surface rather densely granulate 
(each granule bearing a long, fine, erect hair) ; densely clothed with recumbent 
cinereous hairs, becoming fulvous towards the gibbosity, except at the pos- 
terior median part; summit of the gibbosity with four oblong tufts of erect 
brown hairs. Elytra with coarse punctures arranged in irregular rows these 
are nearly obscured by the numerous small rounded granules, which are 
more abundant at the base and apex; vestiture consisting of dense recumbent 
cinereous hairs intermixed throughout with long, fine, erect hairs. The 
whitish recumbent hairs form a broad irregular transverse band just behind 
the middle, the pubescence becoming sparser towards the lateral edge. 
Within the dark basal area there are on each elytron two elongate tufts of 
dark brown hairs, one sutural and the other parallel to and exterior to the 
first; also an elongate tuft of fulvous hairs on the humerus. At the posterior 
fourth there are on each elytron a transversely arcuate series of four elongate 
tufts of dark brown hairs and small irregularly placed patches of cinereous 
hairs. Beneath rather densely clothed with recumbent cinereous hairs and 
rather closely granulate, except the first three ventral segments of the abdo- 
men which are simply punctate on the median portions. Legs densely 
pubescent, the tibiae and femora with numerous long, erect hairs. 

Length 6-7 mm.; width 2.5-3 mm. 

Habitat. Kerrville, Texas. Described from four specimens 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

(sex undeterminable), collected June 19, 1907, and April '22, 
1908, by F. C. Pratt. 

Type. Cat. No. 22385, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

This species is very closely allied to T. gibbosa Say, but is dis- 
tinguished from that species by having the whitish recumbent 
hairs on the elytra forming a more transverse band and n ot 
extending obliquely to the humeral angles, nor forming a dark 
semi-circular area back of the scutellum which contrasts strongly 
with the adjacent densely clothed portions. The four tufts of 
dark brown hairs on the prothorax are of equal size while in 
gibbosa the anterior pair is quite small. 

Ptilineurus marmoratus Reitter. 

In working over the material a series of specimens were found 
labelled "Hedobia sp." which are the above Japanese species. 
Fall referred to this series of specimens in his "Revision of the 
Ptinidae of Boreal America" (1905, Trans. Amer. Ent. vSoc. 
XXXI, p. 129), as belonging to the tribe Hedobiini and having 
been reared from Japanese bamboo, but in looking up the original 
notes in the Bureau of Entomology files, it was found that they 
were infesting the wood of different species of trees and not bam- 
boo as mentioned by Fall. The following unpublished notes in 
the Bureau of Entomology files were made by E- A. Schwarz, 
July 24, 1883: "I found that the Japanese representation of 
the trees exhibited in the National Museum were badly infested 
by a Ptinid beetle. These representations of trees consist of a 
plate of wood upon which the leaves, blossoms and fruit are 
painted and which is surrounded by a framework composed of 
the wood of the same tree itself showing at the corners cross 
sections of the twigs and on the sides longitudinal sections, but 
the insects had in many instances also attacked the cross sec- 
tions, boring into the wood itself. In most cases they burrowed 
under the bark. Only a few living specimens of the beetles were 
seen as the cases are not tight enough to prevent their escape and 
a close investigation of the frames was impossible without de- 
stroying their scientific value. Larvae were found which do not 
differ in shape from other Ptinid larvae. Upon lifting up smaller 
pieces of the bark it was found that the larvae spin a cocoon of 
fine, white silk, which is fastened in a kind of a shallow cell in 
the under side of the bark, the cocoons greatly resembling in 
appearance that of a Microgaster, being only a little less cylin- 
drical and wider at the middle. Anthremis larvae were feeding 
upon the cocoons and the dead adults. The species appears to 
have invaded most of the frames without regard to the species 



186 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

of trees. The origin of the beetle is uncertain but it comes pre- 
sumably from Japan, at any rate there is nothing similar known 
from the United States and the aspect of the species is that of 
a Palearctic species." 

A single specimen of this species was also collected by Mr. 
F. C. Pratt at St. Elmo, Virginia, a few miles below Washington. 

This species was first described by Reitter (1877, Deutsche 
Ent. Zeitschr. XXI, p. 379) from Japan and placed in the genus 
Ptilinus, probably on account of the shape of the antennae. In 
1879 (Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. XXIII, p. 317) Kiesenwetter de- 
scribed the same species from Japan as Ptilinus ramicornis. 
Reitter (1901, Best.-Tab. XLVII, p. 24) erected the genus Ptili- 
neurus for marmoratus Reitt. and placed Ptilinus ramicornis 
Kiesw. as a synonym of it, but still retained the genus in the 
group with Ptilinus. 

This species is not closely related to Ptilinus, but in habits and 
structural characters it should be placed in a new tribe near 
Hedobiini, the margined thorax and exposed vertical pygidium 
will not allow it to be placed in that tribe. The species super- 
ficially resembles Hedobia granosa Lee., but the exposed vertical 
pygidium will at once distinguish it from any other known 
American Ptinid. 



NOTES ON THE SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF TABANEDAE 
IN THE LOWER EVERGLADES OF FLORIDA. 

BY C. A. MOSIER, Warden, Royal Palm State Park, Dade Co., Fla., AND 
T. E. SNYDER, Bureau of Entomology. 

Since 1916, notes on the seasonal activity of Tabanids in 
southern Florida have been recorded in these Proceedings, es- 
pecially the flight of Tabanus americanus in large numbers at 
dawn. Apparently, species of Tabanus are active during every 
month of the year; this, however, includes belated "stragglers" 
or specimens that emerge very early. 

At Paradise Key, in the Lower Everglades, Tabanus lineola 
was overabundant on the prairies and common in the hammock 
during late July and early August. On the prairie these flies 
were especially common where the land has been farmed and is 
now covered with a heavy growth of weeds and grass some ten 
feet high. Further into the natural prairie where less or no farm- 
ing had been done, they diminished in numbers until near the 
the seashore there were none. 

On August 30, 1918, Mosier noted that all the saw palmettoes 
(Seronoa) from which the leaves had been cut in April and on 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 187 

which Tabanids had been observed, had an unusually heavy 
crop of fruit; the blooms were in the open and not shaded; pos- 
sibly they were pollenated by the Tabanids. The males of 
Tabanus lugubris, T. atratus and T. lineola seemed to feed more 
after the leaves had been removed. All these species were com- 
mon, feeding on the fruits of the palmetto. There is a waxy 
exudation from the ripe palmetto fruit. 

During the late autumn and early winter several species of 
Tabanus were observed. On November 28 and 29, 1918, the 
region 11 to 16 miles southwest of Paradise Key on Ingraham 
Highway was visited. Quite a few adults of Tabanus atratus 1 
and some adults of T. lineola were observed. A span of mules 
working on the highway were annoyed by these flies and the 
cook at the dredge working on the road, southwest of Paradise 
Key, stated that the species came into the house frequently, 
although not in such great numbers as Tabanus trijunctus, T. 
americanus and T. turbidus. 

On December 6 two adults of T. atratus were seen at Paradise 
Key and several adults of T. lineola were observed during the week. 
Adults of Chrysops were very persistent and annoying. 

Mosier noted that T. atratus and T. lineola adults occasionally 
were seen as late as December 12; all were females. They oc- 
curred oftener on the prairie and near water than within Royal 
Palm Hammock (Paradise Key). These gadflies are found 
around mules when they are going through the hammock on the 
road. On December 12, Mosier saw a Tabanid struggling in the 
water. No males of either species had been observed for some 
time. 

There was a heavy rain on the morning of December 15, which 
was very unusual for this season. A few adults of T. atratus and 
lineola were very persistent in attacking Mosier; a few were 
around the house but they were mostly on the road through the 
prairies. These are unusually late dates for any Tabanidae. 
However, occasional adults occur at Paradise Key during all the 
winter months. In 1918 there was an abnormal autumn; Mosier 
noted on December 15 that willow (Salix amphibia) was in bloom, 
Icacorea, and Erythrina arborea, the harbinger of spring, was 
budding and would soon be in bloom. Saw palmetto, which 
bloomed in April in 1918, was putting out buds. Some live oaks 
were just shedding their acorns. Mastic that shed leaves in 
February, 1918, was nearly through shedding on December 15. 

Water covers the saw grass prairies of the Lower Everglades 
intermittently throughout the year after heavy rains; the lower 
sloughs are often completely inundated for long periods. 

1 Identified by C. T. Greene, of the Bureau of Entomology. 



188 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

On December 28 and 29, 1918, a few adults of Tabanus atratus 
were observed on the screen around the veranda of the Lodge. 
Another adult of this black gadfly was observed on January 24, 
1919. 

Occasional adults of Chrysops were noted throughout the winter 
months at Paradise Key. An adult of Chrysops flavidus Wied. 
was captured on January 27, 1919. 

An adult of the small gadfly Tabanus lineola was observed on 
the veranda screen on February 4, 1919, at Paradise Key. On 
February 11, 1919, a few deerflies (Chrysops sp.) flew about 
Mosier's head while he was walking along the road in the ham- 
mock at twilight; Mosier killed one on his face. 

The junior author visited Paradise Key on February 17, 1919. 
One adult of Chrysops flavidus was observed on this day, although 
the weather was cool. 

On February 19 the first adult of Tabanus lineola seen by the 
junior author at Paradise Key in 1919 was collected. Female 
f iults of Tabanus lineola and T. 5 vittatus Wied. were captured 
on February 20, by the junior author. On the 21st recently 
transformed adults of this gadfly, both females and males, began 
to appear in numbers. On this date the live oak (Ouercus vir- 
giniana) had the leaf buds opening.. 

Digging in the moist muck under saw grass plants (Cladium 
effusum) in the sloughs of the Everglades, just northeast of 
Paradise Key, on February 21, the junior author found the larvae 
of two species of Tabanids; large black striped larvae of T. stygius 
Say and smaller yellowish white larvae of Chrysops sp. Tabanid 
larvae are predaceous. 

The muck is deep, at least one foot; the Tabanid larvae are 
found from one to several inches below the surface. At this 
date the muck was wet, since water had just receded; the surface 
of the slough was covered with a film of drying, whitish scum- 
low plant growth (algae), which floats on the water when the 
sloughs are flooded. 

On February 23, adults of Chrysops were collected about twenty 
miles southwest of Paradise Key, near the present termination 
of the unfinished Ingraham Highway. Early in the morning of 
February 25, C. A. Mosier took the junior author and H. S. 
Barber of the Bureau of Entomology, and A. Wetmore of the 
Biological Survey, from Paradise Key by auto to this point. 
After regretfully leaving Mr. Mosier, from this point we walked 
along the rough, unfinished, rocky road bed, to where the dredge 
was working. This dredge is towed along the canal made by 
blasting and dredging out material (limestone rock, marl, etc.), 
for the road. Chrysops and Tabanus lineola were present near 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 189 

the dredge and bunk house. It might be stated that evidences 
of deer are common on the prairies, hence the presence of deer- 
flies (Chrysops] is easily explained. 

After leaving the dredge we ran a straight compass course for 
Cape Sable through the lower hammocks, lagoons of White Water 
Bay, and across the saw grass prairies. North of West Lake 
adults of Tabanns lineola and Chrysops flavidus and plangens 
Wied., a small dark species, were captured. Our intention had 
been to make an exploration and collecting trip to Cape Sable, 
but due to the very rough travel and limited time, we decided to 
turn back. We were forced to hack our way with a machette 
through the low but dense and almost impenetrable hammocks, 
and the low thickets of aerial roots of the red mangrove. It 
was necessary also to wade through lagoons up to our waists in 
mud and water, and finally to make our way through high saw 
grass (a sedge Cladium ejjusum}. 

Night comes very suddenly in the tropics and sub-tropics and 
we made camp on one of the higher hammocks; after the she t 
dusk, fire flies appeared. During this night of February 25, we 
were able to sleep by using our insect sweeping nets to protect 
our hands and faces from mosquitoes The usual night cries of 
wild life broke the stillness. We could also hear the pounding 
of surf. 

The Lower Everglades or grassy marsh lands south of Lake 
Okeechobee, and in general south of latitude 27, have a humid, 
tropical flora. As Gifford (1911) points out, 1 this latitude is the 
same as that of Egypt. The region south of Paradise Key to- 
wards Cape Sable is still wild; as the region immediately north 
of West Lake is approached, the low morass is more frequently 
dotted here and there with beautiful, green hardwood ham- 
mocks, the elevation of the ground being slightly higher than 
the saw grass prairie. 

The edges of some of the first hammocks encountered south of 
Paradise Key were strikingly fringed with bald cypress trees which 
late in February, 1919, were mostly bare of foliage. Against the 
background of the green foliaged hardwood trees in the ham- 
mock, these bare, grey cypress stood out like "ghost" trees, and 
appeared white as if frosted, especially so in the early morning 
fog just after dawn, when the sun first struck them. 

Farther south, clumps of the beautiful saw-cabbage palmetto 
Panrotis wrightii appeared in the hammocks. Other trees were 
cocoa plum, poison wood (Metopiwn), sweet bay, bay berry, 
white mangrove, red mangrove, and cabbage palmetto. The red 

1 Gifford, J., "The Everglades and Southern Florida." Miami, 1911. 



190 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

mangrove trees are mainly low which may be explained by 
the presence of brackish water or brackish soil at the roots. 

The black muck soil of the Everglades overlies marl or limestone 
rock. 

Near West Lake are encountered endlessly meandering lagoons 
of White Water Bay, with mud or rock bottoms and with the 
only slightly brackish water waist deep. 

The endless waste of brown saw grass as high as a man's 
head is even here broken by low, green hammocks of red man- 
grove, bay berry, poison wood and cocoa plum. A tropical aspect 
is afforded by the presence of the green but leafless wild vanilla 
vines. 

Tracks of otter, deer and marsh rabbits were observed. 

C. A. Mosier captured an adult of Tabanus americanus at 
Paradise Key in 1919, on February 28. This was the first appear- 
ance of this fly for the season. On March 1 another adult was 
observed; on March 2 there were a few adults on the veranda 
screen; there was a slight increase in numbers on March 4 to 5. 

On March 2 the junior author collected an adult of T. lineola 
in the Everglades directly west of Miami along the Tamiami 
trail. 

On March 7, Tabanus lineola was increasing in numbers at 
Paradise Key, but only a few adults of T. americanus were ob- 
served daily. March 8 and 9 showed an increase in numbers of 
T. americanus and lineola. 

The first pronounced flight of T. americanus at dawn at Par- 
adise Key in 1919 occurred on March 10. On March 11 the 
flight had increased about three hundred per cent. 

The junior author had made plans to shoot with dust shot 
some of the lower hovering adults of T. americanus during 1919, 
but had to leave Paradise Key before the flight began. It was 
desired to determine whether the flight was composed entirely 
of males and whether the flies occasionally hovered upside down. 
However, on March 11, H. S. Barber shot three adults with a 
22 caliber pistol, using dust shot. All these adults were hovering 
and were males. The weather was foggy and cloudy and rain 
was forecasted. Adults of Chrysops were common and T, lineola 
was daily increasing in numbers. 

On March 12 the flight of Tabanus americanus at dawn was of 
increased volume. Barber shot two males on the wing, hovering. 
One adult of the nocturnal flying T. jlavus was on the veranda 
screen during the day. 

March 13 was cold and there was no flight. On March 14 it 
was dark and cloudy at the usual time for the flight; there had 
been rain during the night. Nevertheless, there was a consider- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 191 

able flight the heaviest up till that time of the season. Two 
males of T. americanus were shot down during the flight at dawn; 
as usual, no females were observed in the flight. 

On March 15 it was raining and there was no flight of T. amer- 
icanus. On March 16 it was cooler with high winds; on March 
17 there w r ere high winds and no flight; fewer females of T. amer- 
icanus were in evidence, the weather being squally. The tem- 
perature on March 18 was 68 F., and too cool for a flight; the 
numbers of females of T, americanus on tree trunks and screen 
were increasing. On March 19, it was cool and there was no 
flight, but numbers of females of T. americanus were increasing 
on the screens and in the woods. 

On March 21, the temperature was as low as 42 F. at day- 
break; there was no flight. March 22, with a temperature of 
only 58, witnessed the heaviest flight of the season. However, 
the flight had not yet reached the full proportions of last season. 
Numerous female adults of T. flavus were collected on this date. 
There was a slight rain in the afternoon. On March 23 there was 
a strong flight of Tabanus americanus. One female adult of T. 
trijunctiis was collected on the veranda screen on this date. 

The dawn was clear and it was warm on March 24; there was 
a strong flight of T. americanus. One male of T. trijunctus was 
captured in the hammock. 

On April 2 the early morning flight of T. americanus was strong ; 
three males were shot while hovering; all that have so far been 
shot have been males. By April 3 to 4 the flight seems to have 
reached its full height. 

On April 5, 6 and 7 the flight continued normal. 

April 8, 9 and 10 dawned with a heavy fog and no flight; on 
April 10 the males were feeding on flowers in the forest, keeping 
well in the shade during sunshine. 

On April 11 there was a bright dawn, and a strong flight one 
of the loudest and strongest flights ever witnessed. 

From April 12 to 10 the flight continued to be strong (at its 
height) ; two adults were observed to strike in mid-air, descend- 
ing to the brush below, clasped; they escaped before their sex 
could be determined. 

On April 17 there were light show r ers at dawn; there was no 
flight. April 18 was cloudy and there was a very light flight of 
but few minutes' duration. 

From April 19 to 21 there were moderate flights. Females 
were later seen on saw palmetto blossoms. 

On April 22 T. trijunctus was at the height of its season and 
adults were very annoying to both man and beast; the adults 
gathered in automobile tops, followed teams, etc. All work ani- 



192 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

mals were covered with bagging for protection against these gad- 
flies. 

From April 23 to 30 the flight continued to be normal. On 
April 25 the screen door of the veranda was left open for two 
hours following sunrise and 60 T. americanus, 323 T. trijunctiis, 
84 T. lineola and 3 T. flavus female adults were captured. One 
female adult of T. turbidus was also captured. 

On May 1, after a heavy afternoon rain on April 30, there was 
one of the heaviest flights of the season. Rain seems to increase 
the flight. Evidently fresh adults were just emerging and could 
be heard trying out their wings. 

Normal flights occurred on May 2, 3, 4 and 5; the flights always 
being stronger on bright, fair dawns than on foggy, cloudy or 
misty mornings, the duration of the flight being governed by 
the rapidity of dawn. May 6-11 saw the flight decreasing in 
strength, females were in evidence but males were still numerous 
in the shade of the hammock. On May 5 a few female adults of 
T. flavus were collected on the veranda screen. 

On May 12 there was a drizzling rain and no flight. May 13 
dawned foggy and the flight was very short and not as strong 
as usual. 

There was a normal flight on May 14, although the adults were 
decreasing in numbers; there was heavy rainfall in the evening 
and night. 

On May 15 there was a very light flight owing to the damp 
atmosphere. May 16 dawned clear but there was a perceptible 
waning of the flight of the large gadfly. The loud "roaring 
swarming" was past for the season but there were still "strag- 
glers" present in the hammock. While this flight lasted in 1919, 
it was even stronger than in former years. Other gadflies, Ta- 
banus trijunctus and T. lineola, as well as "deerflies" (Chrysops), 
were still abundant and annoying. Mosquitoes were now pres- 
ent and also made life interesting. 

By May 17 the flight was declining in volume daily; the females 
were more abundant than the males. 

From the 18th to 22nd the flight was decreasing and was of 
very much shorter duration lasting-only 9 minutes on May 18. 

On the 23rd the flight was noted only over the densest portion 
of the hammock. 

There was a very small flight on May 24 only 3 adults were 
observed hovering and a few more were heard. 

During the week of May 25 to 31 there was no flight of T. 
americanus. An occasional male could still be observed on flow- 
ers and quite a few females were in evidence. T. lineola adults 
were not so numerous. T. atratus was more in evidence than 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 193 

last year, especially on the lower end of the road to Cape Sable- 
bey ond Paradise Key. 

[une 4. First appearance of T. melanocerus Wied.; this gadfly 
was observed only about dusk and dawn they were more nu- 
merous than last season. T. lineola was plentiful. T. atratus and 
T. turbidus were only occasionally seen. 

On June 9 near the dredge T. americanus, T. melanocerus, 1 . 
flams and T. atratus were collected, T, atratus being the most 
numerous species. 

( )n June 14 the dredge was about Ya m ile from West Lake and 
two miles from the limit of Bade County line. The 'glades were 
full of water to the brim and about one mile of the roadway in 
the glades between here and Homestead was under water. Water 
was running across the road east and west of the Park where 
the Tabanid larvae were dug up. The water was waist deep on 
this date and no more grass grows here than the little that was 
present in February, when the water had just receded. 

June 10-30 T. flavus was more numerous than in 191N; 7. 
atratus was more numerous on the prairies but fewer were in the 
hammock. 

July 10. One adult of T. flavus and two adults of T. melano- 
cerus were collected on the veranda screen. Adults of Chrysops 
were numerous at the hammock. 

On July 16 numerous female adults of the small T. costalis 
Wied. and a few adults of the slightly larger T. lineola were aggre- 
gated in the windows of stores and garages at Homestead, Florida; 
customers were very much annoyed by these gadflies. 

July 29. Tabanus melanocerus and T. linoela were very common 
around stock on the highway, also in pine woods where mules 
were at work. Chrysops were very numerous and troublesome. 
The water on the 'glades was high. 

August 9. T. atratus, turbidus and costalis were common. 

On August 15 several species of Tabanids were collected. 

Aug. 23. Heavy rains appeared to increase the number of the 
Tabanids as more were collected than on Aug. 9 and 15; they were 
more aggressive both to man and beast. 

By September 8, only an occasional adult Tabanid was to be seen 
at Paradise Key. At the dredge, southwest on the Cape Sable 
road, Tabanids were still numerous in the bunk house. 

On Sept. 25-28 T. costalis was the species still aggressive. 

To summarize some species of Tabanus, as americanus and 
trijunctus, are apparently restricted to a definite season, whereas 
other species are active throughout the entire year. 

A calendar of the seasonal activity of Tabinidae (H'18 to 1919) 
in the lower Everglades of Florida is appended. 



194 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 

By the expedient of shooting the flies while hovering, the evi- 
dence has been increased that the main swarm at dawn consists 
of males only and that the females are attracted to these swarm- 
ing males for mating, as in case of certain mosquitoes. These 
flights are probably not the result of concerted action but rather 
a consequence of imitation or desire to follow others. 

With regard to our previous statement that at certain times 
while hovering T. americanus reverses and hovers upside down 
this has not yet been definitely proven or disproven. It is 
very difficult to shoot the flies. 

It must not be concluded from the foregoing notes that mos- 
quitoes and gadflies at Paradise Key are a pest at this beautiful 
Everglade hammock throughout the entire year. These insects 
are not troublesome during the winter months. In place of the 
hum of blood-thirsty mosquitoes, there is at dusk the hum of 
beautiful moths (Sphingidae) which hover over wild purple ver- 
bena blossoms. At night, near West Lake, mosquitoes bother 
while sleeping outdoors (Feb. 25) but these can not be com- 
pared with the later hordes which occur at Paradise Key and the 
offshore reefs. On the open, sawgrass prairies, mosquitoes are 
not a pest. 

Large portions of the Lower Everglades should be set aside as 
a federal preserve. Unless this is done, carelessly, or wantonly 
set forest fires, hurricanes following tree cuttings and trespass 
will ruin the wildness and natural beauty of this region. Hunt- 
ing must be prohibited to save the remaining wild bird life, once 
so wonderful. This will be especially necessary after Ingraham 
Highway from Miami to Cape Sable has been completed. Many 
interesting water birds are still plentiful. 

Anyone who, approaching the edge of Royal Palm Hammock 
(Paradise Key), has seen these majestic, feathery palms -50 to 
130 feet high overtopping the other hammock trees, in silhou- 
ette against a sky tinted by dawn or at dusk *will desire to pre- 
serve this never-to-be-forgotten sight (Plate 17) for future gen- 
erations. 

Royal Palm Hammock (Paradise Key) is at present a State 
Park under supervision of the Florida Federation of Women's 
Clubs. This organization is to be commended on its successful 
efforts in conservation. However, it lacks funds and should 
have further assistance from the state or from the federal gov- 
ernment. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 l'.l.~> 



CALENDAR OF SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF TABANIDAE* 

IN THE LOWER EVERGLADES OF FLORIDA 

1918 TO 1919. 



Species. 

"GADFLIES:" 
Tabanus ameri- 
canus Forster 



Tabanus atratus 
Fabr. 



Tabanus lugu- 
bris Macq. 



Tabanus tur- 
bidus Wied. 



Tabanus trijunc- 
tus Walker 



Tabanus melan- 
ocerus Wied. 



Sex. Locality. 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

d" Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 24 mi. southwest of 
Paradise Key, Fla. 



Date. 



Feb. 28, 1919 
March 10, 1919 
March 12, 1919 
March 27, 1919 
April 16, 1919 
June 9, 1919 



9 24 mi. southwest of June 9, 1919 

Paradise Key. Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. June 10-30, 1919 
9 Paradise Key, Fla. August 15, 1919 

August 23, 1919 
Sept. 28, 1919 

March 31, 1919 
April 7, 15)19 
August 15, 1919 

April y, 1919 
April 25, 1 ill* 
July 13, 1919 

March 22, 1919 
March 27, 1919 
March 31, 1919 
April 7, 1919 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 24 mi. southwest of 

Paradise Key, Fla, 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 



Collector. 



C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 



C. A. Mosier 



C. 
C. 



A. 

A. 



Mosier 
Mosier 



C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 



Tabanus lineal a 
Fabr. 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

* Identifications by C. T. Greene, Ass't Custodian of Diptera. I S Xat 

Museum, based on specimi-ns actually now in this collection. 



June 9, 1919 


C. 


A. 


Mosier 


June 10-30, 1919 


C. 


A. 


MOSHT 


July 10-29, 1919 


C. 


A. 


A I osier 


August 15, 1919 


C. 


A. 


Mosier 


Sept. 9, 1918 


C. 


A. 


MOSHT 


Feb. 18, 1919 


T. 


E. 


Snyder 


Feb. 20, 1919 


C. 


A. 


Mosier 


Feb. 26, 1919 


C. 


A. 


MosHT 



196 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 8, NOV., 1919 



Tabanus 5-vit- 

tatus Wied. 
Tabanus costalis 
Wied 



Tabanus pumi- 
lus Macq. 

Tabanus flavus 
Macq. 



"DEERFLIES" 

Chrysops flavi- 

dus Wied. 



Chrysops plan- 
gens Wied. 

"THE; YELLOW 
FLY OF THE 
DISMAL 

SWAMP" 
Diac lorus fer- 
rugatus Fabr. 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 



Feb. 26, 1919 
March 27, 1919 
April 16, 1919 
June 10-30, 1919 
July 16-29, 1919 
August 15, 1919 
Sept. 28, 1919 



T. E. Snyder 

C. A. Mosier 

.C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. Feb. 21), 1919 T. E. Snyder 



9 Paradise Key, Fla . 

9 Homestead, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 West Lake, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 

9 West Lake, Fla. 

9 Paradise Key, Fla. 



9 Paradise Key, Fla. 
9 Paradise Key, Fla. 
9 Paradise Key, Fla. 



May 22, 1919 C. A. Mosier 

July 16, 1919 C. A. Mosier 

Aug. 9-23, 1919 C. A. Mosier 

Sept. 25-28, 1919 C. A. Mosier 



Feb. 17, 1919 
March 1, 1919 

March 22, 1919 
March 27, 1919 
March 31, 1919 
April 7, 1919 
June 10-30, 1919 
July 10, 1919 



Jan. 27, 1919 
Feb. 17, 1919 
Feb. 22, 1919 
Feb. 25, 1919 
April 13, 1919 
May 22, 1919 
July 29, 191 
August 15, 1919 

Feb. 25, 1919 
March 16, 1919 
April 13, 1919 



Sept. 18, 1918 
March 31, 1919 
May 22, 1919 



C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 



C. A. Mosier 

T. E. vSnyder 

T. E. Snyder 
T. E. Snyder 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

C. A. Mosier 

T. E. Snyder 

C. A. Mosier 



C. A. Mosier 
C. A. Mosier 
C. A. Mosier 



(Actual date of publication November 10, 1919.) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 



PLATE 17 





PARADISE KEY, ROYAL PALM HAMMOCK, LO\YKR EVERGLADES, FLORIDA. 
FIGS. 1 and 4. Royal palm trees (Royslonea regia O. F. Cook), at edge of hammock as 

seen across sawgrass prairie, overtopping other hammock trees. (Photos by Wilson 

Popenoe.) 
FIG. 2. View of tops of royal palms showing clusters of seed below foliage. (Photo by 

W. E. Brown. I 
FIG. 3. View of royal palms showing clear length and taper of trunks. (Photo by 

W. E. Brown.) 



VOL. 21 DECEMBER 1919 No. 9 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

MALLOCH, J. R. THE GENERIC STATUS OF ZODION PALPALIS 
ROBERTSON (DIPTERA, CONOPIDAE), WITH GENERIC KEY TO THE 
FAMILY 204 

MORRISON, HAROLD A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF COCCID FROM 

LORANTHUS (HEM.-HOM.) 197 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President E. R. SASSCER 

First Vice- President W. R. WALTON 

Second Vice- President A. B. GAHAN 

Recording Secretary i R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Representing the Society as a V ice-President of the Washington Academy of 

Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

THE OFFICERS. 
A. N. CAUDELL. A. L. QUAINTANCE. CHAS. R. ELY. 



PROCEEDINGS 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
at Easton, Pa., and Washington, D. C. Terms of subscription: Do- 
mestic, $4.00 per annum; foreign, $4.25 per annum; recent single numbers, 
50 cents, foreign postage extra. All subscriptions are payable in advance. 
Remittances should be made payable to the Entomological Society of 
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Advertising rates on application to the Corresponding Secretary. 

Authors of leading articles in the PROCEEDINGS will be entitled to 25 
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tributors may secure information on these points by application to the Editor 
or Corresponding Secretary. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 21 DECEMBER, 1919 No. 9 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF COCCID FROM LORANTHUS 

(HEM.-HOM.). 

BY HAROLD MORRISON, V. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

From available literature and records, it appears that forty- 
four species of the family Coccidae have already been recorded 
from Loranthus, 1 and it is therefore of some interest to publish 
the addition of not only a new species, but a new genus of this 
family as an inhabitant of this host plant. The species in ques- 
tion was collected by the writer, in company with Mr. G. E- 
Bodkin, Government Economic Biologist of British Guiana, in 
the Botanic Gardens at Georgetown, British Guiana, in Sep- 
tember, 1918, and Mr. Bodkin kindly furnished the name for the 
host plant. A considerable quantity of leaves of the host was 
obtained, but not gone over until some months later, at which 
time, through the careful work of Miss Sadie Keen, an employee 
of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, in picking out and mount- 
ing the different species, it was possible to identify the following 
list of species as occurring on the host material in addition to 
the new species described below: Orthezia praelonga Dougl., Pro- 
topulmnaria pyriformis (Ckll.), Coccus acuminatus (Sign.), Coccus 
elongatus (Sign.), Coccus mangiferae (Green), Coccus viridis 
(Green). Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targ.), Saissetia nigra (Nient.), 
Saissetia oleae (Bern.), Pseudaonidia articulatus (Morg.). All of 
these species were common elsewhere in the garden, and all are 
well known to infest a wide range of host plants. 

The writer is indebted to Emily Morrison for the drawings 
accompanying this paper and for other assistance in its prepara- 
tion. 

1 It seems probable that most of the Coccid records from "Loranthus" 
should be considered as records for the family Loranthaceae, since for example, 
while many of the records are for new world species of both plants and in- 
sects, according to Engler (Die Natnrlichen Pnanzenfamilien, etc., Pt. 3, 
Sec. i, 1889, pp. 156-198), the genus Lnnnithns is confined to the old world 
with very a few exceptions. 

IQ7 



198 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 9, DEC., 1919 

Macrocepicoccus, n. gen. 

Pseudococcine forms with at least a posterior pair of dorsal ostioles, adult 
female with antennae 9-segmented, very elongate, slender, nearly as long 
as body, terminal segment shortest; legs correspondingly elongate, tarsal 
claw nearly straight, without denticle; anal ring with six setae and two rows 
of pores; cerarii typically with two stout spines closely surrounded by a 
single continuous row of heavily chitinized trilocular pores, these surrounded 
in turn by a scattered circle of short tubular ducts; some of the anterior 
cerarii much reduced, with only the tubular ducts remaining; with only 
multicular disk pores, both dorsally and ventrally, in addition to the gland 
types already mentioned; anal lobes small, with short apical hair and without 
ventral chitinous thickening. 

Type of genus. Macrocepicoccus loranthi, n. sp. 

The characters of this genus are such that it is not possible to 
place it accurately in the existing schemes of classification for the 
Pseudococcine coccids, but for the present it can probably be 
considered as being more closely related to the genus Pseudococ- 
cus than to any other. 

Macrocepicoccus loranthi, n. sp. 

Adult Female. -Occurring normally on the under sides of the leaves of the 
host, usually in numbers; maximum length of living specimens about 2 
mm., width less than 1 mm., elongate, rather slender, broadest at the base 
of the abdomen, highest at the same point, moderately convex dorsally, very 
pale yellowish with a faint greenish tinge; body dorsally with faint traces 
of white mealy secretion, this most pronounced just inside the body margin 
and again in a submedian band on each side, thus forming two very vague 
and indistinct longitudinal stripes; also dorsally with scattered very delicate 
glassy threads, these most conspicuous along the margins where they fre- 
quently project as far beyond the body as do the femora or even farther, 
and where they are grouped into a series of clusters, each surrounding a 
single one of the most conspicuous features of the insect, long, slender cylin- 
drical white wax threads, which project forward, laterally and caudally from 
the margin, normally to the number of ten on each side of the body, and 
which in mature undisturbed examples may reach a length of one and a 
half or more times that of the body of the insect, although usually irregularly 
broken off, so that only rarely are any two the same length; with an addi- 
tional pair of stout, much shorter wax plates projecting from the anal region ; 
insect in the dried state retaining much the same outline as when living, 
although becoming much flattened and dull brown in color. 

Body of Female. -Maximum length mounted on a slide about 2 mm., max- 
imum width less than 1 mm. ; elongate, rather slender, broadest in the region 
of the anterior abdominal segments; antennae very elongate, slender, linear, 
9-segmented, the first and last segments shortest, the first about twice the 
.diameter of any of the others, with a fairly large circular pore at the apex 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 9, DEC., 1919 199 

of the second segment and a long blunt curved spine at the apices of each 
of the last three segments, the measurements of the segments in microns as 

follows: 



I. 


n. 


in. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


vm. 


IX. 


71 1 


107 


139.2 


159 


246 


200 


168 


107 


68 


71.4 


103. 5 


146 5 


168 


271.3 


214 


168 


103.5 


ill i' 


75 


100 


133 


168 


232 


21 H I 


171 .5 


93 


68 


71 4 


107 


146.5 


154 


2 7:> 


193 


171.5 


107 


71 .4 


7.-. 


107 


143 


160.6 


264 


218 


168 


107 


68 


71.4 


96.4 


143 


139.2 


218 


196.3 


160.6 


100 


57 


71 4 


96.4 


143 


138.5 


228.5 


189.2 


160.6 


96.3 


l>l 2 


71 4 


96.4 


1 :,( 1 


168 


221.3 


185.6 


160.6 


103.5 


68 


71 .4 


93 


139.2 


1 43 


200 


150 


135.6 


71 .4 


60 n 



legs long and slender, the fore pair a little shorter than the other two, an average 
length of a middle leg as follows: coxa, 78.5yu; trochanter (maximum), 82 ,u, fe- 
mur (maximum), 385.11; ibia (maximum), 410/*; tarsus (not including chuv . 
153/n; claw, 53 ju; tarsal digitule, 68 ,u; claw digitule, 43 n; claw elongate, slender, 
straight with a slight curve near the apex, without denticle, all digitules very- 
slender, hair-like, slightly knobbed at apices; all trochanters with the usual dor- 
sal and ventral pairs of oval pores, or four altogether on each; hind coxae with- 
out pores, submentum triangular, acute at apex, appearing very obscurely 3-seg- 
mented ; dorsal ostioles very obscure, only the posterior pair noted ; cerarii of an 
unusual type, consisting normally of a pair of spines (varying from one to 
three) surrounded by a solid continuous band of heavily chitinized trilocular 
pores with confluent outer borders forming a continuous chitinized rim 
around the whole, and the posterior cerarii, at least, with an indistinct chit- 
inized area around each cerarius, the anal lobe cerarii each with a small 
hair in its rim on the inner side, this not noted on any of the others except 
the anterior pair each of which bears from one to four such hairs; with an 
approximately circular group of short tubular ducts, each with a chitinized 
plate surrounding the opening, around each cerarius; in addition to these 
clusters of short tubular ducts surrounding the typical cerarii, with other 
clusters on the anterior body margins in which the cerarius is missing or 
is represented only by a single spine; assuming these clusters of tubular 
ducts to stand for more or less developed cerarii, then with normally a total 
of fourteen pairs, the arrangement of these in ten specimens being tabulated 
below (the numerals and signs with the following significance : the first 
numeral giving the number of spines present, connecting symbol indicating 
the presence or absence of a number of trilocular pores around the spines, 
the final numeral indicating the number of hairs in the cerarius border, thus 
3 + 1 = three conical spines, numerous trilocular pores and one hair in the 
border of the cerarius; an * indicating the presence of a single trilocular 
pore; ** indicating the presence of two such pores): 



200 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 9, DEC., 1910 



SPECIMEN. 


CERARIUS. 








i. 




II. 


in. 


IV. V. VI. 




VII. 


1 


right 


3 


+ 1 


1 


-0 


1 


+ o 





-0 1+0 


1 


-0 


1 


left 


3 


+ 2 


1 


-0 


1 


+ 


1 


-0 1 1+0 


1 


-0 


2 


right 


2 


+ 2 


1 


-0 


1 


+ 


1 


- 1+0 


1 


-0 


2 


left 


3 


+ 3 





-0 


1 


+ 


*1 


-0 1 --0 1+0 


*1 


-0 


3 


right 


3 


+ 1 


1 


-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


-0 1 -- 1+0 


**1 


-0 


3 


left 


3 


+ 3 


1 


-0 


1 


+ 


1 


-0 1 --0 1+0 


**1 


-0 


(a) 4 


right 


3 


+ ? 


1 


-0 


*1 


+ o 


1 


-0 10 1 --0 




p 


(a) 4 


left 


3 


+ 1 


1 


-0 


*1 


+ o 


1 


-0 ? 1+0 


1 


-0 


5 


right 


3 


+ ? 


1 


-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


-0 1 1+0 


*1 


-0 


5 


left 


3 


+ 2 


1 


-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


-0 1--0 1+0 


1 


-0 


6 


right 


3 


+ 1 





-0 


1 


+ 


1 


-0 1 1+0 


1 


-0 


6 


left 


3 


+ 3 





-0 


1 


+ 


1 


-0 1 --0 1+0 


1 


-0 


7 


right 


3 


+ 3 





-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


-0 1 --0 1+0 


1 


Q 


7 


left 


3 


+ 2 





-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


- 1+0 


1 


-0 


8 


right 


3 


+ 2 


1 


-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


-0 1 --0 1+0 


1 


-0 


8 


left 


3 


+ 1 


1 


- 


1 


+ 


1 


-0 10 1+0 


1 


-0 


(a) 9 


right 


3 


+2 





-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


-0 1 --0 1+0 


1 


+ o 


(a) 9 


left 


3 


+ 2 





-0 


1 


+ o 


1 


- 1+0 


1 


-0 


10 


right 


3 


+ 2 


1 


-0 


1 


+ 


1 


-0 10 1+0 


1 


-0 


10 


left 


3 


+ 2 


1 


-0 


1 


+ 


1 


-0 1 1+0 


*1 


-0 


SPECIMEN. 


CERARIUS. 








VIII 


. 


IX. 




X. 




XI. XII. XIII. 




XIV. 


1 


right 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


1 


left 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


2 


right 




1 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


2 


left 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2 + 2 + 9 


2 


+ 1 


3 


right 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 


3 


left 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


(a) 4 


right 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ ? 


(a) 4 


left 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ ? 


5 


right 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


5 


left 




1 + 





2 + 





2 + 





1+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


6 


right 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 


6 


left 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


7 


right 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2 + 2 + 2 + 


2 


+ 1 


4 


left 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 


8 


right 




2 + 





2 + 





2 + 





2+0 2+0 2+0 


2 


+ 1 



(a) These specimens adult females still enclosed within the preceding stage, 
so that all cerarii appear double and the presence or absence of marginal 
hairs, glands, etc., is difficult to determine with accuracy. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 9, DEC., 1919 201 

8 left 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 1 

(a) 9 right 2+0 2 + 2 + 2 + 2+0 2 + 2 + 1 

(a) 9 left 2 + 2 + 2+0 2 + 2 + 2+0 2 + 1 

10 right 2+0 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 1 

10 left 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2 + 1 

anal lobes not at all produced, without chitinization other than that sur- 
rounding the cerarius, ventrally with one small hair about 71 u long and 
raesad and cephalad of this with another still smaller, about 30 ;c long; ventral 
body margins of the other abdominal segments with a similar arrangement, but 
the hairs much less differentiated in size; anal ring circular or broad oval, 
stout, with 6 setae, the longest about 107^, placed on a ridge-like thickening 
of the center of each half of the ring, with an inner and outer row of pores, 
and with the posterior chitinized portion of the intestine showing in the 
center of the ring; in addition to the ducts surrounding the cerarii, dorsally 
and ventrally with fairly numerous scattered circular disk-shaped gland 
ducts, submarginally with some of the short tubular type, smaller than 
those surrounding the cerarii, and in the thoracic, and to some extent in 
the abdominal regions with a few scattered trilocular pores similar to those 
found in the cerarii; with an occasional long, very slender hair on the body 
both dorsally and ventrally; with a medium-sized, irregularly circular to 
oval cicatrix placed medially a little behind the posterior legs on the ventral 
surface of the abdomen. 

Young Larva. -No specimens definitely recognizable as first stage larvae 
have been examined. Embryonic larvae are present in the bodies of some of 
the mounted adults, but it has not been possible to make out details of 
structure satisfactorily from them. 

Male Larva. About 1 mm. or a little less long, elongate, rather slender, 
sides of abdomen nearly parallel, but tapering and rounded posteriorly, 
broadest at the meso- and metathoracic segments, which distinctly bulge 
outward on each side, the body anterior to this tapering to a rounded 
point at the head; very pale, slightly greenish yellow, with a tinge of reddish 
or brownish on the anterior half; antennae and legs whitish, the former about 
three-fifths the length of the body; body, at least dorsally, with a slight 
coating of very delicate more or less matted glassy secretion threads. (Notes 
from living specimen.) 

Male Pupa. Broader and somewhat smaller than larva, bright pinkish 
in color. 

Adult Male. -About 0.82 mm. long, wing about 0.84 mm. long; antennae 
10-segmented, the measurements as follows: I, about 43/t; II, 46^:111, 57 /u; 
IV, 75/z; V, "OM, VI, 96/i; VII, 107^; VIII, 9(> M ; IX, 84^; X, 46 M ; with some 
hairs on the segments, but with numerous stout peg-like spines, with bluntly 
rounded tips; with four hemispherical ocelli; legs long and slender, claw and 
digitules as in the female, the other segments with fairly numerous short 



202 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 9, DEC., 1919 

hairs and stout peg-like spines; abdominal structure not determinable from 
the single specimen at hand. 

This species has been described mostly from ten specimens 
mounted on slides. The color and other notes relating to the 
external appearance of the different stages have been made from 
living specimens in the field. The material was collected by the 
writer on Loranthus sp., a parasitic plant related to mistletoe, 
growing in this case on soursop (Anona muricatd) in the experi- 
mental orchard of the Department of Science and Agriculture 
Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, British Guiana, in September, 
1918. 

The types are in the United States National Collection of 
Coccidae. 

It may be of some interest to note that only this single colony 
of the species was observed, although a number of parasitic plants 
were examined in various parts of the gardens. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Antenna of adult female, X68. 

Fig. 2. Multilocular disk gland openings found on both dorsum and venter 
of body, X512. 

Fig. 3. Middle leg of adult female, X80. 

Fig. 4. Trilocular pores found on body, the larger to the right from a cer- 
arius, the smaller from the dorsum of the body, X512. 

Fig. 5. Wing of the male, X46. 

Fig. 6. Antenna of male, X92. 

Fig. 7. Leg of male, X92. 

Fig. 8. Short tubular ducts of body, those to the right from the group sur- 
rounding each cerarius, that to the left from the dorsum of the 
body, X512. 

Fig. 9. Outline of body of adult female, showing size and relation of ap- 
pendages, anal ring, number and position of cerarii, spiracles and 
ventral median cicatrix, X40. 

Fig. 10. Antepenultimate cerarius, showing number and arrangement of the 
spines, trilocular pores and short tubular ducts and the character 
and extent of the chitinization, X512. 

Fig. 11 . Anterior apex of body of adult female, showing position and arrange- 
ment of cerarii, hairs and glands, dorsum to the right, venter to 
the left, XI 32. 

Fig. 12. Posterior apex of abdomen of adult female, showing position and 
arrangement of cerarii, pores and glands, hairs and anal ring, 
dorsum to the right, venter to the left, X132. . 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21 



PLATE 18 




n 



MORRISON MACROCBPICOCCUS LORANTHI 



204 PROC. E)NT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 9, DEC., 1919 

THE GENERIC STATUS OF ZODION PALPALIS ROBERTSON 
(DIPTERA, CONOPIDAE), W^TH GENERIC KEY TO THE 

FAMILY. 

J. R. MALLOCH, Urbana, III. 

While visiting Mr. Charles Robertson in 1918 I obtained from 
him a specimen of his species Zodion palpalis in order to ascertain 
if it really belonged to the genus in which he had described it, 
some doubt having been expressed on that point by one of Mr. 
Robertson's correspondents. The species undoubtedly runs out 
to Zodion when one uses Williston's key to the genera, but there 
are some characters which ally it closely with Occemyia as well 
as those which indicate its affinities with Zodion. In fact, the 
species possesses some of the characters of both genera and the 
only course possible to me is to erect for the reception of the 
species a new genus which is accordingly done in this paper. 

I give a synoptic key to the genera occurring north of Mexico, 
as the most efficient method of expressing the relations and dis- 
tinctions of this and other genera. Many of the characters used 
in the key are used here for the first time. 

Key to Genera. 

1. Pteropleura with a long bristle; vertex, lateral margins of dorsum of 

thorax, and scutellum with a few long strong bristles; anal cell very 

small (Stylogastrinae) Stylogaster Macquart 

Pteropleura unarmed; vertex, lateral margins of drosum of thorax, and 
scutellum without bristles, or with a few which are but little differen- 
tiated from the surrounding hairs; anal cell large 2 

2. Third antennal joint with a 3-jointed style at apex; abdomen con- 

stricted basally, the second ?nd usually the third segments longer 
than broad; subcosta and first branch of radius connected by a 
cross-vein; halteres with some short hairs at base of knobs on outer 

side (Conopinae) 3 

Third antennal joint with a dorsal arista ; abdomen not noticeably con- 
stricted basally, the second and third segments each broader than 
long (Myopinae) .... 4 

3. Propleura with a bristle on lower margin; posterior metathoracic area 

below base of abdomen and extending between hind coxae not uni- 
formly chitinized, the small portion projecting from between coxae 
separated from the broad upper portion by a much less heavily chit- 
inized area; hind femora regu'arly thickened, the thickest part ;il 

middle Conors Liniu 

Propleura bare; posterior metathoracic area below base of abdomen 
uniformly heavily chitinized; femora irregularly thickened on basal 
half I'liysuccplniln Sehiner 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 21, NO. 9, DEC., 1919 205 

4. A cross-vein connecting subcosta and first branch of radius; proboscis 

not geniculated at middle 5 

No cross- vein connecting subcosta and first branch of radius; these 
veins sometimes slightly fused at apices; proboscis geniculated at or 
near middle as well as at base 6 

5. Femora without short thorns on apical half of antero- and postero-ven- 

tral surfaces; first posterior cell open, or closed at extreme apex; 
palpi very small, not longer than diameter of proboscis at their bases 

Zodion Latreille 

Femora with some short thorns on apical half of antero- and postero- 
ventral surfaces; first posterior cell long-stalked; palpi long, about 3 

times as long as diameter of proboscis at their bases 

Robertsonomyia gen. n. 

6. Femora without short thorns on apical half of antero- and postero-ven- 

tral surfaces; anal cell short, basal section of fifth vein not longer 

than apical Dalmannia Robineau-Desvoidy 

Femora with short thorns on apica! half of antero- and postero-ventral 
surfaces; anal cell elongate, basal portion of fifth vein much longer 
than apical 7 

7. Hind coxae bare on their inner posterior margin; cheek as high or al- 

most as high as eye Myopa Fabricius 

Hind coxae with some hairs on inner posterior margin; cheek not nearly 
as high as eye Occemyia Robineau-Desvoidy 

Robertsonomyia, gen. n. 

The relationships and distinguishing characters of this genus 
are given in the synopsis. The genus is undoubtedly closely 
allied to Zodion but possesses many of the characters of Occemyia . 

Genotype. Zodion palpalis Robertson. 

The type and only species of this genus has been recorded only 
from Illinois by Mr. Charles Robertson, in whose honor the genus 
is named. 



( . 1 final date 'af publication f)cce.iher 8, 1 '. M ' i 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXI 



Acmaeoderini, Key to North American genera, 

91. 

Agrilus angelicus, Description of three para- 
sites of, 4. 

Akermes bruneri, 82. 

Alcidinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 31. 
ALDRICH, J. M.: Two new genera of Antho- 

myidae, 106. 
Ambopogon, new gen., 126; hyperboreus, n. 

sp., 127. 

Amerininae, new name, 32. 
Anacampsis Curtis and Compsolechis Mey- 

rick, 95. 

Anthomyidae, Two new genera of, 106. 
Apanteles iselyi, n. sp., 120. 
Aphididae, Notes on some Japanese, 173. 
Aproaerema Durrant and Stomopteryx Heine- 

mann, 96. 
Apterolophus, new gen., 3; pulchricornis, n. 

sp., 3. 

Aristotelia fragariae, n. sp., 52. 
Asaphidon, Two new species of, from North 

America, 178; alaskanum, n. sp., 178; 

yukonense, n. sp., 180. 
Aspidiotes hederae, 86. 
Asterolecanium viridulum, 66. 
Atopognathus, new gen., 116; collaris, n. 

sp., 117. 
Avocado, A Microlepidopteron injurious to, 

53; Seed weevils, 53. 

BAKER, A. C.: Identity of Smynthurodes 
betae Westwood, 36; An undescribed spe- 
cies of Dryopea injuiious to Phyllostachys, 
104. 

Bank Swallows' nests, Insect fauna of, 110. 

BARBER, H. S.: Avocado Seed weevils, 53. 

Bibliography of Frederick Knab, 41; of Allan 
H. Jennings, 63. 

Birchippia americana, 67. 

Body Lice, Studies on dry cleaning process 
as means of destroying, 8. 

BOVING, ADAM G., W. DWIGHT PIERCE AND 
AUGUST BUSCK: Obituary of Allan Hinson 
Jennings, 61. 

Bucculatrix, A new species of, injurious to 
Hollyhock, 109; althaeae, n. sp., 109. 

BURKE, H. E.: Notes on a cocoon making 
Colydiid, 123; Notes on the California Oak 
worm, Phrygandia californica, 124. 

BUSCK, AUGUST: Two Microlepidoptera in- 
jurious to strawberry, 52; On some gen- 
eric Synonomy of the family Gelechiidae, 



94; A new species of Bucculatrix injurious 

to Hollyhock, 109; A Microlepidopteron 

injurious to Avocado, 125. 
BUSCK, AUGUST, A. N. CAUDELL AND L. O. 

HOWARD: Obituary of Frederick Knab, 41. 
BUSCK, AUGUST, ADAM G. BOVING AND W. 

DWIGHT PIERCE: Obituary of Captain 

Allan Hinson Jennings, 61. 
BUSCK, AUGUST, W. D. HUNTER AND CARL 

HEINRICH: Obituary of Emerson Liscum 

Diven, 177. 

Calendra Clairville to replace Sphenophorus 
Schonherr, 26. 

California Oak worm, Notes on, 124. 

CAUDELL, A. N.: Palmodes praestans and 
its prey, 40. 

CAUDELL, A. N., A. BUSCK AND L. O. HOW- 
ARD: Obituary of Frederick Knab, 41. 

Cerambycidae, New genus and species of, 
from Colorado, 38. 

Ceroplastes bruneri, 76; deciduosus, n. sp., 
79; grandis, 77; lucidus, 78; misiones, n. 
sp., 81; novaesi, 78; subrotundus, 78. 

Chaitophorinella acerifoliae, 175; koelreu- 
teriae, 175; kuwanaii nom. nov., 176. 

Chalcid-wasp, A new genus of, belonging to 
the family Eulophidae, 2. 

"Chalastogastrous" Hymenoptera, Genitalia 
and terminal abdominal structures of 
males, and terminal structures of larvae, 
129. 

Cionidae, new family of Curculionoidae, 24. 

Cleopomiarus, new subgenus of Miarus, 34; 
Table of North American species, 34. 

Coccidae from Argentina, Report on a col- 
lection of, with descriptions of apparently 
new species, 63; A new genus and species 
of, from Loranthus, 197; Species found on 
Loranthus in the Botanic Gardens, George- 
town, British Guiana, 197. 

Coelosternus, 25. 

COLCORD, MABEL: Bibliography of Frederick 
Knab, 43. 

Colydiid, Notes on u cocoon making, 123. 

Compsolechia Meyrick, and Anacampsis Cur- 
tis, 95. 

Conopidae, Generic Key of, 204. 

Conotrachelus perseae, n. sp., 56; serpen- 
tinus, 56. 

Cossonidae, a family of Curculionoidea, 26. 

CRAMPTON, G. C.: The genitalia and ter- 
minal abdominal structures of males, and 



2O6 



INDEX 



20? 



the terminal abdominal structures of the 
larva of "Chalastogastrous" Hymenop- 
tera, 129. 

Cryptorhynchidius, a family of Curculion 
oidea, 25. 

Cryptorhynchidius, nom. nov., 25. 

Curculionoidea, Contributions to our Knowl- 
edge of the superfamily, 21; Synopsis of 
the classification, 22. 

Curculionoidae, the family of, 24. 

CUSHMAN, R. A.: New genera and species of 
Ichneumon flies, 112. 

Cynipoid, Description of a new, from Trin- 
idad, 156. 

Cyrtobasis rogae, n. sp., 115. 

Dendrocerus, A new species of the Serph- 
idoid genus, 121; conwentziae, n. sp., 122; 
var. rufus, n. var., 123. 

Derelominae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 32. 

Deretaphrus oregonensis, 123. 

Derocentrus, new gen., 113; gracilipes, 114; 
texanus, 114. 

Dexia analis, 20; flavipennis, 20. 

Diglyphosema anastrophae, n. sp., 156. 

Dinotus agrili, n. sp., 6. 

DIVEN, EMERSON LISCUM, Obituary of, 177. 

Doryctes maculipennis, n. sp., 7. 

Drepanoglossa lucens, 20; occidentalis, 20. 

Dryopea, An undescribed species of, injur- 
ious to Phyllostachys, 104; morrisoni, n. 
sp., 105. 

Eccoptinae, new subfamily of Orbitidae, 22. 
Elatotrypes, new gen., 38; hoferi, n. sp., 39. 
Enderinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 37. 
Epipedinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 33. 
Epigrimyia, 20. 
Eriococcus, Table of South American species, 

68; braziliensis, 73; jorgenseni, n. sp., 73; 

leguminicola, n. sp., 71; mendozae, n. sp., 

69. 
Erium, Note on the genus, 74; armatum, 75. 

FISHER, W. S.: Note on Macrobasis murina 
Leconte, 1; New genus and species of Cer- 
ambycidae from Colorado, 38; Descrip- 
tion of a new genus and species of Bupres- 
tidae from Arizona, 88; Descriptions of 
new North American Ptinidae, with notes 
on an introduced Japanese species, 181. 

Forda betae, 38. 

Gadflies in the lower Everglades of Florida 
during 1918 and 1919, 186. 

GAHAN, A. B.: A new genus of Chalcid-wasp 
belonging to the family Eulophidae, 2; A 
new species of the Serphidoid genus Den- 



drocerus, 121; Descriptions of seven new 

species, of Opius, 161. 
GREENE, CHARLES J.: A new genus in Scato- 

phagidae, 126. 
Greenidea kuwanae, 174. 
Gymnetron, 27; Table of subgenera, 28. 

Haplonychinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 31. 

Heilipus lauri, 53; pittieri, n. sp., 54, 55. 

HEINRICH, CARL, AUGUST BUSCK AND W. D . 
HUNTER: Obituary of Emerson Liscum 
Diven, 177. 

HERBERT, FRANK B.: A new species of Mat- 
sucoccus from pines in California, 157. 

HOWARD, L. O., A. BUSCK AND A. N. CAU- 
DELL: Obituary of Frederick Knab, 41. 

HUNTER, W. D., CARL HEINRICH AND AU- 
GUST BUSCK: Obituary of Emerson Liscum 
Diven, 177. 

HUTCHINSON, R. H., AND W. D. PIERCE: 
Studies on the dry cleaning process as 
means of destroying body lice, 8. 

Hymenoptera, "Chalastogastrous," Struc- 
tures of male genitalia and terminal abdom- 
inal segments, and terminal abdominal 
segments of larvae, 129. 

Hyperidae, a family of Curculionoidea, 24. 

Hyposoter fugitivus, var. pacificus, n. var., 
119. 

Icerya minima, n. sp., 64. 

Ichneumon flies, New genera and species of, 

112. 

Insect fauna of Bank Swallows' nests in Vir- 
ginia, 110. 
Isorhynchinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 32. 

JENNINGS, CAPTAIN ALLAN HINSON: Obituary 
of, 61; Bibliography of, 63. 

KNAB, FREDERICK, Obituary of, 41; Bibliog- 
raphy of, 43. 

Labrossyta ruficoxalis, n. sp., 118. 
Laemosaccinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 

31. 

Leskiine Synonymy, Note on, 20. 
Liparidae, new family of Curculionoidea, 23. 

Macrobasis murina, Note on, 1; unicolor, 1. 
Macrocepicoccus, new gen., 198; loranthi, n. 

sp., 198. 
MALLOCH, J. R.: The generic status of Zo- 

dion palpalis Robertson, with generic key 

to the Conopidae, 204. 
Matsucoccus, A new species of, from pines 

in California, 157; fasciculensis, n. sp., 157. 
Mecinini, Studies of the tribe, 26, 27. 



208 



INDEX 



Menemachinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 

31. 
Metatypinae, new subfamily of Orobitidae, 

32. 
Miarinae, new subfamily of Orobitidae, 30. 

Studies of North American, 33. 
Miarus, Table of subgenera, 34; Table of 

North American species, 34. 
Microglotta sp., found in birds' nests, 111. 
Microlepidoptera injurious to strawberry, 52; 

injurious to avocado, 125. 
MORRISON, HAROLD: Report on a Collection 

of Coccidae from Argentina, with description 

of apparently new species, 63; A new genus 

and species of Coccid from Loranthus, 197. 
MOSIER, C. A., AND T. E. SNYDER: Notes on 

the seasonal activity of Tabanidae in the 

lower Everglades of Florida, 186. 
Myobia depile, 20; gilensis, 20; thecata, 20. 
Myzocallis zelkowae, n. sp., 173. 

Neohedobia, new gen., 183; texana, n. sp., 

183. 

Nerthopinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 31. 
Nippolachnus piri, 175. 

Obituaries: Frederick Knab, 41; Allan Hin- 
son Jennings, 61; Emerson Liscum Diven, 
177. 

Opius, Description of seven new species, 161; 
cereus, n. sp., 169; cupidus, n. sp., 162; 
downesi, n. sp., 164; lectus, n. sp., 167; 
richmondi, n. sp., 165; trinidadensis, n. sp., 
168; turned, n. sp., 163. 

Orchestinae, Table of tribes, 26. 

Orobitidae, a family of Curculionoidea, 27; 
Synopsis of classification, 29; Table of sub- 
families, 29. 

Orobitinae, a subfamilj- of Orobitidae, 32. 

Pagiocerus rimosus, 59. 

Palmodes praestans and its prey, 40. 

Paratyudaris, new gen., 92; coursetiae, n. sp., 
93. 

Pectinophora Busck, and Platyedra Mey- 
rick, 94. 

Pediculus humanus, var. corpoiis. Studies on 
dry cleaning process as a means of destroy- 
ing, 8. 

Pemphigus betae, :!7. 

Pergandia, new gen., 10H; apivoni. n. sp., 106. 

Phryganidia calif ornica, 124. 

PIERCE, W. DWIOHT: Contributions to our 
knowledge of the- weevils of I In- :^uper- 
lamily Curculionoidea, 21. 

PIERCE. W. DWIGHT, AND R. If. HUTCHISO 
Studies on the dry cleaning process as a 
moans of destroying boilv lirr. S. 



PIERCE, W. DWIGHT, AUGUST BUSCK AND 
ADAM G. BOVING: Obituary of Captain 
Allen Hinson Jennings, 61. 

Platyedra Meyrick, and Pectinophora Busck, 
94. 

Psaliduridae, a family of Curculionoidea, 23. 

Psallidiidae, a family of Curculionoidea, 23. 

Pseudamycterus, nom. nov., 23. 

Pseudokermes nitens, 82. 

Pseudonomaretus manni, n. sp., 170. 

Ptilineurus marmoratas Reitter, Notes on, 
185. 

Ptinidae, Descriptions of new North Ameri- 
can, with notes on an introduced Japanese 
species, 181. 

Ptinobius, Key to species, 4; agrili, n. sp., 5; 
californicus, 4; magnificus, 4; texanus, 4. 

Ptinus barberi, n. sp., 182; mitchelli. n. sp., 
181. 

Pyropinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 33. 

Rhinusa, Table of North American species, 
28; antirrhini, 28; plagiellum, 29; subro- 
tundatum, 29; teter, 29. 

Rhopalosiphum sambucicola, 176. 

Rhynchophoridae, a family of Curculionoidea, 
25. 

Rhyncolus lauri, 58. 

Robertsonomyia, new gen., 205; palpalis, 
204, 205. 

ROHWER, S. A.: Descriptions of three para- 
sites of Agrilus angelicus, 4; Description 
of a new Cynipoid from Trinidad, 156. 

Saissetia argentina, n. sp., 83; oleae, 83; 

silvestri, 83. 

Sarcophagidae, A new genus in, 126. 
Sawflies, see "Chalastogastrous' Hymenop- 

tera. 129. 
Scaphinotus (Pseudonomaretus) manni, n. 

sp., 170. 

Scatophagidae, a new gen. of, 12li. 
SHANNON, R. C., AND T. E. SNYDER: Notes 

on the insect fauna in Bank Swallows' nests 

in Virginia, 110. 
Siphoclytia, 20. 
Sitophilus Schonherr, to replace Calandra 

Auct., 20. 
Smynthurodes betae Westwood, Identity of, 

36. 
SNYDER. T. E: Some significant structural 

modifications in nearctic Termites, !7 
SNYDER, T. E., AND R. C. SHANNON: Notes 

on the insect fauna of Hank Swallows' i 

in Virginia, 110. 
Sphcnouivia. new gen., KIS; kiiu-aidi, 11 



INDEX 



209 



Stenoma catenifer, 125. 
Stomaphis yanonis, 176 
Stomopteryx Heinemann, and Aproaerema 

Durrant, 96. 
Strawberry, Two Microlepidoptera injurious 

to, 52. 

Tabanidae in the lower Everglades of Florida, 
Seasonal activity of, 186, 195. 

Tachardia lycii, 75. 

Tachypus elongatus, 178. 

TAKAHASHI, RYOICHI: Notes on some Jap- 
anese Aphididae, 173. 

Termites, Some significant modifications in 
nearctic, 97; Modified prothoracic tibiae 
of workers, 97; Sense organs, 99; Swarm- 
ing, 100; Wing venation, 101; Mobility of 
the reproductive forms, 101; Apterous re- 
productive forms, 102; Soldiers with wing 



pads possibly fertile, 102; Absence of sol- 
dier caste, 103; The frontal gland, 103. 

Tortricodes fragariana, n. sp., 52. 

TOWNSEND, CHARLES H. T.: Notes of Les- 
kiine synonymy, 20. 

Trichodesma pratti, n. sp., 194. 

Trioza koebelei, 59; magnoliae, 59. 

Trypetidinae, new subfamily name, 33. 

Tyndaris, Notes on the genus, 92. 

Ulomascinae, a subfamily of Orobitidae, 33 . 

Weevil larvae and pupae. Importance of 
their structural and biological characters 
in taxonomy, 21. 

Weevils in Avocado seeds, 53. 

WICKHAM, H. F. : Scaphinotus (Pseudonomare- 
tus) mannii, n. sp., 170; Two new species 
of Asaphidion from North America, 178. 



VOL. 22 JANUARY 1920 No. 1 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



r- 



CONTENTS 



o 1920 

V _ 





CRAIGHEAD, . C. BIOLOGY OF SOME COLEOPTERA OF THE FAMILIES 
COLYDIIDAE AND BOTHRIDERIDAE ............................... 1 

MCATEE, W. L., AND BANKS, NATHAN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DIPTERA : 
ASILIDAE .................................................. 13 



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VOL. 22 JANUARY, 1920 No. 1 



BIOLOGY OF SOME COLEOPTERA OF THE FAMILIES 
COLYDIIDAE AND BOTHRIDERIDAE. 

Bv F. C. CRAIGHEAD, V. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

Several species of the family Colydiidae which show very dif- 
ferent larval structures and habits have been reared by the 
writer. These forms were grouped by the older systematists in 
the family Colydiidae which included the Bothrideridae, but the 
latter have since been separated as a distinct family. An anal- 
ysis of the available larvae substantiates the erection of the forms 
allied to Bothrideres to family rank. In fact, the two types, as 
represented by the last named genus and Aulonium have very 
few fundamental characters in common. The material here de- 
scribed is from the U. S. National Museum and Forest Insects 
Collections. 

The larvae of some of the European species 1 of these families 
have been described but none of the North American forms. In 
fact, several records of food habits constitute the entire pub- 

1 Aulonium trisulcum Geoffr. Westwood-Trans. Ento. Soc. London, 

1839. 
Aulonium ruficorne Oliv. (A. bicolor Herbst). Perris-Insectes du Pin 

Maritime, 1853. 

Aglenus brunneus Gyll. Rey-Ann. Soc. Linn., 1887. 
Cerylon histeroides F. Erichson-Naturgeschichte der Insecten Deutch- 

lands-Erste Altheilung, Coleoptera, Berlin, 1848. 
Colobicus margitiatus Latr. Perris-Larves des Coleopteres. 1877. 
Colydium filiforme F. Ratzeburg-DieForstinsecten. 1837. 
Ditoma crenata Fabr. Perris-Insectes du Pin Maritime, 1853. 
Synchitahumeralisf (Ditoma juglandisf.). Nordlinger-Stettin. Ento. 

Zeit. p. 256, Vol. 9, 1848. 
Endophloeus markovichiana Pill. (sf>i>iulosns Latr.). Perris -Larves 

Coleopteres, 1877. 

Langelandia anopthahtui Aubc. Perris Larves des Coloepteres, LS77. 
Orthocircus clavicornips (nuiticus) L. Rupcrtsberger Verhdl. Zoo. Bot. 

Ges. Wien. p. 7-28, 1872. 
Synchitodes crenatus Herbst. Perris Insectes du Pin Maritime, is.".:;. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920. 

lished data on our fauna. Drury (1878) 1 published a brief note 
on two species of Bothrideridae, Bothrideres geminatus Say. and 
Erotybothris exaratus Melsh., stating that they spin cocoons. 
Stebbing (1914) 2 likewise calls attention to this fact (on an Indian 
species) and states that the larvae are predaceous. 

The described European species all belong to the Colydiidae. 
In several cases it is noted that the larvae are predaceous but 
all species here described and reared are purely feeders on de- 
caying vegetable matter. It is possible that the genus Colydiuvn 
may be predaceous basing the supposition on the habits of the 
adult. 

COLYDIIDAE. 

In the family Colydiidae the genera Auloniwn, Ditorna, Phloe- 
onemus, N ematidium and Synchita have been studied. They may 
be characterized as follows: 

Elongate, cylindrical to subcylindrical; legs well developed, five jointed 
coxae conical, well separated, tarsi claw-like (no tarsal claws) ; head extended 
from prothorax, nearly hypognathous, labrum well defined, mouth parts 
deeply retracted; hypopharynx, which is lightly chitinized, strongly con- 
nected by arm of hypostoma; inner side of stipes free to near base; cardo 
transverse, obliquely articulating with stipes; maxillary sclerite large, 
cushioned; gula well defined, forming a strong support between ventral epi- 
cranial halves; mandibles having well developed molar part, bidentate at 
apex and no retinaculum ; antennae contiguous to mouth frame, three-jointed 
(except Nematidium) with supplementary joint; pre and posthypopleural 
chitinization of thorax very narrow; presternum of prothorax large, subtri- 
angular; presternal fold of meso- and meta thorax well defined; cerci of two 
rigid recurved spines, usually with a sac-like depression between; tenth seg- 
ment wart-like, ventral; spiracles bifore, mesothoracic on presternal ring. 

TAXONOMIC POSITION OF THE COLYDIIDAE. 3 

The larvae of the Colydiidae must be regarded as belonging 
to the so-called Heteromerous series. In fact, it is difficult to 
find characters that will separate them from certain of these 
families. The retraction and structure of the mouth parts is 
common to a large series of families beginning with the Cucujidae 
and Cryptophagidae. It appears in the Mycetophagidae, By- 
turidae and all the Heteromerous families except the Mordellidae, 

1 Drury, Charles. Canadian Ento. Vol X, p. 210, 187s. 

2 Indian Forest Insects. London, 1914 E. P. Stebbing, p. 334. 

3 The following taxonomic discussion is based on a joint study of the 
characterization of Coleopterous larvae undertaken by A. G. Boving and 
F. C. Craighead. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. I, JAN., IQ2O 

Meloidae and Rhipiceridae. These mouth parts are character- 
ized by the deep retraction, the large maxillary sclerite and the 
greater portion of stipes being free, i. e., the inner margin is free 
from both mentum and maxillary sclerite to near base. This 
allows considerable lateral and forward movement of the max- 
illae. However, the graduation through larval characters from 
so-called Clavicorn forms to Heteromerous types is so gradual 
that the recognition of the latter series cannot be substantiated 
by the larvae. 

Many of the larger Heteromera have a strongly chitinized 
hypopharynx. This is not developed in any of the Colydiidae 
nor likewise in certain Heteromerous families, especially the 
smaller species. From the Cucujidae and Cryptophagidae, the 
Colydiidae can be distinguished by not having falciform lacinia, 
from the Mycetophagidae by the distinct triangular presternum 
and from other related families by the cereal structures. These 
two curved cerci, with a sac-like depression between, occur in 
certain Heteromera having the chitinous hypopharynx, but these 
seldom have the bifore spiracle. 

Description of the Larvae and Pupae. 
Aulonium tuberculatum Lee. 

Larva. -Form elongate, cylindrical, slightly wider along 5th and 6th seg- 
ments; integument smooth, lightly chitinized, though somewhat heavier on 
the last terga; sparsely haired. 

Head subcircular, slightly depressed, projecting; occipital foramen pos- 
terior, epicranial halves ventrally separated by a semi-chitinous gular region ; 
ventral mouth parts deeply retracted, hypostomal margins more heavily chiti- 
nized and having a well-defined hypostomal bracon connected with hypophar- 
ynx; the latter having a transverse narrow chitinization; clypeus and labrum 
distinct, the latter transverse; front broadly fusiform, nearly bisecting epi- 
cranial halves, sutures not complete anteriorly; antennae laterally inserted, 
three-jointed; first joint transverse, second barrel-shaped, bearing a dis- 
tinct supplementary joint, third elongate, slender; ocelli five behind base 
of antennae, grouped in sets of three and two. Mandibles, grinding type, 
having well developed molar part bearing fine asperities on the inner face, 
apex bifid and cutting edge bearing two obtuse teeth; ventral mouth parts 
but slightly chitinized, maxillary sclerite large cushioned; cardo transverse, 
chitinized portion transversely triangular; lacinia broad truncate at aprx, 
bearing short chitinous points on inner margin, maxillary palpi three-jointed 
on a lobe-like palpifer; submentum hour-glass shaped; mentum b;im-l- 
shaped; stipes transversely fused; labial palpi two-jointed; apical joint cy- 
lindrical; ligula broad oval. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920 

Protergum about as wide as long, not differentiated from epipleurum at 
sides; presternal plate of prothorax elliptical, distinct; presternal ring well- 
defined on mesothorax and metathorax, former bearing spiracle; hypopleural 
chitinizations very narrow line-like, the prehypopleural stronger; hypo- 
pleural suture distinct, bearing coiidyle of coxa. Legs strong, about as long 
as width of body, five-jointed, coxa large, conical widely separated; tro- 
chanter short, femur about equaling tibia, tarsus shaped as a flattened claw. 

Segments uniformly chitinized, or slightly heavier on tergum which is 
entire and bearing anteriorly a transverse, curved, dentate carina; epipleurum 
slightly protuberant; hypopleurum less so; sternum laterally bearing two 
faint longitudinal impressions below coxal lobe. Ninth abdominal segment 
terminal, with tergum heavily chitinized and bearing two strongly recurved un- 
jointed cerci, the latter having between a deep cylindrical pit; tenth wart- 
like, ventral, having several small projecting papillae. Spiracles annular, 
bifore, a little larger than ocelli. 

Pupa. Form as Ditoma, head concealed beneath prothorax; latter elong- 
ate, rectangular bearing four tubercles on anterior margin, the median two 
larger, lateral margins multidentate, with setiferous teeth; scutellum of 
mesothorax oval; abdominal terga bearing one or two lateral setiferous 
papillae and also one on epipleurum; last tergum bearing two strongly re- 
curved chitinous points. 

Described from specimens, Hopk. U. S. No. 11872y, collected 
by the writer at East Falls Church, Va., under bark of dead pine 
log containing developing Scolytid larvae. 

They feed under the bark of a variety of coniferous trees and 
are usually found after the inner bark has been considerably 
macerated by other larvae. Very young larvae have been col- 
lected and reared in confinement and they feed entirely on this 
vegetable tissue. The pupal cell consists of a small oval enlarge- 
ment in this macerated bark. 

Ditoma crenata F. 1 

Luri'ti. Similar to Auloniiim tuberculatum in all essential characters, but 
the body is slightly more depressed, the terga lack the transverse carina of 
asperities, and the ninth tergum is not heavily chitinized, but bears two slen- 
der, recurved cerci and a shallow pit between them. The largest specimen 
measures 5'/2 mm. long. 

Pupa. Similar to A. tiiberciilntiiiii, except by the arrangements of papillae 
on margin of r)ronotum, and cerci not strongly recurved. 

Described from two larvae and one pupa in the U. S. N. M. 
collection. One larva from Dr. Meinert from the Zoo. Mus., 
Copenhagen, Denmark; one larva and pupa from E. C. Rosen- 
berg, Copenhagen, Denmark. The latter were collected under 

1 This larva has been described by Ferris Insects du Pin Maritime, 1853. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAX., 1920 5 

the bark of Fa gits silvaticus, September 30, 1S95, Dyrehaven, 
Denmark. 

Phloeonemus catenulatus Horn. 

Larva. -Similar to Aulonituii but slightly more depressed; antennae and 
palpi more slender; mandibles having brush of hairs on molar part; carina 
on terga less pronounced and more regular; eighth and ninth terga not 
strongly chitinized, latter bearing cerci as figure; spiracles having bifore 
lobes much larger. 

Described from specimens in the U. S. Nat. Museum, labeled 
587 Beeville, Texas, November, 1895. These were collected by 
E. A. Schwartz in the gum exuding from scars on mesquite trees. 

Synchita fuliginosa Melsh. 

Larva. Form elongate, subcylindrical, having slight dorsal and ventral 
ampullar protuberances, each bearing a lateral and transverse impression; 
maximum length, 6 mm.; integument white, not chitinized, sparsely clothed 
with long, slender hairs. Ninth tergum projecting in a single recurved 
cercus bifurcated at the apex ; pre- and post-hypopleural chitinizations of 
thorax line-like and very faint; otherwise essentially as Aitlonium except 
that the terga do not bear the transverse carina. 

Described from specimens, Hopk. U. S. No. 9709. 

These larvae have always been found under bark associated 
with fungous growth. They are very common in cankers of the 
chestnut bark disease (Endothia) feeding on the deteriorating bark 
or fungus mycelium. The adults eat the conidial threads. 

Synchita sp. 

Larva. Distinguished from .S". full gin ami by the more slender and more 
strongly recurved cerci. 

Pupa. Essentially as Ditoma but having the pronotum wider in front 
and regularly beset around the anterior and lateral margins with small finely 
setose papillae. Setae of body very fine; last tergum bearing two conical, 
widely separated, erect, projecting, but slightly chitinized points. 

Descriptions from specimens, Hopk. U. S. No. 10083t. They 
were collected at East Falls Church, Va., under the bark of a 
dead spruce log, associated with a white mouldy growth. The 
adult has not been specifically determined. 

Nematidium nlliforme Lee. 

Larva. -Form very elongate cylindrical; largest specimen 12 mm. long, 

by 1 mm. wide; integument thin, rather thickly beset with short stiff hairs. 

Head elongate-oval, strongly chitinized; labrum circular; front triangular; 



6 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920 

entirely distinct; antennae short, two-jointed with supplementary joint; 
(basal joint possibly retracted); no ocelli; mandible obtusely bidentate, cut- 
ting edge bearing two obtuse teeth, but molar part less pronounced than 
in Aulonium; ventral mouth parts less deeply retracted than Aulonium, 
cardo more perpendicular and oval, mentum and stipes more heavily chit- 
inized; lacinia cylindrical; only last joint of labial palpi distinct, this cyl- 
indrical. 

Legs more robust and shorter than in Aulonium, hairs short, setose. 
Thoracic and abdominal terga entire; ninth segment relatively short, bear- 
ing two long recurved chitinous cerci with no pit or carina between; tenth 
wart-like, ventral. Spiracles annular-bifore, the spiracular tubes very small. 

Pupa. Form more slender than in Aulonium, protergum about twice as 
long as wide, anterior and lateral margin bearing setigerous papillae; scu- 
tellum less pronounced; lateral margins of terga bearing two setose papillae, 
epipleurum one; last segment having two widely separated, acute, erect, 
chitinous points. 

Described from specimens in the U. S. Nat. Museum, labeled 
2197, Ft. Capron, Florida. These were collected by H. G. 
Hubbard. 

Monoedus Lee. 

Larva. Form and general character similar to Aulonium from which it 
differs in lacking the heavy chitinization of the cereal plate and the cerci 
are less strongly recurved. A very faint carina extends across the anterior 
margin of the mesothorax and metathorax. Tip of lacinia rounded, not 
beaked, inner apex bearing curved spines, last joint of maxillary palpus 
cylindrical, obtuse, scarcely longer than second; anterior margin of clypeus 
regularly curved; last joint of antennae cylindrical, slightly longer than 
penultimate; molar surface of mandible beset with much coarser teeth. 

Described from a single specimen in the U. S. N. Museum 
Collection. This larva was not reared but collected in the pith 
of stems of Metostelma on the branches of which the adults were 
very abundant. Homestead, Fla., February 24, 1919. H. S. 
Barber. 

If this larva is properly associated with Monoedus the genus 
should certainly be placed in the Colydiidae. 

Bothrideridae. 

In the family Bothrideridae the larvae of Bothridcrcs, Dere- 
taphrus and Lithophanus have been studied. They may be 
characterized as follows: 

White, fleshy, fusiform, having very thin integument; legs short, rive- 
jointed, coxae very widely separated, tarsi claw-like (no tarsal claws) ; head 



PROC ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., IQ2O 7 

extended from prothorax, epignathous; labrum present; mouth parts deeply 
retracted, fleshy; cardo large, cushioned; maxillary sclerite distinctly cush- 
. ioned; ligula long, obtusely conical and exceeding in length the labial palpi; 
gula elongate, thinly chitinized mandibles without molar structure, apex 
bidentate, retinaculum present; antennae contiguous to mouth frame, two- 
or-three- jointed, the basal joint bearing a large dilated supplementary joint; 
no thoracic hypopleural chitinization; presternum of prothorax triangular; 
presternal fold of mesothorax and metathorax very broad; cerci, when 
present, of two recurved spines; ninth abdominal segment terminal; tenth 
wart-like; spiracles annuliform, mesothoracic, on presternal ring. 

TAXONOMIC POSITION OF THE BOTHRIDERIDAE.' 

The relationships of this family are problematical. As stated 
in the introduction they are certainly quite distinct from any of 
the Colydiidae here described. The peculiar form and habits 
tend to emphasize this distinction, possibly too emphatically- 
and give a suggestion of Clerid or Trogositid affinities. For the 
present, however, it is probably more natural to regard them as 
a specialized development from some of the Colydids with reduced 
molar structure. The parasitic nature of these larvae does not 
necessarily demand a morphological change of the fundamental 
head structures. This is well illustrated by the parasitic genera 
placed in the Cucujidae, Catogenus and Scalidia, where we find 
identical form and habits but radically different head structures. 

Description of the Larva and Pupa. 
Deretaphrus oregonensis Horn. 

Larva. Fleshy, fusiform, widest about 5th and 6th abdominal segments; 
integument thin, practically glabrous; maximum length 14 mm. 

Head subglobular, epignathous, extended; occipital foramen posterior; epi- 
cranial halves ventrally separated by thin sub-rectangular gular region; 
ventral mouth parts retracted; clypeus and labrum distinct, both roundly 
transverse, latter twice as wide as long, having anterior margin sinuate; no 
frontal or epicranial sutures; antennae laterally inserted; very small, two- 
or-three- jointed, basal joints bearing a long, distinact appendage, 2d and 
3d joints subequal; no ocelli; mandible triangular, without molar structure, 
bifid at apex and having a large retinaculum; ventral mouth parts fleshy, 
weak, retracted about half the depth of the head; margins of hypostoma 
slightly chitinized, maxillary sclerite distinct, cushioned; cardo large, fleshy, 
with a triangular chitinization; inner margin of stipes chitinized; lacinia 
broad, fleshy; no galea; maxillary palpi three-jointed; 3d joint longest; no 
palpifer; submentum large trapezoidal; mentum barrel-shaped; ligula long, 
conical, greatly exceeding labial palpi; palpi two-jointed. 

1 The following taxonomic discussion is based on a joint study of the 
characterization of Coleopterous larvae undertaken by A. G. Boving and 
F. C. Craighead. 



8 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1 920 

Thoracic segments about equal in length, meta thorax widest; no distinct 
areas, except band-like presternal fold, which in the prothorax bears two 
small chitinous spots; coxal protuberance lateral, strongly projecting. Legs 
short, conical, weak, widely separated, consisting of five joints; tarsus claw- 
like-, appendiculate at base. 

Abdomen swollen, and not distinctly marked into areas; ninth bearing 
two chitinous recurved hooks or cerci; tenth wart-like, terminal. Spiracles 
annuliform, peritreme circular, rather strongly chitinized, thoracic spiracle 
on presternal ring of meso thorax ; eight abdominal spiracles. 

Pupa. Form of adult; head concealed beneath prothorax, latter rec- 
tangular, sides rounded; abdominal terga bearing a few stiff hairs as figure; 
no cerci. 

Described from specimen, Hopk. U. S. No. 10651v. 

This specimen was taken by the writer at Giant Forest, Cal- 
ifornia, June 29, 1918, in the pupal cells of Asemum atrum in a 
dead Jeffrey pine. It could not be determined when the larvae 
attack the host but the Asemum larvae had constructed their 
pupal cells and were full grown before being killed. 

Lithophanus succineus Pasc. 

This species has cerci similar to Deretaphrus and the mandible 
is provided with a retinaculum, which is very slender and pro- 
jects posteriorly. The last joint of the antennae is rounded at 
the apex and the supplementary joint is conical. It measures 
about 8 mm. in length. 

Larvae of this species have not been definitely associated with 
the adults. A large series of adults were reared from a small 
piece of Acacia, girdled by Oncideres (Hopk. U. S. No. 15128) 
which Mr. T. E. Snyder sent the writer from Brownsville, Texas. 
In the U. S. N. Museum Collection a single specimen, described 
above, was found, collected by Mr. H. S. Barber, in Parkinsonia, 
at the same place. Since it differs both from Deretaphrus and 
Bothrideres it is tentatively associated with this name. 

The reared specimens were predaceous on several species of 
Cerambycids, Achryson concolor Lee., Ibid/ion townsendi Linell 
and Obrium maculatum (Phyton pallidum). The cocoons were 
found under the bark in the larval mines of these hosts. 

Bothrideres geminatus Say. 

Larva. Similar in form and general structure to Deretaphrus oregoncnsix 
from which it differs in lacking the cerci and the retinaculum of the mandil K ; 
the lacinia is more lanceolate at the apex. Specimens at hand do not exceed 
5 mm. in length. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. I, JAN., 1920 '.> 

Described from Hopk. U. S. Nos. _>N43e, 3838, l()()-S:?j, 1- ; <i<><), 
and Hopk. W. Va. Nos. (J977e and 7177. The specimens were 
collected by Dr. A. D. Hopkins, Mr. W. S. Fiske, J. NT. Knull 
and the writer. They were all predaceous on Coleopterous larvae 
or pupae, in each case killing the host after it had completed its 
larval mine. The hosts were Saperda Candida in apple; Saperda 
discoidea in hickory and a Chariessa pupa in persimmon. 

Specimens 12600 were taken under the bark of Qjtercns sp. 
sent to Washington by M. Chrisman from Sabino Canyon, 
Arizona. Several larvae were found inside a single pupa of 
Chrysobothris. They were isolated March 20, 1914, and soon 
formed cocoons on the sides of glass vial containers. Adults 
emerged August 15. In this case the writer believes they were 
internally parasitic. 

Bothrideres cactophagi Schwarz. 

No larvae of this species have been seen but Mr. H. G. Hub- 
bard recorded some interesting notes on the habits. He found 1 
it in large numbers in the cocoons of the cactus weevil (Cacto- 
phagus validus) on which it is undoubtedly parasitic. Mr. E. A. 
Schwartz tells me it does not make a cocoon as B. geminatii*. 

Cocoons of Bothrideridae. 

Three species here described all pupate in cocoons. These are 
made by the full-grown larvae. They are probably of a chit- 
inous material but whether secreted from the buccal opening or 
from anal glands as do the species of Donac-ia 2 has not been deter- 
mined at present. The cocoons of Bothrideres and Lithophanns 
have a silky appearance and webby texture as though compos! 
of minute threads, while that of Deretaphrus is of considerably 
heavier material and uniform texture. On this last cocoon the 
concentric arrangement of the exterior shows how it is built. 
They are all attached to the wood on the side of the larval mine 
of the host. 

The cocoon of Dcrctaphnis measures 14 mm. in length by 4 
mm. in width. Litliopliauns is 6 mm. long by 3 mm. wide. 
Bothrideres is 15 mm. long by 3 ! /2 wide. That of Deretaphrus 
and Lithophanus are elongate oval, while Bothrideres is broadly 
oval and quite depressed. 

1 Supplement to Psyche; Insects of the Giant Cactus. May, IS'.i'.i. 
8 and 10. 

- B0ving, Adam G. Biclrag til kundskaben om donaciin-larverm^ nutnr- 
historie. K0benhavn, H. Hagerups forlag 1906. 



10 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920 





a 



Derefaphrus 




a ,, ., 
Bothnderes . 



Cocoons of Bothrideridae a, Deretaphrus; b, Lithophanus; c, Bothrideres g. 



3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



Fig- 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 8. 
Fig. 9. 
Fig. 10. 
Fig. 11. 
Fig. 12. 
Fig. 13. 
Fig. 14. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate i. 

Aulonium tuberculatum -dorsal view of head. 

Aulonium tuberculatum dorsal view of right mandible. 

Nematidium filiform ] e dorsal view of right mandible. 

Aulonium tuberculatum ventral view of head. 

Phloeonemus catenulatus mesothoracic spiracle. 

Synchita fuliginosa dorsal view of head. 

Synchita fuliginosa ventral view of head. 

Synchita fuliginosa ventral view of thorax. 

Phloeonemus catenulatus dorsal view of right mandible. 

Nematidium filiforme dorsal view of head. 

Phloeonemus catenulatus dorsal view of ninth abdominal segment. 

Nematidium filiforme ventral view of head. 

Aulonium tuberculatum -lateral view of body. 

Aulonium tuberculatum -mesothoracic spiracle. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22 



PLATE 1 




CRAIGHEAD BIOLOGY OF COLEOPTERA 



PLATE 2 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22 




tfemaiidium 



CRAIGHEAD BIOLOGY OF COLEOPTERA 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., IQ2O 13 

Plate 2. 

Fig. 1. Deretaphrus oregonensis ventral view of thorax and head. 

Fig. 2. Deretaphrus oregonensis dorsal view of pupa. 

Fig. 3. Deretaphrus oregonensis ventral view of head. 

Fig. 4. Aulonium tuberculatum dorsal view of thorax of pupa. 

Fig. 5. Ditoma crenata dorsal view of pupa. 

Fig. 6. Bothrideres geminatus leg. 

Fig. 7. Nematidium filiforme -dorsal view of thorax of pupa. 

Fig. 8. Ditoma crenata -dorsal view of ninth abdominal segment. 

Fig. 9. Bothrideres geminatus labrum and maxillae. 

Fig. 10. Bothrideres geminatus right mandible from side. 

Fig. 11. Bothrideres geminatus -right antennae. 

Fig. 12. Deretaphrus oregonensis left mandible from below. 

Fig. 13. Deretaphrus oregonensis spiracle. 

Fig. 14. Nematidium filiforme lateral view of eighth and ninth abdominal 

segments. 

Fig. 15. Deretaphrus oregonensis lateral view of body. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

C, cardo; gu, gula; ha, arm of hypostoma connecting with hypopharynx 
(hypopharyngeal bracon) ; 1, ligula; Is, labial stipes; m, mentum; pf, palpi- 
fer; ps, presternum; r, retinaculum; s, stipes of maxillae; sj, supplementary 
joint of antennae; ta, tentorial arms. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DIPTERA: ASIL1DAE * 

BY W. L. McATEE AND NATHAN BANKS. 

The family Asilidae comprises flies which vary in size from 
small to extremely large. A much-used English name for the 
group is robber-flies, a most inappropriate term, for which assas- 
sin-flies would be a good substitute. The species are uniformly 
predacious, have a characteristic leggy, grasping appearance and 
voracious appetites. They prey upon other insects, taking toll 
from nearly all groups. vSome of the larger species are as watchful 
as hawks, swift in action and correspondingly difficult to cap- 
ture. Sunny paths and roads are a favorite resort for many of 
the species; some sit on bare trunks and poles, some on leaves, 
the tips of dead twigs or blades of grass, and a few in the shade. 
The different genera and species have quite characteristic habits 
in this respect, making search for them a source of constant 
interest to the collector. 

1 For tin- Syrphidae, see Proc. Biol. Soe. Wash., L".), pp. 17:; 120-4, Sept. 12 12, 
ini(>; and the Tabanidae, 1'roe. Knt. Soc. Wash., Vol. 120, pp. 188-206. Dec. 
1918. 



14 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920 

In, fact, from various points of view the Asilidae can be com- 
mended to students, as a wonderfully interesting group, 
which certainly will well repay further collection and study. 

It is rather surprising, for instance, that in a family of flies of 
as large average size and conspicuous habits as the Asilidae, and 
in a collection as well-worked from a locality as the vicinity of 
Washington, it has been necessary during the preparation of this 
paper, to describe as new no fewer than 1 1 forms. While identifying 
material for the purposes of the present list Mr. Banks found 
and described two new species in Asilus, one each in Leptogaster 
and Dasyllis, and a new species and new variety in the genus 
Dioctria. Revisions of the last three of these genera were pre- 
pared b'y Mr. Banks, and the genus Laphria was revised by Mr. 
McAtee, the latter work resulting in the description of five new 
species from the Washington region. Previously 8 new names 
had been based in whole or in part upon District of Columbia 
material. One of these names was proposed merely as a sub- 
stitute for an older but unavailable name, and two of them are 
now placed in synonymy. 

The total number of species in the following list is S3. 1 ' 2 For 
comparison it may be stated that 69 species of Asilidae are listed 
in the Insects of New Jersey, 3 and 51 species in the Diptera of 
Florida. 4 

Described species in addition to those hereafter listed which 
may reasonably be expected to occur in our region include : 

Townsendia niger Back N. J., but other species of 

the genus southward. 

Laphystia sexfasciata Say N. Y. to Fla., 111., and Tex. 

Echthopoda formosa Loew Mass, to N. C. 

Cyrtopogonfalto Walker Quebec, 111., Fla. 

Cyrtopogon marginalis Loew Canada, N. J., Va. 

Stichopogon argenteus Say On sand, N. J., 111., Calif. 

Lampria rubriventris Macquart. . .Pa., Ga., Tex. 
Proctacanthus rufus Williston. . . .Mass., N. C., N. Mex. 
Proctacanthus nigriventris Mac- 
quart Pa., Carolina. 

1 For the benefit of those interested in the fauna of Plummets Island, 
Md. ( it may be said that 43 species have been taken upon the island, and 
25 others in the Great Falls-Little Falls section of the Potomac River valley. 
Where the data quoted does not make this distribution clear the initials P. I. 
or V. P. I. (vicinity of Plummers Island) are added. 

- Two species not yet collected are included in the keys. 

3 Johnson, C. W., Ann. Rep. N. J. State Museum. 1909 (1910), pp. 
749-753. 

4 Johnson, C. W., Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 32, Art. Ill, 1913, pp. 60-62. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920 15 

Promachus fitchii Osten Sacken. . .Conn., Nebr., Fla. 

Asilus orphne Walker Me., Mont., : . C. 

Asilus antimachus Walker Ohio, Kans., Va. 

Asilus cacopilogus Hine N. J., Nebr., Tex. 

The writers gratefully acknowledge the courtesy of the follow- 
ing persons in supplying records or in permitting the examina- 
tion of collections owned by them or in their charge: F. R. Cole, 
C. T. Greene, J. S. Hine, F. Knab and W. R. Walton. 

SYNOPSIS AND ANNOTATED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 

Key to the Stibfamilies. 

A. Marginal cell of wing open. 

B. Abdomen and legs very slender, hind femur much elongated and 

swollen toward apex; palpi one-jointed Leptogastn>i:n'. 

BB. Abdomen and legs not unusually slender; palpi two-jointed. . 

Dasypogo)i 

AA. Marginal cell of wing closed. 

C. Antenna without terminal arista; palpi two-jointed . .Laphriimu'. 
CC. Antenna with long terminal arista; palpi one-jointed. .Asilinnc. 

Leptogastrinae. 

Key to the Genera. 
A single genus .Leptognsh-r. 

Leptogaster Meigen. 
Key to the Species. 

A. No empodia; hind femur with dark band before broadest part; hind 
tibia with bands at base and middle dark; thorax pinkish, antennae 

pale annnlatns. 

AA. Empodia present. 

B. Hind tibia dark for a considerable distance; hind femur dark or dark 
banded. 

C. Legs mostly dark, very slender; antennae dark tennis's. 

CC. Legs mostly pale. 

D. Dorsum of thorax wholly shining black; hind femur with 
apical dark band and another over beginning of s\v<l 

ling atridorsalis . 

DD. Dorsum of thorax not wholly shining black. 

E. Dorsum of thorax with three polished black stripes; hind 
femur with dark band over swelling; antennae pak 

virgatus. 



16 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., IQ2O 

RE- Thorax without such stripes. 

F. Antennae dark; hind legs short, the swelling greater 
than usual, and mostly covered by a broad, dark 
band; vein between first and second posterior cells 

angled pictipes. 

FF. Antennae yellow; hind legs longer, the dark band on 

hind femur not so broad; vein between first and 

second posterior cells nearly straight . . brevticorms. 

BB. Hind tibia entirely pale or dark only at extreme tip; hind femur 

usually not distinctly banded. 
G. Thoracic notum polished reddish. 

H. Dorsum of thorax usually with two rounded polished black 

spots; general color reddish brown badins. 

HH. Dorsum of thorax without black spots; general color yellow- 
ish red testacens. 

GG. Thoracic notuin not polished reddish. 

I. Abdomen yellow; dark only over sutures incisuralis . 

II. Abdomen with more extensive dark markings. 

J. Abdominal segments dark, pale only near their apices; hind 
femur with a faint dark mark, bristles of thorax black . . . 

loeu'ii. 

JJ. Abdominal segments with more extensive pale markings. 
K. One or both of supra-alar bristles pale; larger species 

with duller markings favillaceiis. 

KK. Both supra-alar bristles usually dark; smaller species 
with markings of abdomen more strongly contrasting 
flavipes. 

L. annulatus Say. The most abundant species of the genus; 
season July 7 to September 19. P. I. 

L. atridorsalis Back. Great Falls, Va., July 8 and 2'2, Banks; 
Maryland near Plummers Island, July 22, 1914, R. C. Shannon; 
Plummers Id., Md., August 3, 1912, T- R. Malloch; August (), 
1915, R. C. Shannon; Maywood, Va., August 19, 191(5, McAtee; 
Falls Church, Va., July 5 to 27; Glencarlyn, Va., June 17 to 
July 25, Banks; Four-mile Run, Va., July 24, 1915, C. P. Alex- 
ander. 

L. badius lyoew. Great Falls, Va., June 5 to 12, Banks; Mary- 
land near Plummers Id., August 1, 1914, R. C. Shannon; Plum- 
mers Island, Md., June 11, 1912, H. S. Barber; July H), 1912, 
at light, E- A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber; Falls Church, Va., 
July 5; Glencarlyn, Va., July 2<>; Beltsville, Md., July (>, Banks. 

L. brevicornis Loew. Great Falls, Va., June 29 to July 22, 
Banks; Maryland near Plummers Id., July 20, 191.'], R. C. Shan- 
non; Chain 'Bridge, Md., June 4, 1905, " D. H. demons; Falls 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., IQ2O 17 

Church, Va., June 2X to July 31, Banks; July 4, S and 13, 11)13 
(latter feeding on a young locustid), F. Knab; Glencarlyn, Va., 
June 24, Banks; Washington, D. C., August 19, 1S99; near 
Chevy Chase Lake, Md., July (}, HM3, W. D. Appel; Linnieville, 
Md., July S, 1912, R. C. Shannon. 

L. favillaceus Loew. Great Falls, Va., June 20, Banks; Plum- 
mers Id., Md., June 20, 1912, H. S. Barber; June 21, 1914; Dead 
Run, Va., June~22, 1915, R. C. Shannon; June 23; Chain Bridge, 
Va., June 4; Falls Church, Va., September 1; Glencarlyn, Va., 
June 23, Banks; June 17, 1917, McAtee. Perhaps not distinctly 
separable from flai'ipes. 

L. flavipes Loew. Fairly common ; May 28 to September (i. P. I. 

L. incisuralis Loew. Falls Church, Va., August 10, Banks; 
Dalecarlia Reservoir. D. C., August 22, 1915, McAtee; Washing- 
ton, D. C., August 2, September 14, 1X99; Beltsville, Md., July 
26, 1914, L. O. Jackson. 

L. loewii Banks. Maryland near Plummers Island, June 7, 
1914, McAtee; Chain Bridge, Va., May 2S; Falls Church, Va., 
June 1 1, July 4; Glencarlyn, Va., June 24, Banks. 

L. pictipes Loew. Probably next in abundance to L. anuu- 
latus; June 4 to September 20; seen about flowers more than other 
species, has been taken on those of Ceaiiotlnis aniericainis and 
Tephrosia virgimca; in copula, July 9. L. raripes Loew, origin- 
ally described from the District of Columbia is the female of this 
species. P. I. 

L. tenuipes Loew. Originally described from District of Col- 
umbia specimens. Great Falls, Va., June 29, July 17, September 
24, Banks; August 23, Difficult Run, Va., September 3, 1911, 
F. Knab; Virginia near Plummers Id., Oct. :>, 1913, R. C. Shan- 
non; Plummers Island, Md., August 1.1, 1905, H. S. Barber; 
September 27, 1914, October 10, 1914, October 10, 1913, Cabin 
John, Md., August IS, 1914, R. C. Shannon; Chain Bridge, Va., 
September 14, Banks; Rosslyn, Va., September 22, 1912, F. 
Knab. 

L. testaceus Loew. Great Falls, Va., June 19, Banks; Plum- 
mers Island, Md., May 30, 190S, McAtee." 

L. virgatus Coquillett. Great Falls, Va., July 22, Banks; 
Difficult Run, Va., July 7, 1915; Dead Run, Va., June 22, 1915, 
R. C. Shannon; Virginia near Plummers Id., August 22, 1910, 
McAtee; Plummers Island, Md., June 20 to 29, 1915, R. C. Shan- 
non; Falls Church, Va., June 0, July 4; Glencarlyn, Va., June 
17, 20, July 2; Washington, I). C., "June 22, Banks; Beltsville, 
Md., August S, lill 5, McAtee. 



18 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920 

Dasypogoninae. 

Key to the genera. 
A. Front tibia with a terminal claw-like spur. 

B. Face flat or concave, oral margin prominent, bristly Deromyia. 

BB. Face convex below, oral margin not prominent, hairy. 

C. Third joint of antenna excised on upper side before apex, the 

lobe spinose Taracticm. 

CC. Third joint of antenna not excised; with a small terminal style. . . 

Nicodes. 

AA. Front tibia without terminal spur. 

D. Fourth posterior cell closed; abdomen cylindrical, elongate; third 

antennal joint with excision on inner half Dizonias. 

DD. Fourth posterior cell open. 

E. Antenna apparently five -jointed Ceraturgus. 

EE. Antenna three (or apparently four) jointed; third joint may have 
a terminal style. 

F. Style thick, appearing like a fourth joint. Dioctria. 

FF. Style more slender than third joint. 
G. Face distinctly swollen in profile. 

H. Face swollen below Lasiopogon. 

HH. Face swollen to base of antennae Cyrlopogon. 

GG. Face flat or only gently convex. 
I. Hind metatarsi much enlarged. 

J. Head much broader than high, goggle-like; bare 

species Holcocephala. 

JJ. Head little broader than high, not goggle-like; hairy 

species Holopogon. 

II. Hind metatarsi not enlarged. 

K. Face flat or concave, narrowed above, bare, except 

on oral margin Stichopogon. 

KK. Face rounded, largely hairy; not narrowed above. . 
Heteropogon. 

Ceraturgus Wiedemann. 

C. cruciatus Say. There are numerous records of this at least 
not common species; season, June 5 to July 26. V. P. I. 

Dioctria Meigen. 
Key to the Species. 
A. Third joint of antenna much longer than first and second together; style 

long banksi 

AA. Third joint of antenna not longer than first and second together; style 
short bwis. 

D. banksi Johnson. Originally described from this region under 
the name longicornis Banks, some of the following specimens 
listed being the type material as is the case also with var. tibialis 
Banks. Plummers Island, Md., June 11, W. Palmer; June IS, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. I, JAN., 1920 19 

1916, C. T. Greene; Dead Run, Va., June 20 to 30, im:>, R. C. 
Shannon; June 23, Banks; Cabin John, Md., June 29, 191(5, 
F. R. Cole; July S and October, 1910, R. M. Fouts; Chain Bridge, 
Va., June 23, 1915, Banks, C. T. Greene; Falls Church, Va., 
June 20, Banks; July 2, 1912, July 3, 19 Hi, C. T. Greene; Belts- 
ville, Md., July 1, 1917, McAtee. 

D. brevis Banks. Plummers Island, Md., June 18, 191(5, C. 
T. Greene. 

Cyrtopogon Loew. 

C. lutatius Walker. Dead Run, Va., May 24, 1910, R. C. 
Shannon; Beltsville, Md., May 13 and 24, 1917, McAtee. The 
latter collections were made about piles of cordwood. 

Lasiopogon Loew. 
Key to the Species. 
A. Legs reddish brown; abdomen black, pruinose on hind angles and narrow 

hind margins of segments. Length 5-7 mm terricola. 

AA. Legs black; abdomen broadly prninose across posterior portions of seg- 
ments. Length about 9 mm tetragrammus. 

L. terricola Johnson. Common in its favorite situations, bare 
sandy areas, often along paths on roads; April 17 to July 10; in 
copula May 2. P. I. 

L. tetragrammus Loew. Less common and more local than 
last. Great Falls, Va., April 30, May 12, 20, Banks; May 2, 
C. T. Greene; Virginia near Plummers Island, May 7, 1916, 
H. L. Viereck; May 21, 1910, McAtee; Plummers Island, Md., 
May 1, 1915, May 5, 1914, May 7, 191(5, R. C. Shannon; Mary- 
land near Plummers Id., May 10, 1910, McAtee; Glencarlyn, 
Va., May 21, 1917, C. T. Greene. 

Holcocephala Jaennicke. 

Key to the Species. 

A. Abdomen broad at base, usually reddish yellow, at least in fresh spec- 
imens. abdomi nulls. 

A A. Abdomen more slender and elongate, narrowed toward base, brownish, 

pruinose on hind margins of segments 1 to 3 .cuh'ii. 

H. abdominalis Say. Undoubtedly the most numerous in in- 
dividuals of any of our species of Asilidae; usually seen perched 
on tips of grass blades in damp situations. Season June 20 to 
October 3. Among prey of this species are the ants; Solenopsis 
molesta and Lasius sp. P. I. 

H. calva Loew. Far less numerous than last. Great Falls, 
Va., July 13, Banks; August 11, 1915; Scott's Run, Va., July 25, 
1915, McAtee; Dead Run, Va., July 2S, 1915, R. C. Shannon; 
Plummers Island, Md., July I, 1907, A. K. Fisher, McAhc : 
July 11, 1909, McAtee; Maryland near Plummers Island, June 
29, '30, July 13, 1913, R. C.' Shannon; Cabin John, Md., July 



20 PROC. EJNT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. i, JAN., 1920 

29, 1914, V. Roberts; Beltsville, Md., September 10, 1916, River- 
dale, Md., June 16, 1916, F. R. Cole; Chevy Chase Lake, Md., 
July 22, 1917, McAtee; Washington, D. C., July 11, 1899, J. S. 
Hine; Falls Church, Va., July 15, 20, August 2; Glencarlyn, Va., 
July 25, Banks. 

Holopogon Loew. 

H. guttula Wiedemann. Fairly common; usually found sit- 
ting on the ends of dead twigs; known to come to light. Season 
May 25 to July 16; in copula, June 15. P. I. 

Heteropogon Loew. 

H. macerinus Walker. Difficult Run, Va., September 3, 1911, 
F. Knab; Turkey Island, Md., August 23, 1914, R. C. Shannon; 
Cabin John Bridge, Md., August 22, 1909, F. Knab; Falls Church, 
Va., August 27, September S, 12, IS, October 1, Banks; Septem- 
ber 5, 1912, C. T. Greene. 

Stichopogon Loew. 

S. trifasciatus Say. On sand and rocks; Great Falls, Va., 
July 8 and 29, Banks; Difficult Run, Va, July 25, 1915, in copula; 
Plummers Island, Md., July 14, 1915, McAtee; Washington, D. 
C., July 11, and September 5, 1899, T. S. Hine; Bladensburg, 
Md., June 23 and July 17, 1916, R. C. Shannon. 

Deromyia Phillippi. 

Key to the Species. 

A. Pronotal bristles pale; dorsum of thorax with three deep velvety black 
stripes; lateral stripes interrupted, median one merging into red an- 
teriorly winthemi. 

AA. Pronotal bristles dark; thoracic stripes not velvety black. 

B. Hair on coxae pale; general color of abdomen reddish yellow, discolor. 

BB. Hair on coxae partly black; general color of abdomen reddish brown 

umbrina. 

D. discolor Loew. Common; June 24 to September 16; in 
copula July 25, August 5, 20, 22. Among the prey have been 
identified the digger wasp, Mimes a kohli, the paper wasps, Ves- 
pula vulgaris, V. communis and V. germanica, and the bees, 
Apis mellifera and Clisodon terniinalis. P. I. 

D. umbrina Loew. Less common than last, but not rare; has 
been collected from July to September 19. In copula, September 

1. Has been found preying upon a spider, and the bees, Apis 
mellifera and Bremis impatiens. P. I. 

D. winthemi Wiedemann. Kalmia Road, D. C., September 

2, 1916, McAtee; Falls Church, Va., July 29, August 19, Banks; 
August 4, 1913, W. Middleton; Beltsville, Md., September 10, 
1916, devouring a house fly, F. R. Cole. Diogniitcs miscllus 
Loew described from District of Columbia material is a svnonvm. 



Actual date of publication January 23, IQ2O. 



VOL. 22 FEBRUARY 1920 No. 2 



PROCEEDINGS 






OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

MALLOCH, J. R. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OP 

SCATOPHAGIDAE (DIPTERA) 34 

McATEE, W. L., AND BANKS, NATHAN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DIP- 
TERA : ASILIDAE 21 

SNYDER, THOMAS E. TWO NEW TERMITES FROM ARIZONA 38 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 






THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1920. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President W. R. WALTON 

First Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Second Vice-President A. G. BOVING 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Executive Committee: THE OFFICERS and A. N. CAUDELL, A. L. QUAIN- 

TANCE and E. R. SASSCER. 

Representing the Society as a Vice-President of the Washington Academy of 
Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



PROCEEDINGS 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 22 FEBRUARY, 1920 No. 2 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DDPTERA: ASILIDAE. 

BY W. L. McATEE AND NATHAN BANKS. 

(Continued from page 20.) 

Taracticus Loew. 

T. octopunctatus Say. Fairly common; May 30 to August 4. 
P. I. 

Nicocles Jaennicke. 

Key to the Species. 

A. Apical half of wing dusky, with a clear spot confined to marginal cell; 

antennal style half as long as third segment politus. 

AA. Dark coloring of wings in the form of clouds along veins, the cells more 
or less hyaline; antennal style only one-fourth as long as third seg- 
ment pictus. 

N. pictus Loew. Great Falls, Va., April 15, 30, May 12, 
Banks; April 20, 1916, on flowers of Benzoin aestivale, McAtee; 
March 26, April 2, 1917, C. T. Greene; Maryland near Plummers 
Island, May 10, 1916, McAtee; Cabin John, Md., April 11, 1915, 
R. C. Shannon; April 11, 1917, R. M. Fouts; High Island, Md., 
May 12, 1898, R. P. Currie; Falls Church, Va., April 5, Banks; 
Beltsville, Md., March 25, 1917, W. R. Walton. Dead twigs 
are a favorite perch for this species. The following prey has been 
identified: the ant, Lasius sp. and the dung beetle, Aphodius 
femoralis. 

N. politus Say. Hyattsville, Md., August 14, 1912, Septem- 
ber 17, 1910, F. Knab; October 11, Banks; Bladensburg, Septem- 
ber 23, 1915, October 2, 1914, in copula, R. C. Shannon. Pygos- 
tolus ar genii fer Loew, described from District of Columbia ma- 
terial is a synonym. 

Laphriinae. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Veins at outer ends of discal and fourth posterior cells forming nearly a 
straight line. 

B. First antennal joint much more than twice as long as^second 

Cerota inia . 

BB. First antennal joint not more than twice as long as second . .Atomosia. 

21 







' 



22 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

AA. Veins at outer ends of discal and fourth posterior cells forming a dis- 
tinct angle. 

C. Three sub marginal cells present Pogonosoma. 

CC. Only two submarginal cells. 

D. First posterior cell narrowed or closed; nearly bare species, with 

pruinose markings on thorax Nusa. 

DD. First posterior cell rather widely open; slightly to very hairy 

species. 
K. Body nearly bare, hind femora with spinigerous tubercles 

beneath Lampria. 

EE. Body usually more hairy, hind femora without spinigerous 

tubercles. 
F. Pile sparse to dense; that on abdomen in part crisped ap- 

pressed ; abdomen usually parallel-sided Laphria. 

FF. Pile dense over most of body, erect, usually black and 

bright yellow; abdomen broadest behind middle 

Dasyllis. 

Cerotainia Schiner. 

C. macrocera Say. Common; June 5 to August 22; known to 
come to light. P. I. 

Atomosia Macquart. 
Key to the Species. 

A. Femora black, except for narrow pale rings at base and apex. . . .pnella. 
AA. Femora more extensively pale. 

B . Femora reddish brown, broad bands on anterior pairs, and outer sur- 
faces of posterior pair, black glabrata. 

BB. Femora pale yellow; with never more than minute spots of black at 

bases of hind ones sayii. 

A. puella Wiedemann. Very common; extreme dates of col- 
lection, May 31 and September 5. Almost always found on bark 
of trees, on poles or other upright wood surfaces. Has been 
found feeding on Simulium. P. I. 

A. glabrata Say. Apparently rare; Falls Church, Va., August 
10, 11 and 19, Banks; rests on leaves near the ground. 

A. sayii Johnson. Common, June 10 to September 5; habits 
like last; Chironomus has been noted among the prey. P. I. 

Pogonosoma Rondani. 

P. melanoptera Wiedemann. Great Falls, Va., July 12, 1916, 
J. N. Knull; August 1, 1916, McAtee; Cabin John, 'Md., June 
4, 1916, R. C. Shannon; Washington, D. C., June 27, Banks; 
Falls Church, Va., June 12, 1916, July 3, 1915, reared, C. T. 
Greene; June 29, July 3, 1916, J. N. Knull; Beltsville, Md., July 
4, July 30, 1916, W. R. Walton. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 23 

Nusa Walker. 

N. fulvicauda Say. Great Falls, Va., July 10, 12, 1916, J. N. 
Knull; Cabin John Bridge, Md., July 25, 1913, R. C. Shannon; 
Washington, D. C., August 22, 1912, F. Knab. 

Lampria Macquart. 

L. bicolor Wiedemann. Great Falls, Va., August 17, 1916, 
C. T. Greene; August 21, 1917, McAtee; Falls Church, Va., June 
27, July 16, Banks: Glencarlyn, Va., July 14, F. Knab. 

Laphria Meigen. 
Key to the Species. 
A. Disk of thoracic dorsum black except for a central pair of yellow spots; 

general color of pubescence old gold saffrana. 

A A. Coloration otherwise. 

B. With copious bright golden pile over whole dorsum of thorax and 
abdomen. 

C. Male forceps nearly straight viewed from above, spatulatt, sericea. 
CC. Male forceps curved, not spatuiate aktis. 

BB. Pile of thoracic dorsum black, at least on sides in front. 

D. Pale pile extending forward at least to middle of pronotum, 

forming a distinct narrow triangle. 

E. Male forceps deeply emarginate at apex, appearing like an 

opposed index finger and thumb; hypopygium oblique, index. 
EE. Male forceps more shallowly emarginate; hypopygium nearly 

straight ithypyga. 

DD. Pale pile not forming a distinct narrow triangle. 

F. With some dense, crisped, yellowish to golden pile on abdo- 

men canis var. disparella. 

FF. With no more than scattering yellow hairs on abdomen. 
G. Male forceps, viewed from above, narrowed to apex. 

H. Forceps rather acute, only slightly hollowed out be- 
neath at apex ; sicula. 

HH. Forceps less acute, slightly upturned exteriorly at 
ipex; much hollowed out beneath, with a thin ver- 
tical plate along concave inner margin near apex . . . 

canis. 

GG. Apex of forceps trapeziform winnemana m 

L. sericea Say. Cupid's Bov/er Island, Md., May 31, 1915, 
R. C. Shannon; Great Falls, Va., May 23, 1918, McAtee; May 
26, 1914, R. P. Currie; Tune 5, 1917, C. T. Greene; June 16, 1910, 
R. A Cushman; Scott's Run, Va., June 2, 1912, W. D. Appel; 
Dead Run, Va., Tune 9. l f )15, feeding on Nicagus obscurus, R. C. 
Shannon; Falls Church, Va., June 12, 1916, J. N. Knull. 

L. aktis McAtee. Great Falls, Va., May 25, Banks. 

L. index McAtee.- Dead Run, Va., May 27, 1917, McAtee. 

L. ithypyga McAtee. Beltsville, Md., 'June 4, 1916, W. R. 
Walton. 



24 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

L. sicula McAtee. Great Falls, Va., June 29, 1915, August 
17, 1916, August 28, 1917, C. T. Greene; June 12, July 21, Banks; 
Scott's Run, Va., July 25, 1915, McAtee; Langley, Va., July 16, 
1911, W. D. Appel; Dead Run, Va., June 9, 19, July 25, 1915, 
R. C. Shannon; Falls Church, Va., July 3, 1916, J. N. Knull; 
July 20, 25; Glencarlyn, Va., July 13, Banks; Plummers Island, 
Md., June 18, 1914, R. C. Shannon; June 30 (in copula), July 
14, 21, 1907, A. K. Fisher; Lakeland to Riverdale, Md., July 14, 
1916, McAtee. 

L. canis var. canis Williston. Great Falls, Va., June 29, 
Banks; Plummers Island, Md., June 4, 1916, H. L,. Viereck; 
Virginia near Plummers Id., Md., June 7, 1908, McAtee; Dead 
Run, Va., June 28, Banks; July 18, 1916, R. C. Shannon; Chain 
Bridge, Va., May 28, Banks; Glencarlyn to mouth of Four Mile 
Run, Va., June 11, 1916, McAtee; Falls Church, Va., July 3, 

1916, J. N. Knull. 

L. winnemana McAtee. Plummers Island, Md., June 27, 
1915, R. C. Shannon; July 11, 1909, Scott's Run, Va., August 12, 

1917, McAtee; Dead Run, Va., July 11, 1915, July 18, 1916, 
July 28, 1915, R. C. Shannon; Great Falls, Va., June 28, 1917, 
C. T. Greene; Maryland near Plummers Id., June 30, 1914, R. 
C. Shannon. 

L. saffrana Fabricius. St. Elmo, Va., F. C. Pratt. Although 
Fairfax, Va., is rather out of the District of Columbia fauna, it 
is worth mentioning that a specimen of this large and handsome 
species of decidedly southern range has been taken there. 

Dasyllis Loew. 
Key to the Species. 
A. Mystax chiefly black. 

B. Tufts of hair in front of halteres and wings black; hair on anterior 

two pairs of legs and thorax pale greenish yellow affinis. 

BB. Tufts of hair in front of halteres and wings yellow; hair on legs 

chiefly black; on thorax bright yellow thoracia. 

AA. Mystax chiefly yellow. 

C. Tufts of hair in front of wings chiefly yellow; lateral margin of first 

abdominal segment separated from that of second by a deep in- 
cision; large species 28-35 mm. long, including wings grossa. 

CC. Tufts of hair in front of wings chiefly black; first abdominal segment 
not so separated ; smaller species. 

D. Scutellum yellow-haired; abdomen wholly black flavicollis. 

DD. Scutellum black-haired. 

E. No yellow hair on abdomen virginica. 

EE. Yellow hair on abdomen. 

F. Segments 1-3 of abdomen with somewhat diamond-shaped 
black, central areas, bordered by broad patches of 
yellow hair chant plaini. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 25 

FF. Segments 1-3 of abdomen with no more than scant fringes 
of yellow hair posticatus. 

D. affinis Macquart. Plentiful in its season which is the 
autumn; earliest date, August 10, latest, November 4; mostly 
seen on tree trunks and telephone poles; in copula, September 
30. Food species identified are : Oxyporus lateralis and Diabrotica 
12-punctata. An attempt has been made to identify Laphria 
melanopogen Wiedemann (Ausz. zweifl. Ins. I, 1828, pp. 520-521, 
[Kentucky]) with this insect, for which it would be a prior name. 
However, Wiedemann described melanopogen as having the occi- 
put, thorax and legs gray-haired, while affinis is especially dis- 
tinguished among our species of Dasyllis by having the colored 
hair a peculiar greenish yellow. P. I. 

D. thoracica Fabricius. Common; May 15 to July 20; in copula 
June 15; has been noted feeding on the rose beetle, Macrodactylus 
subspinosus. P. I. 

D. grossa Fabricius. Frequent; June 13 to August 22; among 
the prey is the clover-leaf weevil, Hypera punctata. P. I. 

D. flavicollis Say. The recent separation of the next species 
from this makes it desirable to give the records in full: Great 
Falls, Va., May 12, 25, June 20, Banks; May 21, 1914, R. P. 
Currie; Dead Run, Va., May 19, 23, 1916; in copula, R. C. Shannon; 
Virginia near Plummers Id., June 2, 1916; Plummers Island, Md., 
July 7, 1907, McAtee; Falls Church, Va., June 19, Banks; Belts- 
ville, Md., June 15, 1913, McAtee; July 9, 1916, F. R. Cole. 

D. virginica Banks. Originally described from specimens col- 
lected at Falls Church, Glencarlyn and Chain Bridge, Va., in 
June. Great Falls, Va., June 20, 1916, C. T. Greene; July 19, 
1916, September 21, 1914, J. N. Knull; Cupid's Bower Island, 
Md., May 31, 1915, feeding on Hoplia trivialis, R. C. Shannon; 
Falls Church, Va., May 17, reared, May 29, 1913, C. T. Greene; 
Beltsville, Md., June 28, 1917, L. O. Jackson; Laurel, Md., May 
3, 1913, E- B. Marshall. 

D. champlaini Walton. Beltsville, Md., July 30, 1916, Har- 
old Morrison. 

D. posticata Say. Plummers Island, Md., May 30, 1911, J. 
C. Crawford; Chain Bridge, Va., June 26, 1917, Falls Church, 
Va., June 16, 1915, on flowers of Ceanothus, C. T. Greene; June 
22, Banks; Beltsville, Md., June 18, 1916, McAtee. 

Asilinae. 
Key to the Genera. 

A. Arista pectinate Ommatius. 

AA. Arista not pectinate. 

B. Posterior branch of third vein curving forward meeting costa at or 
before tip of wing; or the anterior branch angulatcd near its or- 
igin, or with free stump, or both. 



26 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., IQ2O 

C. Ovipositor cylindrical, with terminal circlet of spines 

Prcctacanthus. 

CC. Ovipositor compressed, without spines Erax. 

BB. Posterior branch of third vein terminating behind tip of wing; an- 
terior branch without stump. 

D. Three submarginal cells present. 

E. Abdomen shorter than wings; body thickly pilose, Mallophora. 

EE. Abdomen longer than wings; body thinly pilose. .Promachus. 

DD. Two submarginal cells present Asilus. 

Ommatius Wiedemann . 

O. marginellus Fabricius. Fairly common; June 14 to Sep- 
tember 1; in copula, July 28, August 6 and September 1. P. I. 

Proctacanthus Macquart. 
Key to the Species. 

A. Abdomen largely reddish; thorax dark brown rufiventris. 

AA. Abdomen not reddish. 

B. Thorax with brown markings; wings clear brown philadelphicus. 

BB. Thorax with dark, nearly black markings; wings pale brown. 

C. Large stout species, middorsal stripe of thorax gray-pollinose, not 

plainly differentiated milbertii. 

CC. Smaller, rather slender species; thoractic stripe usually plainly 
differentiated and not distinctly pollinose brevipennis. 

P. brevipennis Wiedemann. Bladensburg, Md., June 23, 1916, 
R. C. Shannon; Branchville to Beltsville, Md., June 4, 1914, 
L. O. Jackson; Beltsville, Md., June 25, 1915, R. C. Shannon; 
June 14, 15, 18, July 4, McAtee; July 6, prey Anomala sp., 
Banks; Odenton, Md., July 4, 1913, in copula, McAtee. 

P. milbertii Macquart. Chain Bridge, Va., September 17, 
Banks. 

P. philadelphicus Macquart. Fairly common; June 25 to Oc- 
tober; in copula September 3. Among the prey have been noted 
a large tachinid fly, further unidentified, the grasshopper, Or- 
phulella pelidna, the tiger beetle Cicindela punctulata, the honey- 
bee, and the paper wasps, Vespula germanica and V, vulgaris. 

P. rufiventris Macquart. Maryland near Plummers Island, 
June 29, 1913, R. C. Shannon. 

Erax Scopoli. 

Key to the Species. 

A. Dark brown species; wings smoky; mystax yellowish to reddish; ovi- 
positor split at tip rufibarbis. 

AA. Black and gray species; abdominal segments usually gray or white 
margined behind; mystax gray, grayish yellow, or mixed with black; 
ovipositor not split at tip. 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 27 

B. Mystax chiefly black, lower third or less grayish or pale yellowish; 
ovipositor slender as long as last three abdominal segments or 
longer; male with from 2 to 5 silvery segments before hypopygium 

aestuans. 

BB. Mystax chiefly grayish or yellowish, sometimes a few black hairs 

above. 

C. Ovipositor strongly compressed, equal in length to last 3 or 4 
abdominal segments; segments 4 to 6 of male silvery and 4 
especially with long silver-white hair parted in the middle and 

directed outwards nemoralis. 

CC. Ovipositor not so compressed, not longer than last two abdominal 
segments together; male without parted long silvery white 
hairs on dor sum. 

D. Median dark markings of pronotum precurrent or nearly so; 
larger species (25-30 mm.) , upper valve of hypopygium, bifid 

as seen from side maculatus. 

DD. Median dark markings traversing only two-thirds of prono- 
tum; smaller species (20-25 mm.), upper valve of hypo- 
pygium, not bifid as seen from side albibaris. 

E. aestuans Linnaeus. Abundant ; June 20 to September 20; 
in copula, August 1, 12 and 19. Has been seen ovipositing in 
old cedar post and on twigs of red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) 
and on bark of tulip tree (Liriodendron). Sarcophaga sp. has 
been identified among the prey. .The extent to which the seg- 
ments of the male abdomen are silvered is quite variable, and 
has been the cause of the species receiving several names. So 
far no one has demonstrated correlation of varying degrees of 
this character with any other differences acceptable for specific 
distinction. The small form with four segments silvery is macro- 
labris Wied. P. I. 

E. albibarbis Macquart. Common in the Coastal Plain, as at 
Hyattsville, Beltsville and Odenton; June 25 to September 10. 
Among the prey have been noted the digger wasp Tachysphex 
sp. ; the muscid fly, Lucilia sp. and a Tachinid. 

E. maculatus Macquart. Washington, D. C., Banks. 
E. nemoralis Hine. Mt. Vernon, Va., August 20, 1916, July 4 
and 13, 1917, McAtee; a southern form for which this is the north- 
ernmost record; the species perches chiefly in trees. 

E. rufibarbis Macquart. Very common; June 24 (the next 
date is July 23) to October 8; in copula September 2, 17, 19 
and 23. 

Mallophora Macquart. 
Key to the Species. 

A. Length, including wings, more than 25 mm.; wings blackish orcina. 

AA. Length, including wings, less than 20 mm.; wings hyaline or smoky. 

. .da us it did. 



28 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

M. clausicella Macquart. Common; June 24 to September 
25; in copula September 3 and 10; has been found feeding upon 
Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris. Specimens of this species 
killed while still in somewhat teneral condition are abnormally 
colored and have been identified as M. guildiana. This prob- 
ably accounts for eastern records of the latter form which prob- 
ably is a western subspecies of clausicella. V. P. I. 

M. orcina Wiedemann. Great Falls, Va., August 11, 1915, 
McAtee; Maryland near Plummers Id., August 14, 1916, J. C. 
Crawford; High Island, Md., September 28, Banks; Veitch, Va., 
August 21, 1917; Falls Church, Va., June 24, 1916, August 14, 1917, 
September 4, 1915, C. T. Greene; July 28, September 2, Banks; 
Dunn-Loring, Va., August 30, 1916, Mouth of Four-mile Run, 
Va., September 17, 1916; Mount Vernon, Va., August 13 and 
20, 1916, McAtee. Among the prey have been identified, the 
bumble bees, Bremis impatiens, B. affinis and B. pennsylvanicus 
and the wasps, Polistes pallipes, Vespula vulgaris and Dolichovespula 
maculata. 

Promachus Loew. 
Key to the Species. 

A. Abdomen brown on sides and below, black above; male genitalia with 

silvery hair above bastardii. 

AA. Abdomen conspicuously banded; male genitalia without silvery hair above 
rufipes. 

P. bastardii Macquart. Great Falls, Va., July 27, Banks; 
Falls Church, Va., July 21, 1913, C. T. Greene; Glencarlyn, Va., 
July 2, Banks; Mt, Vernon, Va., July 4 and 13, 1917; Beltsville, 
Md., July 4, 1916, McAtee. Has been found preying on Vespula 
vulgaris. 

P. rufipes Fabricius. Common; July 23 to October 3; in cop- 
ula August 20. P. I. 

Asilus Linnaeus. 

Key to the Species. 

A. Large yellowish species, wings brownish yellow sericeus. 

AA. Smaller, duller species, wings hyaline or in part dusky. 

B. Ovipositor short, rounded, with 4 spines at apex above; male clasp- 
ers, curved with distinct open space between them; tibiae and meta- 
tarsi with the basal half or more yellow fuscatus. 

BB. Genitalia otherwise. 

C. Arista of antenna about twice as long as third joint; legs almost 

entirely pale reddish gracilis. 

CC. Arista shorter or only a little longer than third joint; legs with 
dark markings. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 29 

D. Hind femora wholly black. 

E. Tibiae almost wholly black, sometimes with traces of 
reddish at base; decidedly small species with much sil- 
very hair underneath head and thorax maneei. 

EE. Tibiae in part, or chiefly, pale. 

F. Front and middle femora yellow with black stripe on 
upper side; mystax black and golden in male; last 
3-4 segments of abdomen of female modified as 

ovipositor flavofemoratus. 

FF. Front and middle femora black. 

G. All tibiae pale only at base; all metatarsi black; 
mystax black and white. 

H. Male forceps more slender and straight 

vir ginicus. 

HH. Male forceps stouter and decurved at tip 

notatus. 

GG. Tibiae with more extensive pale markings. 

I. Male forceps heavy, longer than last two ab- 
dominal segments together; mystax largely black 

sadyates. 

II. Male forceps more slender and shorter; mystax 

largely pale. 

K. Mystax mostly white; male forceps not much 

narrowed or decurved at tip. .novaescotiae. 

KK. Mystax with more dark hairs, general color 

a little more fulvous ; male forceps decurved 

at tip autumnalis. 

DD. Hind femora with pale markings. 

L. Male forceps seen from above, wider at or near apex than at base; 

eighth abdominal segment of female (that is, basal segment of 

ovipositor) longer than 6th and 7th together; arista equal to or longer than 

third antennal joint. 

M. Male forceps wider than abdomen at middle; dark species, legs 
black with reddish or yellowish markings. 

N. Wings narrow, male genitalia more than 2 mm. wide 

angustipennis . 

NN. Wings wide; male genitalia less than 2 mm. wide, latipennis. 

MM. Male forceps, not wider than abdomen at middle; yellowish 

gray species; mystax largely golden yellow; legs yellowish 

with dark markings auricomus. 

LL. Male forceps, seen from above, gradually narrowed from near base; 
eighth abdominal segment of female (basal segment of ovipositor) 
shorter than 6th and 7th together. 
O. Arista shorter than third antennal joint. 



30 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

P. Each femur with orly preapical band red. 

Q. Underside of each fro it femur with abundant rather long 

hair, not in rows snowii. 

QQ. Underside of each front femur with a row of bristles. 

R. Bristles nale and weak; male forceps seen from side 

widest at two-thirds their length. . . .erythrocnemius. 

RR. Bristles stout, black, male forceps of about the same 

width throughout paropus. 

PP. Each femur with preapical band and posterior side red; thor- 
acic stripe very distinct johnsoni. 

OO. Arista as long or longer than third antennal joint. 
S. Mystax chiefly golden. 
T. Male forceps widest beyond middle; legs chiefly yellow 

auricomus. 

TT. Male forceps not widest beyond middle; lee;_> chiefly black 

i^.-ythrocnemius. 

SS. Mystax either black, white or mixed. 

U. Mystax chiefly white; third antennal joh.t barely pale at 

base antimachus. 

UU. Mystax with numerous black hairs above; third antennal 
joint distinctly pale at base lecythus. 

A. augustipennis Hine. Among the material from which this 
species was described, was a male from St. Elmo, Va., F. C. 
Pratt. Has been taken also near Beltsvilte,. Md., September TO, 
1916, in copula, McAtee. 

A. auricomus Hine. Great Falls, Va., September 9, 1914, R. 
C. Shannon; October 3; Falls Church, Va., August 13, Banks; 
Rock Run, Md., September 7, 1915, R. 0. Shannon. 

A. autumnalis Banks. Common; August 10 to September 30; 
in copula September 13; known to come to light; mry be a fall 
form of A. novaescotiae. P. I. 

A. erythrocnemius Hine. Great Falls, Va., July 20.. 1913, F. 
Knab; Falls Church, Va., September 22, "Bryant "B^nks, Silver 
Hill, Md., September 26, 1915, I,. O. Jackson. 

A. flavofemoratus Hine. Abundant; May 12 to July 25; lias 
been observed coming to light in great abundance; known to feed 
on Elateridae, and the diptera, Chrysopila sp. and Tipula sp. 
P. I. 

A. fuscatus Hine. Fairly numerous; June 6 to September 2. 
P. I. 

A. gracilis Wiedemann. Plummers Island, Md., September 1, 
H. S. Barber; Rock Creek, D. C., August 25, 1914, R. C. Shannon. 

A. johnsoni Hine. Beltsville, Md., July 9, 1916, McAttf. 

A. latipennis Hine. Plummers Island, M f l., September 1, 1907, 
A. K. Fisher. 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH.. VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 31 

A. lecythus Walker. Common ; May 25 to August '22 ; in cop- 
ula latter date. V. P. I. 

A. maneei Hine. Great Falls, Va., June 29, 1915, C. T. 
Greene; July 20, 1913, F. Knab; September 24, Banks; Glen- 
can yn, Va., June 23, 1914, W. D. Appel; Washington, D. C., 
September 22, 1915; Beltsville, Md., September 10, 1916, McAtee. 

A. notatus Wiedemann. The most abundant species of the 
genus. Extreme dates of collection May 21 to September 20; 
in copula various dates from May 31 to September 19. Has 
been found preying upon the following: moths; the leaf -hopper, 
Draeculacephala mollipes; Tabanus costalis, and another small 
horsefy; the cranefly, Nephrotoma ferruginea; and a chrysomelid 
beetle. P. I. 

A. novaescotiae Macquait. Next in abundance to last species; 
season: June 14 to September 24; in copula August 11, 16, 20, 
22. P. I. 

A. paropus Walker. Great Falls, Va., June 28, 1917, August 
17, 1916, C. T. Greene; July 22, August 13; Chain Bridge, Va., 
June 9; Falls Church, Va., July 7 and 9, Banks; July 13, 1913, 
F. Knab; Lakeland, Md., July 14, 1916, McAtee; Riverdale, Md., 
June, 1916; Bladensburg, Md., June 13, 1916; Beltsville, Md., 
June 14, 1916, F. R. Cole. Has been found preying upon the 
cranefly, Epiphragma solatrix and the Dexiid, Cordyligaster min- 
iuscula. 

A. sadyates Walker. Common; July 10 to October 28. P. I. 

A. s?riceus Say. Fairly common; May 31 to July 25; prey 
observed includes . Libellulid and the beefly, Bombylius mex- 
icanus. 

A. snowii Hine. Great Falls, Va., August 13, 17, Banks; 
Plummers Island, Md., June 11, 16, 1912, E- A. Schwarz and H. 
S. Barber; June 15, 191 1", P. R. Myers; July 4, 1907, A. K. Fisher; 
July 4, 1914, little Falls, D. C., August 22, 1915 (common and in 
copula), McAtee; Woodridge, D. C., August 29, 1915, F. Fritz; 
Beltsville, Md., September 3, 1916, McAtee. 

* 

Asilus virginicus Banks, new species. 

In general similar to A. notatus, but differs in having a more slender and 
elongate superior forceps, the tip of which is not bent downward (see Fig- 
ures 1 and 2). Black; legs black, bases of tibiae reddish, mystax half black, 
pale below; antennae and palpi black and black-haired; abdomen rather 
more black above than A notatus, apical margins and sides of segments yel- 
lowish gray pruinose. Arista of antenna a little shorter than the third joint; 
male genitalia from above narrower than the abdomen, tapering behind, the 
superior forceps long, nearly straight and not decurved at tip, and with 
white hair beneath as in A . notatus. 



32 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 



Holotype, a male from Great Falls, Va., June 16, Banks (No. 
10652, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

From Great Falls, Falls Church, Chain Bridge, Va., May 28 
to June 16, Banks; Falls Church, Va., June 21, 1914, F. Knab; 
Cupid's Bower Island, Va., May 31, 1915, R. C. Shannon; Branch- 
ville to Beltsville, Md., June 4, 1914, L. O. Jackson; Beltsville, 




Explanations of figures: Fig. 1. Male 
genitalia of A situs iiirgimcus; Fig. 2. Male 
genitalia of Asilus notatus; both seen from side. 

Md., July 9, 1916, McAtee; Plummers Island, Md., June 30, 
1907, A. K. Fisher; Maryland near Plummers Island, May 29, 
1910; Virginia near Plummers Island, Md., July 20, 1913, McAtee. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
Back, E. A. 

The robber-flies of America, north of Mexico, belonging to the subfamilies 
Leptogastrinae and Dasypogoninae. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 35, pp. 137-400, Pis. II-XII, April-October, 1909. 

Records 9 species from the District of Columbia and vicinity. 
Banks, N. 

Captures of Diptera. 

Ent. News, 18, No. 10. Dec., 1907, p. 450. 

Dizonias tristis, Washington, D. C., June 21; later found to be Pogonosoma. 

At the Ceanothus in Virginia. 

Ent. News, 23, No. 3, March, 1912, p. 102-110. 

Names 7 species of Asilidae caught on flowers of this plant at Falls Church, 
Va. 

Notes on Asilidae with two new species. 

Psyche, 21, No. 4, August, 1914, pp. 131-133. 

Describes Asilus autumnalis and Leptogaster loewii new species from the Dis- 
trict of Columbia region. 

Asilids catching hymenoptera. 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash, 15, No. 1, April, 1913, p. 51. 

Observations at Falls Church of Deromyia preying upon Vespa and honey 
bee, and Mallophora dausicella upon Epeolus. 

Synopsis of the genus Dasyllis (Asilidae). 

Bui. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 12, No. 3, July, 1917, pp. 52-55. 

Describes D. virginica new species, from nearby localities in Virginia. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 33 

Notes on some new species of the genus Dioctria (Asilidae). 

Psyche, 24, No. 4, August, 1917, pp. 117-199. 

Describes D. longicornis new species and D. I. var. tibialis new variety 
from this region. 
Coquillet, D. W. 

New North American Diptera. 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 6, 1904, pp. 166-192. 

Leptogaster virgatus n. sp., described from specimens, part of which were 
collected at Washington, D. C., June 22 (Banks), pp. 177-8. 
Hine, Jas. S. 

Robberflies of the genus Asilus. 

Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. II, No. 2, June, 1909, pp. 136-170, Pis. 22-23. 

Records 3 species from the vicinity of Washington, for one of which a new 
name is proposed (A. fuscatus), and of one of which (A. angiistipennis) the 
original description is given. 

Robberflies of the genera Promachus and Proctacanthus. 

Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. IV, No. 2, June, 1911, pp. 153-172. 

One species from this vicinity. 
Johnson, Chas. W. 

Notes on the species of the genus Dioctria. 

Psyche, 25, No. 5, October, 1918, p. 103. 

D. banksi new name for D. longicornis Banks, 1917, not Meigen, 1820. 
Loew, H. 

Diptera americae septentrionalis indigena, Centuria secunda, Vol. 1, 1861, 
pp. 60-62. 

Leptogaster varipes and L. tenuipes described from the District of Columbia. 
Centuria septima, Vol. 2, 1865-1872, pp. 76, 77, 83. 

Pygostolus argentifer, P. pictus and Diogmites miscellus described from the 
District of Columbia. 
McAtee, W. L. 

A sketch of the Natural History of the District of Columbia, etc., Bull. 1, 
Biol. Soc. Wash., May, 1918, 142 pp., 5 maps. 

Records 12 species of Asilidae from the region, pp. 91, 93, 95, 97, and 108. 

Key to the Nearctic species of the genus Laphria (Diptera, Asilidae). 

Ohio Journ. Sci., 19, No. 2, December, 1918 (Jan. 18, 1919), pp. 143-170, 
Pis. 10-11. 

Describes L. aktis, index, ithypyga, sicula and winnemana, from material 
in part from our region, and records 3 other species. 

Notes on the Nearctic Nusa (Diptera, Asilidae). 
Ohio Journ. Sci., 19, No. 4, February 27, 1919, pp. 244-248, 5 figs. 
Records N. fulvicauda from the region. 
Osten Sacken, C. R. von. 

A list of the Leptidae, Mydaidae and Dasypogonina of North America. 

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2, 1874, pp. 169-187. 

Records from the District of Columbia, only the species described by Loew. 



34 ENT. PROC. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF 
SCATOPHAGIDAE (DIPTERA). 

BY J. R. MALLOCH. 

The descriptions presented herein are those of species which 
have been in my hands for two or three years, the material having 
been obtained from various sources to enable me to draw up a 
key to the North American genera which recently appeared in 
the Report on the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-18, Volume 
3, page 75, 1919. 

The type of Pseudopogonota aldrichi is in the collection of Dr. 
Aldrich, those of the other species are in the collection of the 
State Natural History Survey of Illinois. 

Scatophaga grisea, sp. n. 

Male and Female. -Black, very slightly shining, densely gray pruinescent. 
Interfrontalia, face, anterior half of cheeks, and basal half of palpi reddish 
yellow. Thorax with four brown vittae. Abdomen without dorsal mark- 
ings. Legs reddish testaceous, coxae, and the femora except their apices, 
black, gray pruinose. Wings slightly grayish, veins yellow basally, brown 
apically, cross-veins slightly darkened. Calyptrae and halteres pale yellow. 

Female. Head when seen from in front nearly twice as wide as high at 
center; frons half as wide as head, about as long as wide; orbits wide, each 
with about five infraorbital and three supraorbital bristles and some soft short 
hairs; parafacial linear below; cheek about one- third as high as eye, the posterior 
portion of lower margin with soft pale hairs, only the vibrissal angle with 
strong black bristles (5); antennae with third joint about twice as long as 
second; arista with short pubescence. Thorax with sparse short hairs, the 
bristles not strong; presutural acrostichals weak, in about six rows; stigma tal 
and propleural bristles absent; ventral prothoracic plate very narrow, not 
broadened anteriorly; propleura hairy in part. Abdomen with second ter- 
gite longest. Legs stout, the femora noticeably so; bristles absent from 
femora; fore tibia with a series of long, fine hairs on postero-dorsal surface, 
and a long bristle beyond middle on antero-dorsal surface; mid tibia with one 
or two antero-dorsal, one postero-dorsal, and sometimes one posterior bristle; 
hind tibia with two or three antero-dorsal, and two postero-dorsal weak bris- 
tles; tibial spurs weak, not curved. First wing-vein bare; sixth vein complete; 
veins 3 and 4 slightly convergent apically. 

Male. Similar to female in color and habitus. The fifth sternite with 
two moderately stout lateral processes which have numerous soft pale hairs 
along their inner halves; hypopygium small. 

Length 5-5.5 mm. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 35 

Type. Male, Logan, Utah, May 20, 1914 (H. R. Hagan). 
Allotype Wells, Nev., July 12, 1911 (coll. J. M. Aldrich). 

Pseudopogonota, gen. n. 

Generic Characters. Similar in general habitus to Pogonota zetterstedt, 
but without the extra cross- veins in the male and with the palpi spoon-shaped 
in both sexes. First wing-vein bare; sixth vein complete. Hypopygial 
forceps bearded ; second tergite elongated, very conspicuously so in male. 

Genotype, the following species. 

Pseudopogonota aldrichi, sp. n. 

Male. Grayish black, shining, conspicuously but not densely pruines- 
cent. Head largely black, center of interfrontalia red, its anterior fourth, 
the face, and nearly all of cheek sooty black; second antennal joint and base 
of third reddish yellow; palpi pale basally. Thorax not distinctly vittate. 
Abdomen unmarked; hypopygium reddish testaceous, inferior forceps glossy 
black, with a dense fringe of long, golden, bristly hairs. Legs yellowish tes- 
taceous, coxae and femora more or less infuscated. Wings yellowish, veins 
pale, cross- veins infuscated. Calyptrae and halteres yellow. 

Head less than twice as broad as high. Orbits narrow, each about one- 
seventh as wide as interfrontalia, bristles as in the preceding species, almost 
bare except for the bristles; face receding below; parafacial narrow; cheek 
over one-third of the eye-height, with a few hairlike bristles on posterior 
halt and some very short hairs along lower margin; vibrissal angle separated 
by a depressed lire from cheek, with about six bristles; proboscis slender; 
palpi spoon-shaped, with numerous short black bristles; arista with its long- 
est hairs as long as width of third antennal joint. Thorax with presutural 
acrostichals short, 4-rowed; dorsal bristles distinct, but not long; stigmatal 
and propleural bristles weak or absent. Abdomen slender, without brist'es; 
hypopygium rather large, inferior forceps over twice as long as wide, rounded 
at apices, their outer or ventral surfaces bare, armed along their lower or inner 
margin with long, densely packed bristly hairs, the surface which is mesally 
directed with dense woolly hairs; fifth sternite with two short wartlike sub- 
median protuberances, laterad of which there is a tuft of long black bristles. 

Legs slender; femora without bristles; armature of tibia almost as in pre- 
ceding species, but the surface hairs much longer. Third and fourth veins 
subparallel apically. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the head with the exception 
of upper half of occiput, apical two-thirds of third antennal joint, and pro- 
boscis reddish testaceous; thorax and abdomen largely reddish testaceous,, 
infuscated above. Legs entirely pale. 



36 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

Bristles of entire body stronger than in the male. Abdomen broader 
than in male, apex slightly compressed. 
Length 7-8 mm. 

Type. Male, allotype, and two male and one female paratypes, 
Mt. Moscow, Idaho, no date. Paratypes, one male, same lo- 
cality as type, September 9, 1908, near summit, on vegetation; 
one female, Tennessee Pass, Col., July 25, 1917. All taken by 
Dr. J. M. Aldrich. 

Pseudopogonota aldrichi, var. pallida, var. n. 

Male.- -Differs from the type in having the head with the exception of 
upper half of occiput yellowish testaceous. 

Type. Male, and three paratypes, Craigs Mt., Idaho, no 
date; two males, Marshall Pass, Col., July 28, 1908, elevation 
10856 feet (J. M. Aldrich). 

This genus runs down to caption 20 in my key to the genera 
of Scatophagidae previously referred to. From Ceratinostoma 
and Scatophaga it is distinguished by the spoon-shaped palpi. 

Neogimnomera, gen. n. 

This genus will run down to Caption 10 in my key to the 
genera. From the genera therein included it is distinguished by 
the pubescent arista, absence of the stigmatal bristle, and the 
short but distinct intra-alar bristles. The apex of the abdomen 
in the female is not compressed as in Gimnomera, and the palpi 
in both sexes have a long apical bristle. 

Genotype. Cordylura amans Cresson. 

This species was described from a single female. The male 
differs from the female in having the uppe: half of the occiput, 
upper half of pleura, dorsum of thorax except two partial vittae, 
and all of dorsum of abdomen except the hypopygium black. 

I have seen two males and two females from Hood River, Ore., 
May 15, 1917 (F. R. Cole). The male allotype is deposited in 
the collection of California Academy of Sciences. 

Gimnomera Rondani. 

There are no species of this genus recorded from North America. 
I included the genus in my key to the genera previously referred 
to and now present the descriptions of the three species known to 
me from this country. 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 37 

Key to Species. 

1. Males 2 

Females 4 

2. Interfrontalia and greater portion of face and parafacials sooty black; 

hypopygium with inferior forceps hatchet-shaped; fifth sternite with 
two small submedian wartlike elevations which are studded with mi- 
nute black spines atrifrons, sp. n. 

Interfrontalia entirely reddish; hypopygium with the inferior forceps not 
hatchet-shaped, slightly dilated or tapered to apices 3 

3. Face blackened on lower half; third antennal joint not twice as long as 

second; inferior hypopygial forceps broadest considerably before apex, 

their tips pointed; fifth sternite as in atrifrons incisurata, sp. n. 

Face entirely pale; third antennal joint over three times as long as second; 
inferior hypopygial forceps gradually but slightly broadened to apices, 
truncate at tips; fifth sternite with two long slender submedian pro- 
cesses which are tapered to apices and furnished with short black set- 
ulae on their inner or upper surfaces fasciventris, sp. n. 

4. Third antennal joint deep black, not twice as long as second; thorax 

entirely yellow; abdomen yellow, with a narrow glossy black fascia at 

apex of each tergite incisurata, sp. n. 

Third antennal joint obscurely yellowish, largely infuscated, three times 
as long as second; dorsum of thorax and metanotum as well as some 
markings on pleura black; abdomen with a narrow fascia on apex of 
each tergite and the genital segments glossy black . . . .fasciventris, sp. n. 



Gimnomera atrifrons, sp. n. 

Male. Occiput, posterior half of cheeks, upper part of face, and palpi 
yellow; second antennal joint reddish yellow, remainder of head black. 
Thorax and abdomen yellowish testaceous, the latter with poorly defined 
black fasciae at bases of tergites. Legs entirely pale. 

Arista pubescent, very slender except at extreme base. Scutellum with 
four strong bristles. 

Length 4.25 mm. 

Type. St. Anthony Park, Minn. (Lugger). One male. 

Gimnomera incisurata, sp. n. 

Male. Yellow, third antennal joint, lower half of face, ocellar triangle, 
and tips of inferior hypopygial forceps black. 

Arista as in preceding species. Other characters as in key. 



38 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

Female. Differs from the male in having the face entirely yellow, and the 
abdomen with narrow glossy black fasciae. 
Length 4 mm. 

Type. Male, allotype, and three male paratypes, Dubois, 111., 
May 10, 1918; one female paratype, same locality, May 25, 1917 
(J. R. Malloch). 

Gimnomera fasciventris, sp. n. 

Male. Yellowish testaceous; third antennal joint except base, oceilar 
triangle, upper half of occiput, dorsum of thorax except anterior lateral' 
angles, metanotum, and upper half of pleura black. Abdomen with a nar- 
row brownish fascia at apex of each tergite, seventh tergite glossy black. 

Arista pubescent, swollen on a little more than its basal third. Hypopygium 
much more prominent than in other species. 

Female. Similar in color to the male. 

Length 4 mm. 

Type. Male, allotype and one female paratype, Meredosia r 
111., May 29, 1917 (J. R. Malloch). Taken in a sand-pit. 



TWO NEW TERMITES FROM ARIZONA. 

BY THOMAS. E. SNYDER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

On June 30, 1919, Mr. George Hofer collected winged adults 
of Kalotermes hiibbardi Banks, which were attracted to light in 
Sabino Canyon, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. This was 
the first flight observed in the season of 1919. With these adults 
of K . hubbardi were smaller, darker adults of a Kalotermes which 
prove to be a new species. This new Kalotermes is hairy like 
K . minor Hagen, but is smaller and not so dark and the pronotum 
seems to be proportionately longer. Unfortunately only three 
adults were collected. 

This new termite brings the number of Nearctic termites to 
37 species and 2 varieties. The termite fauna of the Santa Cata- 
lina Mountains, Ariz., is richer in species than any other locality 
in the United States; 12 species and 1 variety occur there. 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 39 

Kalotermes banksi, n. sp. 

Winged. Dark yellowish brown; a faint pale V-mark on front of head; 
abdomen paler beneath; legs femora pale, tibiae and tarsi yellowish brown ; 
antennae pale, longer than width of head, 16 segments, third segment darker, 
plainly longer than the second or fourth segment, apical segments becoming 
more elongate, last more slender. Compound eyes large, nearly circular, 
fully diameter from lower margin of head, less than three times diameter 
from hind edge of head, less than diameter from lateral edge of head. Ocelli 
very slightly separated from eyes, oblique and slightly elongate. Pronotum 
plainly less than twice as broad as long, broadest in middle, anterior mar- 
gin evenly concave, posterior sides rounded into hind margin. An oblique 
black mark shows on each side of the front margin. Wings pale, costal 
veins dark; radial sector with four branches to the costa; median vein runs 
slightly nearer to radial sector than to cubitus. Wing scale a little longer 
than the pronotum. Head and pronotum with short but erect hair; abdo- 
men with short hair. 

Length, without wings, 6.0 mm., length wing 8.0 mm. 

This termite is named in honor of Mr. Nathan Banks of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, the American authority on 
termites. 

Hopk. U. S. No. 14123. 

Type. Dealated, male, adult, Cat. No. 22685, U. S. National 
Museum. 



A Reticulitermes Flying at Night in Arizona. 

On July 5, 1919, Mr. Hofer also collected several species of 
termites that were attracted to light in Sabino Canyon. Among 
the species of Kalotermes and Amitermes, which are normally 
nocturnal fliers, were seven specimens of a small, pale yellowish 
brown species of Reticulitermes which apparently is new. This 
is the first instance known to the writer of any species in the 
genus Reticulitermes flying at night. Ten species occur in the 
United States; in the eastern States these termites "swarm" or 
fly during the forenoon of a bright, sunny, warm day. 

This new species may be the winged adult of a manuscript 
species described only from the soldier caste by Banks. 



40 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEB., 1920 

Reticulitermes aureus, n. sp. 

Dedlated adult. 1 Pale yellowish to light brownish on dorsal surface; under 
surface yellowish, also legs and antennae; end of abdomen (ventral) golden 
yellow; lighter in color than R. hageni Bks. 2 Head longer than broad, 
sharply narrowed (rounding) behind; longer than in hageni but not as broad. 
Teeth of mandibles as in hageni. Clypeus prominent, bilobed. Opening of 
frontal gland on a line with the hind border of the eyes, in a depression. The 
ocelli close to the compound eyes, less than an ocellus diameter distant. 
Compound eye more than its diameter from the lateral margin of head. 
Pronotum large, sides sharply narrowed behind at an oblique angle; more 
elongate than in hageni and in most species of Reticulitermes. Pronotum 
nearly as broad as head with a fairly deep median incision on both anterior 
and hind margin. Antennae with 16-17 segments, more slender than in 
hageni. Pubescence of head, thorax and body short but dense; longest 
hairs as long as greatest diameter of compound eye; pubescence yellowish 
in color. 

Length, without wings, 4.75 mm. ; slightly longer than hageni. 

In color and lateness in swarming this termite is related to 
Reticulitermes hageni Bks. ; most species of Reticulitermes are dark 
in color. 

Type Locality. Sabino Canyon, Santa Catalina Mtns., Ariz. 

Described from 6 dealated male adults (one type) collected at 
light by Geo. Hofer and recorded under Hopk. U. S. No. 14126e. 

Type and Paratype. Catalogue No. 22693, U. S. National 
Museum. 

1 Description drawn from the type specimen while in alcohol before pin- 
ning and consequent shrinking. 

2 The characterization of R. hageni is by N. Banks. 



Actual date of publication February 18, IQ20. 



VOL. 22 MARCH 1920 No. 3 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 






CONTENTS 



MAR; 41921 

. 






BUSCK, AUGUST LORD WALSINGHAM . . 41 

CHAPIN, EDWARD A. NEW AMERICAN CLERIDAE WITH NOTE ON SYNON- 

OMY OF MICROPTERUS CHEVR (COLEOPT.) 50 

HEINRICH, CARL A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES Of OECOPHORID MOTHS 

FROM JAPAN 43 

MANN, WM. M. A PROCTOTRYPID INQUILINE WITH FORMICA EXSEC- 

TOIDES FOREL. (HYM.) 59 

ROHWER, S. A. DESCRIPTIONS OF SIX NEW WASPS (HYM.) 54 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of 
Octobers, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1920. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President W. R. WALTON 

First Vice- President A. B. GAHAN 

Second Vice-President A. G. BOVING 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Executive Committee: THE OFFICERS and A. N. CAUDELL, A. L. QUAIN- 

TANCE and E. R. SASSCER. 

Representing the Society as a Vice- President of the Washington Academy of 
Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 22 MARCH, 1920 No. .! 

LORD WALSINGHAM.* 

By the death on December 3, 1919, of The Right Hon. Lord 
Walsingham (Thomas de Grey) of Merton Hall, England, the 
Entomological World has lost one of the last of the old guard 
from the period of Stainton, Frey, Heinemann and Zeller, a con- 
spicuous landmark, a picturesquely towering tree, which to the 
last gave forth new growth and good fruit. 

Lord Walsingham was born July 29, 1843, and his entomological 
activity covered more than half a century. He became interested 
in the study of Microlepidoptera at an early age and maintained 
this interest until his death, working with his collections in the 
British Museum to the very end. His work was always abreast 
of each period and his voluminous writings, therefore, give a fair 
picture of the advance made in the study of Microlepidoptera 
during this half century. 

His studies covered the whole world and he described hundreds 
of new species from Europe, Africa and Asia, but he had a par- 
ticular fondness for the American fauna, an interest dating back 
to 1871-72, when he undertook what was at that time a hazardous 
and difficult expedition to California and Oregon with the main 
purpose of collecting Microlepidoptera. On this expedition, 
accompanied only by a few servants, he traveled overland to 
Mt. Shasta, Oregon and the Calif ornian coast, making the round trip 
from the Western terminus of the railroad in a specially constructed 
wagon, containing an entomological workshop. 

His collections from this tour remained, until a very few years 
ago, the largest contribution to our knowledge of the Microlepi- 
doptera of that region. He afterwards studied Clemens' and 
Chambers' types in the East and at Zeller's death acquired his 
large collection of American types, and thus became and until 
the end of the century remained, the one specialist to whom all 
American material of the group was submitted for identifica- 
tion. The number of specimens sent to him through Professors 
Riley and Fernald alone was very considerable and together 
with his publications on American Microlepidoptera, served as a 
dependable base for the work of younger students. 

* Prepared at the request of the Society by August Busck. 

41 



42 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 

His influence on the study in this country was further aug- 
mented by his live interest in the work of younger American 
workers and his generous never-failing assistance to them both 
in specimens and information. 

Lord Walsingham accumulated an enormous and priceless 
collection of Microlepidoptera from all over the world, which, 
together with his very complete library, was transferred as a gift 
to the British Museum in 1910. This collection he acquired by 
purchase and gifts, but in no small part also by his own diligent 
collecting. He was in this as in all other phases of his life, a 
strenuous enthusiast, working long hours without fatigue, ob- 
taining thus not only carefully preserved specimens but a keen 
knowledge of the living moths, their biology, characteristic posi- 
tions and habits. He had a very remarkable eye for specific 
differences both of the living insect and in the pinned specimens. 
In the woods of his estate, Merton Hall, he knew off hand by their 
flight and superficial aspects alone all the species to be met with. 

The dominant characteristic of Lord Walsingham, expressed 
in the motto on his coat of arms "Excitari non hibescere"- 
was his refusal to stagnate and his ability even at an advanced 
age to keep in touch with and accept new ideas. 

He readily recognized the progress in classification made by 
younger workers and unhesitatingly adopted such, advanced it, 
made it his own with liberal acknowledgment and applied it 
even when it meant the refutation of his own earlier work. 

His uncompromising, acceptance after mature study, at the 
age of sixty-five, of new systematic ideas, necessitating a complete 
renunciation of some of his earlier work and the placing in the 
synonomy of dozens of his own genera, such as Lord Walsingham 
carried out in his last large contributions (The Microlepidoptera 
of Teneriffe and the Biologica Centrali Americani, Vol. IV), 
is indeed a most remarkable testimony to his youthful mental 
vigor and his ardent desire for truth and progress. 

Entomology was by no means the only interest of this many- 
sided man. His powers of observation and his philosophical 
turn of mind made him prominent in other branches of science, 
especially ornithology, and in many other human activities. 
He was a nobleman by nature as well as by birth, a full-blooded 
man with a rare faculty for the enjoyment of life in all its aspects. 
He was an enthusiastic sportsman, an ardent hunter, a crack shot, 
an experienced traveler, a brilliant speaker, and a distinguished 
personality whom many scientific societies were proud to count a 
member. 

He was a delightful correspondent, a faithful and unselfish 
friend and a princely host to those who had a privilege of knowing 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL,. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1 920 43 

him personally. To give an adequate account of him would fill 
a volume. Here shall merely be recorded our appreciation of his 
value to American Science. Our Society is honored to have had 
him as a member. We shall see no more like him. 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF OECOPHORID MOTHS FROM 

JAPAN. 

BY CARL HEINRICH, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

During his recent visit to Washington, Prof. S. J. Kuwana, the 
Imperial Plant Quarantine Inspector of Yokahoma, Japan, left 
with us for determination several insects reared from stored grain 
at the stations under his control. Among them were five specimens 
of an Oecophorid of exceptional interest. It is apparently un- 
described and represents a more primitive and closely related 
eastern form of the North American genus Martyringa Busck. 1 
Mr. Busck has verified my determination and at his suggestion 
I am describing it as new. 

Since Prof. Kuwana kindly furnished us with larvae and pupae 
as well as reared adults, I am able to give generic and specific 
characters in full. 

Santuzza, new genus. 
Type. S. kuwanii, n. sp. 

Moth. (Plate 3, Figs. 1-3.) Head with appressed scales slightly rough- 
ened over the eyes; ocelli absent; tongue developed. Antennae 2 / 3 ; in male 
moderately ciliate beneath; basal joint moderate, without pecten. Max- 
illary palpi short, filliform, appressed to tongue. Labial palpi long, re- 
curved; second joint slightly roughened beneath, reaching as high as base of 
antennae; third joint as long or nearly as long as second, slender, tapering, 
smooth scaled. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, apex rounded, termen 
slanting, not concaved; 11 veins; Ib furcate, 2 and 3 stalked from near 
angle of cell, 5 absent, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa close to apex, 9 out of 
stalk of 7 and 8, 11 from middle of cell; on underside of wing a bladder-like 
membranous tympanum in cell before middle. Hindwings nearly as long 
as forewings, elongate ovate; 8 veins; 3 and 4 stalked, 5 not closely approx- 
imate to 4 at base, 5, 6 and 7 nearly parallel. Metathoracic legs very long; 
hind tibiae clothed all around with roughened, long, hair-like scales. Mali- 
genitalia with uncus developed, strong, simple; tegumen broadly chitinized; 
vinculum terminating in a short rounded projection; harpes simple with 
basal articulation closely approximate, sacculus terminating in a free hook, 

1 Busck speaks of "allied forms (to Martyringa') occurring in China and 
Japan" (Proc. U. S. N. M., Vol. 35, p. 190. 1908). 



44 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., IQ2O 

no clasper; aedoeagus moderately long, slender; anellus present, semi-cylin- 
drical, without armature and directly attached to aedoeagus. 

Pupa. (Plate 3, Figs. 4-6.) Without defined fronto-clypeal suture. Ver- 
tex well defined, broad. Maxillary palpi large, reaching proximo-lateral 
angles of maxillae. Maxillae extending slightly more than three-fourths of 
wing length. Antennae extending to tips of wings. Labial palpi long, 
slender, one-third the length of maxillae. Prothoracic femora exposed. 
Wings pointed; extending beyond cephalic margin of 5th but not to 6th 
abdominal segment. Abdomen without spines or pubescence; 8th, 9th and 
10th segments fused. Genital and anal openings slit-like in both sexes. 
Cremaster present, strong, thorn-like, somewhat hooked. 

Larva. (Plate 4, Figs. 7-14.) Cylindrical; moderately slender; caudal 
end bluntly rounded, not appreciably tapering. Anal fork absent. Legs 
and prolegs normal. No secondary hair. Crochets triordinal, in a com- 
plete elypse. Prothoracic shield broad, divided. Spiracles oval, small; that 
on 8th abdominal segment not appreciably higher than those on abdominal 
segments 1 to 7. Skin smooth. Body setae IV and V approximate on 
abdominal segments 1 to 8, under the spiracle; perspiracular shield of pro- 
thorax prominent, elongate oval, bearing three setae well separated and 
lying in a very obtuse angle with IV equidistant from III and V; group VI 
bisetose on prothorax, unisetose on meso- and meta thorax; VII trisetose 
on proleg-bearing abdominal segments, bisetose on abdominal 7, unisetose 
on abdominal 8 and 9; III above the spiracle on all abdominal segments; 
on 9th abdominal both III and VI rather well separated from group IV-V; 
II well separated from I and directly caudad of it on abdominal segments 2 
to 7, slightly laterad on abdominal I and 8; I latero-cephelad of II on ab- 
dominal 9, nearer to II than to III ; prothorax with Ha slightly higher than 
la, lib nearly on the level of puncture z, Ib and Ic forming a rhombus with 
lib and He. 

Head capsule spherical, nearly square in outline (very slightly trapezoid) 
viewed from above ; greatest width slightly forward of middle of head ; in- 
cision of dorsal hind margin very slight. Frons pentagonal, small, not 
reaching middle of head. Adfrontal sutures meeting longitudinal ridge just 
beyond middle of head. Longitudinal ridge (LR) longer than frons. 

Ocelli six; lenses well defined, small, II and III rather well separated. 

Epistoma normal. 

Frontal punctures (Fa) close together; well forward of frontal setae (Fl); 
first adf rental seta (Adfl) approximate to Fl; Adf2 back of end of frons; 
puncture Adfa approximate to beginning of longitudinal ridge. 

Epicranium with the normal number of primary setae and punctures and 
two distinguishable ultra-posterior tubercles. Anterior setae (Al, A2 and 
A3) forming an obtuse angle; anterior puncture (Aa) postero-dorsad of A2. 
Posterior setae (PI and P2) and puncture Pb lying just back of middle of 
head and nearly parallel with longitudinal ridge; PI about middle of head; 
P-2 slightly nearer longitudinal ridge (LR) than is PI ; Pb lying between the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 45 

setae, approximate to PI; puncture Pa remote from other setae and puncture 
of posterior group, about equidistant from A3 and LI. Lateral seta (LI) 
approximate to A3; on the level of PI; lateral puncture (La) postero- 
laterad of the seta, remote. Ocellar setae (Ol, O2, O3) well separated; 
Ol dorsad of and closely approximate to ocellus III; O2 closely approx- 
imate to ocellus I, in a line with ocelli I and II; O3 ventrad of C2, remote; 
puncture (Oa) closely approximate to O3, between O3 and ocellus VI. Sub- 
ocellar setae (SOI, SO2, SOS) triangularly placed; puncture SOa lying between 
SOI and SO3, nearest to SOI. Genal seta (Gl) anterior to the puncture 
Ga, approximate to O3. 

Labrum with median incision broadly triangular, shallow. Median setae 
(Ml, M2, M3) triangularly placed 1 ; M2 postero-laterad of Ml and closer 
to Ml than to M3; lateral setae (Lai, La2, La3) nearly in a line; Ml 
and La2 on a level; Lai slightly below the level of M2; M3 well back from 
anterior margin, behind the level of La3; puncture not distinguishable. 

Epipharyngial shield narrow, very weakly chitinized, scarcely distinguish- 
able. Epipharyngial setae triangularly placed near anterior margin of 
epipharynx; well separated; narrow; moderately long. Epipharyngial rods 
indicated only by their prominent posterior projections. 

Labium and maxillae normal except for a large, pit-like, oval chitinization 
(Smp) on posterior part of submentu. 

Maxillulae normal. 

Mandible with a single strong tooth and what appears to be the rudiment 
of another closely oppressed against its inner ridge ; the lower teeth normally 
occurring in other forms here replaced by a straight, slanting, distal cutting 
edge. 

This genus differs from the closely allied Martyringa Busck in 
having veins 3 and 4 of the hindwing stalked, 5 separate from 4 
and nearly parallel with 6, and with 4 of forewing well separated 
from 3. In Martyringa 3 and 4 are united and connate with 5 
in the hindwing, and 3 and 4 of forewing are closely approximate 
or connate. Otherwise the two genera agree in adult characters. 
The immature stages of Mariyringa are unknown, so comparison 
cannot be carried further. 

Santuzza kuwanii, n. sp. 

Moth. Antennae blackish fuscous with outer margin of basal joint nar- 
rowly bordered with dull dark greyish yellow. Basal joint of labial palpus 
blackish fuscous; second joint dull yellowish with patch of blackish fuscous 
scales on outerside at base; third joint blackish, apical fourth yellow. Head 
and face dull yellow with a few scattered fuscous scales in front of the eyes. 
Thorax blackish fuscous faintly suffused with yellowish scales. Forewing 
blackish fuscous marked with dull yellow; a slight and indefinite suffusion 

1 In drawing (Fig. 9, Plate 4) the median setae are incorrectly labeled. 
M- should be M and M 3 should be M' 



46 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., IQ2O 

of yellow at base near costa; two short parallel yellow dashes on upper and 
lower veins of cell near middle, somewhat obscure in any but perfect speci- 
mens; in cell beyond middle a rather distinct black spot; an irregular yellow 
fascia from apical fifth of costa to tornus, inwardly angulated just below 
costa and again just above tornus; termen faintly yellowish with yellow suf- 
fusion broadening at apex; cilia greyish fuscous. Hindwing pale smoky 
grey; cilia somewhat paler with a faint yellowish line along their base. Legs 
black fuscous; inner sides yellow or yellowish grey; ends of tarsal joints 
ringed with yellow; on mid tibiae a tufting of greyish yellow scales covering 
first half of the joint; hind tibiae banded at middle and end with greyish 
yellow. Abdomen of male with yellowish anal tuft. Male genitalia of type 
as figured (Plate 3, Figs. 1-2). 
Alar expanse, 22-25 mm. 

Habitat. Japan (J. S. Kuwana). 

Foodplant. Stored grain. 

Type. Cat. No. 22633 U. S. N. M. 

Described from five specimens (3 males and 2 females) reared 
from stored grain at Yokahoma, Japan, and named in honor of 
Prof. Kuwana, from whom the specimens were received. In 
superficial characters it resembles very closely Martyringa lati- 
pennis Walsingham, but is easily distinguished by the structural 
characters. A specific description of the pupa and larva follows: 

Pupa. 10-11 mm. long; abdomen pale yellow, darker on dorsum; wing 
cases and dorsum of thorax yellowish brown; head yellow; cremaster black; 
spiracles small, rounded-oval, edges strongly pigmented, brown; proleg scars 
conspicuous, not pigmented. 

Larva. Full grown 22-23 mm. long by 2-2.5 mm. broad. Body sordid 
white, irregularly spotted with white at places of muscle attachment. Pro- 
thoracic shield, prespiracular shield of prothorax and prothoracic chitiniza- 
tion about seta group VI evenly dark brown; a small brown anterior, dorso- 
lateral, chitinized spot in intersegmental area on each side of mesothorax, 
bearing a minute seta; chitinized area about tubercle Ib of mesothorax 
slightly brownish; chitinized areas about tubercles otherwise unpigmented, 
small; tubercles pale; setae very long, slender, whitish yellow; anal shield 
yellowish brown; chitinized areas of thoracic legs brownish yellow shading 
to darker brown, blackish on front margin of coxae, claws pale brown. Spir- 
acles rimmed with black, very small, but conspicuous; spiracle of 8th ab- 
dominal segment approximately same size as that on prothorax, twice as 
large as other abdominal spiracles. Crochets of abdominal prolegs unevenly 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., IQ2O 47 

and irregularly triordinal; 45 to 50; moderately stout; light brown. Head 
blackish brown, paler brown in ocellar, and sub-ocellar, frontal and adfrontal 
areas; mandibles brown, paler, except at tip and along ridges, than dark 
portions of head; mentum blackish brown; other chitinized areas of labial 
and maxillary parts yellow-brown; ocelli unpigmented. 



EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS. 



For Male Genitalia. 

Ae Aedoeagus. 

An Anellus. 

Gn Gnathos. 

Hp Harpe. 

Sc Sacculus of harpe. 

Ts Transtilla. 

U Uncus. 

Vm Vinculum. 
For Pupa. 

a Antenna. 

ao Anal opening. 

cr Cremaster. 

f Femora of prothoracic leg. 

ge Glazed eye. 

go Genital opening. 

1-1 Prothoracic leg. 

1-2 Mesothoracic leg. 

1-3 Metathoracic leg. 

Ib Labrum. 

Ip Labial palpi. 

md Mandible. 

mp Maxillary palpus. 

ms Mesothorax. 

mt Metathorax. 

mx Maxillae. 

p Prothorax. 

se Sculptured eye. 

v Vertex. 

w-1 Mesothoracic wing. 

w-2 Metathoracic wing. 
For Larva. 

Al, A2, A3, Aa Setae and punc- 
ture of anterior group of epicra- 
nium. 



ADFR Adfrontal ridge of frons. 

ADFS Adfrontal suture. 

Adfl, Adf2, Adfa Adfrontal setae 
and puncture. 

C Cardo. 

E 1 , E 2 Epistomal setae. 

ES Epipharyngial shield. 

ET Epipharyngial setae. 

Fl, Fa -Frontal seta and puncture. 

Gl, Ga Genal seta and puncture 
of epicranium. 

LI, La Lateral seta and puncture 
of epicranium. 

Lai, La2, La3 Lateral setae of 
labrum. 

M Mentum. 

Ml, M2, M3 Median setae of 
labrum. 

Mpl, Mp2, Mp3 Joints 1, 2, 3 of 
maxillary palpus. 

Ol, O2, O3, Oa Setae and punc- 
ture of ocellar group of epicranium. 

PI, P2, Pa, Pb Setae and punc- 
tures of posterior group of epi- 
cranium. 

Prg Palpiger maxillaris. 

SM Submentum. 

Smp -Submental plate. 

SOI, SO2, SO3, SOa Setae and 
puncture of sub-ocellar group of 
epicranium. 

St Stipes maxillaris. 

X Ultra posterior tubercles of epi- 
cranium. 



PLATE 3 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOI,. 22 




Vm 







3 




5 




HEINRICH SANTUZZA KUWANII 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22 



PLATS 4 







HEINRICH SANTUZZA KUWANII 



50 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

(Drawings made under writer's supervision by Mr. Harry Bradford, of the 

U. S. Bureau of Entomology.) 

Plate 3. 

Adult and pupal structures of Santuzza kuwanii Heinrich. 

Fig. 1. Male genitalia of moth. 

Fig. 2. Male genitalia of moth; detail (Aedoeagus with anellus attached). 

Fig. 3. Venation of moth. 

Fig. 4. Pupa (dorsal view). 

Fig. 5. Caudal end of pupa (lateral view). 

Fig. 6. Pupa (ventral view). 

Plate 4. 

Larval structures of Santuzza kuwanii, Heinrich. 
Fig. 7. Head capsule dorsal view. 
Fig. 8. Head capsule lateral view. 
Fig. 9. Labrum. 
Fig. 10. Epipharynx. 

Fig. 11. Crochets arrangement of abdominal proleg. 
Fig. 12. Mandible. 
Fig. 13. Labium and maxillae. 
Fig. 14. Setal map of pro- and mesothorax and abdominal segments 3, 8 and 9. 



NEW AMERICAN CLERIDAE, WITH NOTE ON THE SYNONYMY OF 
MICROPTERUS CHEVR (COLEOPT.). 

BY EDWARD A. CHAPIN, Washington, D. C. 

The material upon which the following new species of Cleridae 
are based has been derived mainly from the United States National 
Museum, for the use of which thanks are due Messrs. E. A. Sctnvarz 
and H. S. Barber. For the use of the material of Isolemidia sub- 
striata, n. sp., I thank Dr. F. E. Lutz and Mr. A. J. Mutchler, 
of the American Museum of Natural History. 

In an article entitled, "Descriptions de quelques Terediles de 
1'Afrique australe, du voyage de M. Drege" (Rev. Mag. Zool. 
(1), V, 277, 1842), M. Chevrolat described a new species of clerid 
as Micropterus N. G. brevipenn-is. The genus is characterized by 
the specific description and therefore must be considered valid 
until proven otherwise. Inasmuch as this name is preoccupied 
by Micropterus Lacepede (Hist. Nat. Poiss. IV, 325, 1802), I would 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR,, IQ2O 51 

suggest the new name Micropteroclerus as a substitute for Microp- 
terus Chevrolat (1842). 

Isolemidia substriata, new species. 

cf Elongate oblong, sides parallel, head across eyes as wide as elytra at 
humeri, thorax quadrate, as long as broad, width of head: width of thorax:: 
13:10. Color bluish black with a metallic luster, head and thorax with a 
trace of greenish, apical and basal margins of thorax narrowly, legs, antennae, 
mouth parts (except for mandibles) testaceous. Mandibles piceous. Head 
vertical, eyes widely separated, space between eyes shallowly excavate, just 
above clypeus transversely wrinkled, otherwise with longitudinal wrinkles, 
these almost effaced in the median portion but more prominent near eyes. 
Part of head back of eyes with fine grooves and ridges. Punctures coarse 
but sparse, most abundant anterior to a line across the head at the middle of 
the eyes. Punctures are continued backward from this space on two areas, 
either side of a median smooth space on the vertex. Pubescence very sparse, 
a mixture of black and pale vertical hairs. Antennae nearly reaching base 
of thorax, eleven segmented, segments 9-11 forming a lax club, 9 and 10 
globular, 11 somewhat longer and pointed, slightly sinuate on inner sides. 
Thorax quadrate, smooth and polished though quite uneven, without distinct 
punctures. Apical and basal transverse impressions present though not 
deep. Sides gradually expanded just before the middle. On the disk, just 
behind the apical transverse impression, there is a conspicuous pit which is 
sharply delineated before and at the sides but posteriorly is continued in a 
groove which constantly becomes more shallow and is finally effaced just 
in front of the posterior transverse impression. Pubescence very sparse, of 
erect pale hairs. Scutellum cordate, densely pubescent. Elytra long, en- 
tire, completely covering the abdomen, slightly wider at apical fourth, suture 
closed, extreme tips slightly rounded. Surface highly polished but more or 
less irregular, the irregularities tending to form striae. Lateral margins 
double for basal three-fourths. Pubescence more dense than on head or 
thorax, erect, pale. Under parts black, polished, minutely punctulate, mod- 
erately pubescent on the pleurae. Terminal dorsal segment of abdomen 
broadly truncate at apex, and lateral angles of the truncature rounded, at 
the middle very shallowly emarginate. Terminal ventral segment, deeply 
and broadly emarginate, the only visible parts being two slender, lateral 
horns or claspers. The penultimate ventral segment is also broadly but not 
as deeply emarginate. Legs long and slender, posterior femora not equaling 
tips of elytra. Tarsi normal, claws simple. 

9 Similar to the male in size, form and sculpture. The coloration of the 
lytra differs in that they are brown with paler tips, with no trace of blue. 
Both dorsal and ventral terminal segments are simple in outline, the ventral 
having a longitudinal median impressed furrow. The legs are darker than 
in the male. 



52 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 

Habitat. Chili. 

Described from four specimens in the American Museum of 
Natural History, representing both sexes. Type and allotype at 
the Museum, a pair of paratypes in the collection of the author. 

A key to the known species of this genus has been prepared and 
is offered here. Owing to the fact that it is based largely on the 
original descriptions the characters chosen for use were of neces- 
sity mainly color, of rather questionable value in the Hydnocerini* 
Before much progress can be made, a great many of the early 
described species of Cleridae will have to be redescribed. 

Key to the Species of Isolemidea. 

1. Front of head between the eyes carinate; elytra much shorter than the 

abdomen cariniceps Wolc. 

Front between the eyes planate or excavate; elytra as long as or longer 
than the abdomen 2 

2. Elytra black, with a blue-green or emerald-green transverse fascia 3 

Elytra without green transverse fascia 4 

3. Legs red (tibiae greenish) pulchella Gorh. 

Legs olivaceous (posterior tibiae black) batesi Gorh. 

4. Elytra uniformly blue-black cf substriata n. sp. 

Elytra brown or piceous with distinct markings of another color 5 

5. Elytra greenish brown, each with a single round brown spot behind the 

middle bipunctata Schklg. 

Elytra piceous, marked with yellowish or yellowish green 6 

6. Elytra with the apex pale stramineous cf substriata n. sp. 

Elytra with basal markings in addition to the apical ones 7 

7. Elytra with an ill-defined yellowish green spot at base, apex broadly rufo- 

piceous apicalis Gorh. 

Elytra with base, apex and a median cross bar, also margin narrowly, 
yellowish subtilis Gorh. 

( 
Orthoplevra cyanipennis, new species. 

Similar to O. texana Bland, but with the elytra steel-blue and thorax bright 
red. Elongate, rufous to rufo-piceous, elytra steel-blue. Head finely punc- 
tured, the punctures becoming quite sparse toward vertex, antennae with 
the club and a few of the segments of the funicle piceous, the scape and 
adjacent segments rufous. Thorax with the sides parallel, slightly broader 
than long (26-28), punctures rather fine and well separated one from another. 
No trace of a carina on the basal median portion. Pubescence of head and 
thorax rufous, short and rather sparse. Elytra long, tapering strongly to 
apex, suture closed, apices conjointly rounded but with the sutural angles 
blunt, basal portion as far as the faint lunate brownish fleck which occurs on 
each elytron, moderately coarsely punctured, the punctures scattered, not 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 53 

tending to form rows; apical portion smooth, very finely punctured. The 
fine punctures are extended to the base among the coarse ones, and each 
bears a short black bristly hair. Under parts polished, finely and sparsely 
punctured, metasternum with a deep median longitudinal groove reaching 
two-thirds to the mesosternum. Legs rufous, very densely pubescent. Claws 
with basal tooth, as in the genus. 

Hab. Venodio, Sinaloa, Mexico, June 27-August 14. A. 
Kusche, collector. 

Type. No. 22556, U. S. N. M. 

Described from fifteen specimens taken at Venodio between the 
above-mentioned dates. It is possible that this species is the one 
mentioned by Gorham (Biol. Cent. Amer. Col., Vol. 3, Pt. 2, 
Suppl. p. 345) as a variety of 0. damicornis Fabr. Its affinities 
are, however, with 0. texana. These three species may be sep- 
arated by the following table : 

Lateral margins of prothorax sinuate, punctuation not dense 

damicornis Fabr. 

Lateral margins of prothorax parallel. 

Punctuation of pronotum dense and evenly distributed. . .texana Bland. 

Punctuation of pronotum sparse, slightly more dense at side 

cyanipennis n. sp. 

An additional character for distinguishing the sexes in the 
species of Orthoplevra may be found in the distance separating 
the eyes. In the male the eyes are much closer together in front 
than in the female. This character used in connection with that 
of the antennae should be sufficient to always distinguish the sex 
of a specimen. 

Corinthiscus sinaloae, new species. 

Form rather broad and depressed, slightly broader toward apex. Piceous, 
elytra pale, basal region of elytra piceous, humeri rufous, subapical band 
rufous edged with piceous. Head piceous, moderately coarsely and very 
densely punctured, eyes prominent, coarsely granulate, head between the 
eyes depressed, vertex distinctly swollen, in some specimens very obsoletely 
carinate. Antennae rufous, basal segment sparsely punctured, club piceous 
except for apical half of eleventh segment, finely pubescent; palpi rufo-tes- 
taceous. Thorax rufo-piceous, longer than wide (25:21), sides parallel, sud- 
denly narrowed near base, disk with a short deep median longitudinal groove, 
limited behind by a smooth raised space and with four shallow depressions 
on either side of the median line; surface very coarsely and quite densely 
punctured. Elytra with very large and deep pit-like punctures, which are 
scattered, surface between the punctures very smooth and shining; color pale 
stramineous, basal fourth piceous, just beyond this patch of color is a trans- 
verse undulating, very narrow piceous line, more or less broken. The humeri 
are rufous. On the apical fourth there is an irregular transverse band of 



54 PROC. 3NT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 

rufous, rather broadly edged with piceous. Tips pale. Under parts piceous, 
legs piceous, with exception of the coxae, knees and tarsi which are pale. 
Length 6.5-12 mm. 

Male has the rami of the antennal club slightly prolonged and has the 
terminal ventral segment with a median raised portion, strongly depressed 
on either side. 

Female has the surface of the terminal ventral even, not depressed laterally. 

Mexico: Venodio, Sinaloa, late June, July and August; Tehuan- 
tepec, Oaxaca, July 7; Mazatlan, Sinaloa, September 15. Type 
from Venodio. 

Described from twenty-three specimens. 

Type. No. 22557, U. S. N. M. 

Corinthiscus spinolae, new species. 

Form similar to C. sinaloae but larger. Head, pronotum, meso- and meta- 
sterna piceous, elytra pale with dark spots, abdomen pale, legs pale with 
knees piceous. Head much as in the preceding species but the punctures are 
slightly finer. Scape and funicle of antenna reddish chestnut, club darker. 
Palpi rufo-testaceous. Thorax slightly longer than broad (33:29), form 
similar to that of C. sinaloae but without the lateral depressions and with 
the median fissure very much less distinctly marked. The post median 
smooth space is not raised and is in the form of a narrow line. Elytral punc- 
tures finer than in the preceding and become obsolete near apex. The ground 
color is pale testaceous; the base is dark, the dark extending toward the 
apex for a short distance at the humeri and on the disk, there is a medium 
fascia which is broken into three spots on each elytron, the middle one of 
which is larger and is more apical in position; near the apex is a transverse 
fascia apparently composed of four large spots, two on each elytron, the 
spots just touching. Under parts of the thorax piceous, of the abdomen 
pale. The legs are pale but for the knees which are dark, the dark color 
sharply demarked from the pale. Length 11-12 mm. 

Described from four specimens, all females, collected at Venodio, 
Sinaloa, Mexico, June 27 to July 10, 1918, A. Kusche, collector. 
Type. No. 22558, U. S. N. M. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIX NEW WASPS (HYM.). 
BY S. A. ROHWER, Bureau of Entomology. 

The six new wasps described in the following pages were sub- 
mitted for identification by Dr. Chas. Robertson. The types of 
all of them are in the collection of the U. S. National Museum. 

Elis floridanus, new species. 

In size, appearance and structure this new species is much like 
interrupta (Say) , but it can readily be distinguished by the yellow 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 55 

posterior margin of the pronotum. In the color of the pronotum 
it resembles qwinquecincta (Fabricius), atriventris Gahan, etc., but 
it differs from these species in the sculpture of the pronotum and 
propodeum. 

Female. Length, 15 mm. Anterior margin of the clypeus broadly rounded, 
the surface of clypeus convex and with a median ridge, opaque with close 
fine punctures and with large irregular punctures in addition; front shining, 
unipunctate, ventrally the punctures are closer and sometimes confluent; 
vertex, occiput and temples shining, with widely separated punctures; post- 
ocellar line about two-thirds the length of the ocellocular line, a distinct, 
transverse impressed line behind lateral ocelli; second to fourth (inclusive) 
joints of antennae dentate at apex beneath; dorsal aspect of pronotum closely 
bipunctate, the larger punctures sometimes confluent; scutum shining with 
separate distinct punctures, finely granular along the anterior margin ; scutel- 
lum shining, with large rather close punctures; dorsal aspect of propodeum 
opaque by fine granulations, and in addition with rather small, distinct 
punctures evenly distributed over the entire surface ; posterior aspect of pro- 
podeum subshining, finely closely punctured, at the top with a few irregular, 
transverse wrinkles, ventrally with some fine dorsal-ventral striae; sides of 
pronotum striate; mesepisternum shining, with large, rather close, distinct 
punctures; sides of propodeum striate; abcissae of radius in order of length 
from shortest are 3, 1,2; tergites shining with well-separated, small punctures; 
pygidium with complete, uniform striae. Black; mandibles, except apices, 
two lateral spots on clypeus, a broad band above antennae, inner margins 
of eyes, a narrow line anterior to ocellus, posterior orbits, a narrow irregular 
line across the occiput, elongate lateral spots on anterior dorsal aspect of pro- 
notum which extend on sides, narrow posterior margin of pronotum, tegulae, 
lateral and a median spot on scutum, spot on scutellum, line on metanotum, 
large spot on mesepisternum, lateral angles of propodeum, band on anterior 
dorsal margin of first tergite (broader laterally), lateral spot on second ter- 
gite, band on third, fourth, fifth, tergites anteriorly (slightly narrowed me- 
dianly and on fifth subinterrupted), spot on sides of pygidium, and spots on 
second and third sternite yellow; legs reddish, coxae, except a yellow spot, 
black, lines on femora and tibiae yellow; wings yellowish, anterior margin 
of front wings smoky; venation yellowish; scape beneath piceous. 

The paratype female has the entire anterior dorsal margin of the pronotum, 
a posterior spot on mesepisternum, spots on sternites four and five, a band 
at base of pygidium and a median dorsal spot on the propodeum yellow. 

Male. Length, 15 mm. Clypeus with large, confluent punctures, the 
anterior margin with a shallow arcuate emargination ; supraclypeal area dis- 
tinctly ridged; lower part of front closely punctured, the upper part, occiput 
and temples shining and with well-separated punctures; an elongate fovca 
between bases of antennae; postocellar line three-fourths as long as ocellocu- 
lar line; antennae reaching to base of propodeum, third joint about half as 
long as fourth; pronotum shining, with separate distinct punctures; scutum. 



56 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., IQ2O 

scutellum and mesepisternum shining with distinct separate punctures; 
median impressed lines on scutum foveolate; dorsal aspect of propodeum 
with large, distinct punctures and posteriorly with irregular raised lines in 
addition; posterior aspect of propodeum transversely stria to-punctate ; side 
of propodeum striato-punctate ; second abscissa of radius longer than the 
third; abdomen shining with a few widely scattered punctures; pygidium 
flat. Black; mandibles except apices, clypeus, inner orbits to emargination, 
two spots between antennae, scape beneath, anterior (slightly interrupted 
medianly) and posterior margins of pronotum, tegulae, small lateral and a 
large median spot on scutum, spot on scutellum and metanotum, large spot 
on anterior part of mesepisternum and a small posterior spot, spot on lateral 
angles of propodeum, apical band on tergites one to six inclusive (slightly 
narrowed medianly) and spots on sternites two to six inclusive, yellow; legs 
black, spots on coxae, four anterior legs beyond middle of femora and apical 
half of hind femora yellow; posterior tibiae and tarsi testaceous; wings hyaline 
with apices dusky; venation testaceous except in dusky area of wing where 
it is brownish; clothed with silvery hair which is especially dense on venter 
of thorax. 

In the paratype the hind tarsi are mostly yellow. 

Type locality. Inverness, Florida. Described from two fe- 
males and two males collected by Charles Robertson and under 
his numbers 24949 (type), 24948 (allotype), 24987 and 25009. 

Type. Cat. No. 22731, U. S. N. M. 

Elis propodealis, new species. 

In size and general appearance this species looks very much 
like E. quenquecincta (Fabricius), but can easily be distinguished 
from that species by the unsculptured sides of the propodeum, 
the bipunctate pronotum, etc. 

Female. Length, 20 mm. Clypeus ridged medianly, the surface with large 
sometimes confluent punctures, anterior margin rounded; front shining with 
large sometimes confluent punctures; frontal furrow deep and distinct, ex- 
tending half the distance to the anterior ocellus; postocellar line not quite 
twice as long as the ocellocular line; vertex shining and with large, separate, 
distinct punctures; temples with smaller and fewer punctures; dorsal aspect 
of pronotum and the scutum bipunctate; scutellum with large punctures 
dorsally but small close ones laterally; dorsal and posterior aspect of pro- 
podeum subopaque, the dorsal basal middle with a few large, shallow punc- 
tures, the top of the posterior aspect with one or two transverse rugae; sides 
of pronotum with fine, close, curved striae; mesepisternum shining, with large, 
distinct punctures; sides of propodeum shining, without distinct sculpture; 
abdomen shining; pygidium with uniform striae, the apical margin slightly 
produced medianly. Black; mandibles (except apices), trophi, apical part 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., IQ2O 57 

of clypeus, inner eye margins narrowly, a spot above each antenna, neck, 
spot on each anterior dorsal corner of pronotum, posterior margin of pro- 
notum narrowly, tegulae, spot on scutellum, metanotum medianly, spot on 
mesepisternum below tegula, elongate spot on posterior lateral angles of 
propodeum, a broad narrowly interrupted band on first tergite, lateral spots 
on second tergite, anterior margin of third, fourth and fifth tergites (emargin- 
ate posteriorly), and lateral spots on second, third and fourth sternites, yellow; 
legs black, dorsal and ventral spots on hind coxae, and more or less of apices 
of all the femora yellow; tibiae and tarsi yellowish ferrugineous; wings hyaline 
with a dusky tinge, the apical anterior margin distinctly dusky ; venation dark 
brown; hair yellowish. 

In the paratype there are the following additional yellow marks : 
a small spot above the tegula, a spot on posterior margin of mes- 
episternum, a spot on side of propodeum, most of four posterior 
femora, dorsal aspect of metapleurae. 

Type locality. Inverness, Florida. One female collected by 
Charles Robertson and under his number 25052. One fema 1 e from 
Virginia Beach, Va., collected Aug. 31, 1903, by E. S. G. Titus. 

Type. Cat. No. 22611, U. S. N. M. 

Lindenius robertsoni, new species. 

Because of the simple mandibles this species runs directly to 
Lindenius in Ashmead's classification and placing generic impor- 
tance on this character would make it necessary to place it there. 
In Fox's arrangement, however, the species runs best to planipes 
Fox but differs from that species in many important characters. 
The species is excluded from "group pinguis" as defined by Fox 
in the flattened fore tarsi and absence of a pygidium. It seems 
very likely that the males of Lindenius, as defined by having the 
mandibles simple at apex, will possess a wider range of characters 
than allowed in the definition of this group by Fox. 

Male. Length, 4.5 mm. Anterior margin of the clypeus armed with four 
obtuse teeth of nearly equal size; shortest distance between the eyes about two- 
thirds the length of the scape; upper margin of the frontal depression defined by 
a sharp carina from the anterior ocellus; area immediately above the carina 
defining the frontal depression coarsely reticulate-punctured; supraorbital 
fovea obsolete; vertex and cheeks shining, almost without sculpture; occiput 
with a strong carina which is foveolate in front, cheeks not dentate ; scape 
somewhat flattened and broader apically; flagellum short, stout, about one 
and one-half times as long as scape, the first joint slightly produced apically 
beneath, second and third joints somewhat narrower so at first sight tin- 
flagellum seems emarginate at the base beneath, joints four and five slightly 
produced beneath; anterior margin of the pronotum carinate, not dentate 
laterally; prothoracic tuberculc carinate anteriorly so when seen from above 



58 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 

it appears somewhat dentate; anterior margin of the scutum with a transverse- 
carina, two short median ridges anteriorly; scutum shining, with separate 
setigerous punctures; scutellum subshining, with a few longitudinal wrinkles; 
top of propodeum with large irregular areas defined by carinae, the median 
one the largest and trapezoidal in outline; posterior aspect of propodeum 
foveolate laterally, with a median elliptical-shaped fovea; sides of propodeum 
smooth, shining; mesoplurae smooth, shining; anterior tarsi strongly flattened;: 
calcaria of the hind tibiae stout, the longer one almost as long as the hind 
basitarsus; recurrent vein slightly before the middle of cubital cell; inter- 
cubitus joining radius its length from the stigma; abdomen smooth, shining, 
without a pygidium. Black; mandibles, scape beneath, spots on pronotum, 
tubercule, two spots before the scutellum, yellow; legs black, anterior legs 
below middle of femora, intermediate tibiae and tarsi, posterior tibiae except 
a spot within, and hind tarsi yellow; apex of abdomen rufous; wings hyaline; 
venation brown; head and thorax with silvery pubescence. 

Type locality. Carlinville, Illinois. Described from two males 
collected by Charles Robertson and recorded under his numbers 
22928 (type) and 22927. 

Type. Cat. No. 22728, U. S. N. M. 

Anacrabro robertsoni, new species. 

Resembles A. ocellatus Packard but the markings are paler, the 
abdomen is less coarsely punctured and the mesonotum is opaque 
and more closely punctured. 

Female. Length, 6 mm. Clypeus strongly convex medianly, the anterior 
margin slightly produced medianly; head subshining, with the usual fovea, 
and carinae the large punctures separate ; anterior dorsal margin of pronotum 
carina te, the lateral angles strong; scutum subopaque; closely confluently 
punctured on a granular surface; scutellum subshining with large separate, 
distinct punctures; propodeum with a row of large foveae on the dorsal sur- 
face, the posterior face with a median triangularly shaped area ; mesepsternum 
with separate, distinct punctures on a granular surface; sides of propodeum 
finely punctured ; abdomen shining, with well-separated small punctures, larger 
on the first becoming smaller apically until on the apical segments they are 
only setigerous pits; pygidium shining, one-fourth longer than the basal 
width, narrowly rounded apically, with large, separate punctures. Black; 
two small spots on the clypeus, submedian dorsal spots on pronotum, tuber- 
cles, metanotum, lateral spots on all the tergites, whitish; legs black, tibiae 
and base of tarsi esteriorly whitish; wings hyaline basally, brownish apically; 
venation black; body, especially the cheeks, with short silvery pile. 

Type locality. Inverness, Florida. Described from one female 
collected by Chas. Robertson, for whom the species is named. 
Type. Cat. No. 22612, U. S. N. M. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 



59 



Tachytes duplicatus, new species. 
Very close to T. calcaratus Fox and agrees with the type except 



as follows : 

T. calcaratus Fox. 

1. Bristles of pygidium of a golden 

color and extending to lateral 
margin. 

2. Pygidium more elongate and nar- 

rower apically. 

3. Second abcissa of radius shorter 

than third. 

4. Mesepisternum sparsely pilose, 

the pile grayish. 



5. Abdominal bristles brownish. 



T. duplicatus, new species. 

1. Bristles of pygidium reddish 

brown and not reaching lateral 
margin. 

2. Pygidium shorter and the apex 

broader. 

3. Second and third abcissae of 

radius subequal. 

4. Mesepisternum densely pilose es- 

pecially on dorsal part of pre- 
pectus, the pile with a distinct 
golden tinge. 

5. Abdominal bristles black. 



Type locality. -Inverness, Florida. Described from one female 
collected by Charles Robertson and under his number 24981. 
TypeCat. No. 22614, U. S. N. M. 

Tachytes pepticus var. floridanus, new variety. 

Male. Length 10 mm. Differs from the typical form in having the scutum 
and scutellum shining and punctured (not opaque, finely granular and punc- 
tured); in the shining almost sculptureless sides of propodeum; in the rather 
narrower apical sternite; and in having the median projection of the clypeus 
more distinctly depressed. 

Type locality. -Inverness, Florida. Described from one male 
collected by Charles Robertson and under his number 24824. 
Type. Cat. No. 22730, U. S. N. M. 



A PROCTOTRYPID INQUILINE WITH FORMICA EXSECTOIDES 

FOREL. (HYM.). 

BY WM. M. MANN, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

On the Conduit Road, about three miles east of Great Falls, 
Maryland, is a very fine cluster of Formica exsectoides mounds. 
In October, 1919, Mr. J. C. Crawford and the writer made two 
collecting excursions to these and found a number of myrmeco- 
philous insects. On the surfaces of the nests two case-bearers, 
Coscinoptera sp., and a Pyralid moth were numerous, Myrme- 



60 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL,. 22, NO. 3, MAR., 1920 

cophila pergandei Scudd., Atheta impressipennis Bernh. and De- 
carthron stigmosum Lee. were taken and in addition the follow- 
ing undescribed Proctotrypid : 

Megaspilus crawfordi, sp. nov. 

Female.- -Length, 2 mm. 

Head and thorax shining, finely punctate and with abundant white hairs. 
Eyes broadly oval, pilose; front of head impressed. Antennal scapes about 
as long as head including mandibles; first three flagellar joints subequal in 
length and a little longer and more slender than joints 4-9; terminal joint 
slightly shorter than the two preceding joints together, strongly compressed. 
Maxillary palpi four-jointed, the terminal joint distinctly longer than the 
others. Thorax nearly fiat above; scutellum flat and punctate similarly to 
remainder of thorax. Wings linear, extending to a point a little in front 
of middle of first abdominal segment. Legs slender. Abdomen smooth 
and very shining; first segment with three strong basal costal, about one- 
fifth as long as the segment ; apical portion of abdomen triangular and acum- 
inate and pointing upward at tip. Color, black; base of antennal scapes 
and legs brown with the femora and tibiae darker than the tarsi. Wings 
hyaline basally, strongly infuscated at tips. 

Host. Formica exsectoides Forel. 

Described from two females taken in mounds of the host 
ant at Great Falls, Md. (October, 1919). 

Type Cat. No. 22622, U. S. N. M. 

M. canadensis Ashmead, the most closely related species, 
differs at its more elongate abdomen, which at base has a series 
of ten costae, and the first segment is distinctly, though shallowly, 
punctate above. 

This is the first species of its genus to be recorded from ant 
nests in America, but a number of European species have been 
noted as myrmecophilous in habit. 



Actual date of publication March, 22 1920. 






VOL. 22 APRIL 1920 No. 4 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BURKE, H. E. COLLECTING SOME LITTLE KNOWN BUPRESTIDAE (COLEOPT) 72 

CUSHMAN, R. A. VIERECK'S FAMILY LABENIDAE WITH THE DESCRIPTION 

OF A NEW SPECIES OF APECHONEURA (HYM., ICHNEUMONIDAE) .... 76 

FOUTS, R. M. SOME NEW PARASITES, WITH REMARKS ON THE GENUS 

PLATYGASTER (HYMENOPTERA) 61 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103. Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1920. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President W. R. WALTON 

First Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Second Vice- President A. G. BOVING 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Executive Committee: THE OFFICERS and A. N. CAUDELL, A. L. QUAIN- 

TANCE and E. R. SASSCER. 
Representing the Society as a Vice-President of the Washington Academy of 

Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



PROCEEDINGS 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 22 APRIL, 1920 No. 4 

SOME NEW PARASITES, WITH REMARKS ON THE GENUS PLATY- 

GASTER (HYMEN OPTERA). 

BY R. M. FOUTS. 

This paper contains descriptions of eight new species of Hymen- 
optera, from the United States, belonging to the superfamilies 
Serphidoidea and Mutilloidea. With the exception of a few 
paratypes, retained by the author, all of the type material is in 
the collection of the United States National Museum at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Superfamily SERPHIDOIDEA. 

Family Diapriidae. 
Trichopria parked, new species. 

Differs from flavipes Ashmead, to which it is most closely allied 
in having the antennal club 5- jointed instead of 4- jointed. 

Female. Length 1.5 mm. Body slender; head globose, broad and strongly 
convex behind the eyes, smooth and shining; length of head below slightly 
greater than the length above; antennae clavate; pedicel as long as but con- 
siderably larger than the third joint; fourth, fifth and sixth joints subequal 
in length and width, the seventh a little wider than any one of these but no 
longer; club 5-jointed, the first joint globose, slightly longer than wide, second 
considerably larger and slightly longer than the first, third larger and slightly 
longer than the second, fourth a little longer and wider than the third, very 
little shorter than the fifth which is conical and narrower than the fourth; 
thorax as long as the abdomen, shining and impunctate; prothorax woolly; 
mesonotum without furrows, separated from the axillae which meet on the 
median line, by a fine suture; scutellum transverse-quadrate, non-carinated, 
feebly convex, with a small and shallow fovea at its base; propodeum as long 
as the scutellum, covered with silvery hairs and with a conical or tooth-like 
prominence basally; wings brownish, extending beyond the apex of the 
abdomen, margined with long cilia; subcostal nervure extending one-fourth 
the length of the wing from the base to the apex, reaching the costal margin 
and terminating in a small, triangular stigma; legs stout, hairy; femora and 
tibiae strongly clavate, the latter curved and narrowed proximally; abdomen 
oval, pointed at the apex, shining and impunctate; petiole longer than wide, 
distinctly longer than the propodeum, densely covered with long silvery 

61 



62 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 

hairs; second tergite oblong-oval, truncate, and higher at the base than the 
petiole, two-thirds the length of the entire abdomen; third and fourth ter- 
gites equally long, the third the widest; fifth tergite pointed, slightly trans- 
verse, with a brush of bristles at the apex, and a small, transverse fovea 
sub-apically. Black; antennae, except last four joints and half of the eighth, 
palpi, and legs brownish yellow; mandibles rufous; pubescence white. 

Male. Length 1.2 mm. Differs from the female in several minor particu- 
lars; the scutellar fovea is much deeper and wider; the propodeal projection 
is less prominent; the antennae are long, verticillate, and composed of four- 
teen joints; pedicel ovate, shorter, but wider than the third joint; third joint 
slender, pediculate at the base; fourth strongly curved, pediculate basally, 
its distal margin oblique and joined to the fifth at its inner apical angle; 
funicular joints 5-13 nodose, verticillate, pediculate basally, subequal in 
length and width; penultimate joint ovate, a little shorter than the twelfth, 
and a little shorter but distinctly larger than the fourteenth, which is slender 
and conical. 

Type locality. Williamsport, Maryland. 
Type. Cat. No. 22794, U. S. N. M. 

Eleven specimens, ten females and one male, from Williamsport, 
Maryland, reared by Mr. H. L. Parker, October 7, 1916, from a 
Dipterous pupa, and recorded in the Bureau of Entomology 
under Accession No. 14554. Two paratypes retained by the 
author. 

Trichopria marylandica, new species. 

Differs from all the forms at present described from North 
America in having the last four funicle joints broadly transverse 
and the penultimate joint of the club as long as the terminal 
joint of the antennae. 

Female. Length 1.25 mm. Head transverse, the very prominent frontal 
ridge causing it to appear globose; shining and impunctate; not very full 
behind the eyes, viewed from in front nearly circular, slightly pointed at the 
mouth; frontal ridge prominent, thin and transparent, pointed medially at 
the apex, the deep depression behind divided by a median carina ; face below 
ledge flat and smooth; clypeus truncate apically, rounded posteriorly, the 
lateral angles sharp but inconspicuous; ocelli arranged in a low triangle, very 
distant from the eyes; vertex rounded; occiput margined; antennae stout, 
longer than the head and thorax combined; scape stout, extending beyond 
the ocelli, concave below, as long as the next five joints combined; pedicel 
cylindrical, a little longer than the third joint, longer than wide, slightly 
narrower than the scape; third antennal joint conical, as wide at the apex 
as the pedicel; fourth joint quadrate, a little shorter and narrower than the 
third, subequal to the fifth; sixth, seventh, and eighth funicle joints, wider, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, IQ2O 63 

broadly transverse, subtriangular; ninth as wide as the eighth, half as long 
as the first club joint ; club 3-jointed, first as long as the pedicel but distinctly 
wider, nearly circular in outline; second oblong, longer than wide, as wide as 
the scape, as long and as wide as the last; last club joint ovate, bluntly pointed; 
thorax oblong, truncate anteriorly, narrower than the head, slightly shorter 
than the abdomen; pronotum rather prominent, bluntly angled laterally, 
without pubescence; mesonotum wider than long, rounded anteriorly, trun- 
cate posteriorly, polished and impunctate; notauli absent; scutellum circu- 
lar, with a broad, shallow fovea at its base; pleura smooth, impunctate; pro- 
podeum short, a little longer than the scutellum, covered with silvery hairs 
only laterally, produced above into two broad, tongue-like plates which 
extend entirely over the first tergite, the space between them twice as long 
as wide, truncate anteriorly ; wings hyaline, subcostal nervure extending only 
one-sixth of the length of the wings from the base ; abdomen oblong, abruptly 
narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly; not quite twice as long as wide, feebly 
convex above; first tergite scarcely visible under the propodeal lamellae, 
transverse, covered with long silvery hairs; second tergite very large, as long 
or nearly as the entire thorax, smooth and impunctate, with a few short white 
hairs scattered over it and with a row of white hairs across it subapically; 
third, fourth, and fifth tergites subequal, much wider than long; last tergites 
triangular, bluntly pointed, as long as the fifth ; ovipositor exserted, the sheath 
stout. Brown; head and abdomen fuscous, the legs yellowish. 

Male. -Length 1 mm. Differs from the female principally in sexual char- 
acters. Antennae extending to the base of the abdomen, filiform and cov- 
ered with short hairs; pedicel a little longer than wide, oblong; third antennal 
joint slightly wider than pedicel, as wide as the scape, conical; fourth as long 
as the third and the pedicel together, as thick as the scape, deeply emarginate 
below; fifth quadrate, as long as, but slightly wider than the sixth; joints 
7-14 moniliform, slightly transverse; last joint a little longer than the pre- 
ceding, obconical; tongue-shaped processes of propodeum shorter than in the 
female, reaching only to the middle of the first segment of the abdomen; 
abdomen as long as the thorax, truncate apically; head and thorax darker 
than in the female. 

Type locality. Hagerstown, Maryland. 

Type. Cat. No. 22795, U. S. N. M. 

Described from four specimens, three females and one male, 
reared by Mr. H. L. Parker, July 31, 1915, from a dipterous pupa, 
and recorded in the Bureau of Entomology under Accession No. 
12003. One paratype retained by the author. 

The allotype presents a rather curious aberration in that the 
antennae differ from one another. In the normal antenna, joints 
seven and eight are separated as usual, but in the other, joints 
seven and eight are united and only partially divided by a lateral 
incision. It should also be mentioned that this is the first species 



64 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, IQ2O 

to be described from North America having the peculiar process 
on the propodeum. 

Family Scelionidae. 
Hadronotus parkeri, new species. 

Runs in Brues' key to the species of Hadronotus (Bull. Wise. 
Nat. Hist. Soc., vol. 8, No. 1, p. 47, 1910) to largi Ashmead, but 
differs from that species in its darker coloration. The scape in 
largi is entirely yellow, in parkeri, yellow only basally. 

Female. Length 0.8 to 1 mm. Head transverse, slightly wider than the 
thorax but not as wide as the abdomen, excavated behind, the vertex sub- 
acute; face finely striate, margined above, with a short, triangular projec- 
tion extending over and between the base of the antennae; antennae 12- 
jointed; scape as long as club but not as thick, curved outwardly; pedicel 
as long as the next two joints united and inconspicuously thicker; third joint 
of the same width as the next two, and as long as wide ; fourth, fifth, and sixth 
antennal joints transverse, subequal in length and in width and all shorter 
than the third; club 6-jointed; first club joint broadly transverse, wider than 
the preceding funicle joints, button-shaped; second distinctly longer and 
wider than the first; third of the same width as the next two, a little wider 
than the second; fourth and fifth equal in length and width, as wide as the 
third but a little longer; last joint as long as club joints one and two com- 
bined, conical ; thorax rounded, much shorter than the abdomen, shagreened, 
covered with short, recumbent white hairs; pronotum visible as a line from 
above; mesonotum without furrows, shagreened; scutellum broadly trans- 
verse, semicircular, the apical edge impunctate and separated off by a row 
of punctures; postscutellum with a short triangular projection; propodeum 
with an anterior transverse carina curving downward medially and laterally, 
prominent at the angles but fading away in the middle; abdomen as long as 
the head and thorax together, broadly oval, not much longer than wide; 
first tergite over three times as wide as long, longitudinally striate, margined 
anteriorly by a prominent curved carina; second tergite one-fourth longer 
than the first, longitudinally striate on basal three-fourths and shagreened 
apically; third tergite half as long as the second, and the next three sha- 
greened ; wings tinged with fuscous. Black ; legs, except all coxae, trochanters, 
and femora of front legs, brownish yellow; antennae piceous brown, the 
antennal bulb, base of scape, and extreme apex of pedicel yellow; mandibles 
yellow. 

Male. -Length 0.85 mm. Differs from the female in the structure of 
the antennae. Antennae filiform, pedicel as long as last joint of antennae, 
conical, rounded distally, as wide as the fourth joint; third joint oval, a 
little thicker and shorter than the pedicel; fourth joint a little longer than 
wide, about as long as third; fifth joint broadly transverse, much wider than 
the third but no longer than the fourth; joints 6-11 transverse-quadrate, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, IQ2O 65 

subequal, as wide but a little longer than joint five; last joint as wide as the 
penultimate, obconical. 

Type locality. Hagerstown, Maryland. 

Type. Cat. No. 22796, U. S. N. M. 

Described from seven females and one male reared by Mr. 
H. L. Parker, September 15, 1916, from Heteropterous eggs, and 
recorded in the Bureau of Entomology under Accession No. 14410. 
Two paratypes retained by the author. 

Trissolcus edessae, new species. 

Differs from brachymenae Ashmead in its greater size, more 
slender body, and the coarser sculpture of the face. It may be 
distinguished from the rest of the described species from North 
America, with the exception of rufiscapus Ashmead, from which 
it differs in the sculpture of the scutellum, by its entirely yellow 
scape. 

Female.- Length 1.75 mm. Head very little wider than the thorax, 
broadly transverse; face shagreened, covered on the sides with great scattered 
punctures, with a short truncate projection extending over the bases of the 
antennae; cheeks uniformly roughly shagreened; scape as long as the club, 
curved; pedicel as long as the third joint, longer than the fourth and fifth 
united, and twice as long as wide; fourth and fifth antennal joints broadly 
transverse; sixth joint forming part of the club, broadly transverse; thorax 
circular as seen from above; mesonotum roughly shagreened, with notauli 
distinct for nearly one-half its length and with a delicate median carina, 
which although very faint anteriorly, extends its entire length; scutellum 
shining, impunctate; mesopleura impunctate, smooth and shining; abdomen 
oval, slightly pointed posteriorly; first tergite shining, about four times as 
wide as long, traversed longitudinally by deep striae; second tergite im- 
punctate, shining, very shortly striated basally; third a little shorter than 
fourth and fifth united, the latter two equal in length; sixth broadly trian- 
gular, as long as the fifth; tergites 3-6 shagreened, with a row of punctures 
across them; sixth faintly shagreened but without a distinct row of punc- 
tures across it; wings hyaline, extending beyond the apex of the abdomen. 
Black; first six joints of the antennae and all of legs except coxae, yellow; 
mandibles very faintly tinged with red at their apices; nervures pale yellow. 

Type locality. New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Type. Cat. No. 22797, U. S. N. M. 

Seven specimens, all females, from New Orleans, Louisiana, 
reared by Mr. C. E. Smith, July 23, 1919, from the eggs of Edessa 
bifida Say, and recorded in the Bureau of Entomology under 
Chittenden No. 6065 '. One paratype retained by the author. 



66 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 

Paridris brevipennis, new species. 

Differs from laeviceps Ashmead in having the body lighter col- 
ored and the wings shorter than the abdomen. 

Female. Length 2 mm. Head transverse-quadrate, broad and convex 
behind the eyes, slightly wider than high as viewed from the front, excavated 
behind, shagreened, except lower part of cheeks, middle of face just above 
the insertion of the antennae, and a space just above each mandible, the for- 
mer two areas polished, impunctate, the latter striate, the striae converging 
toward the base of the mandible; lateral ocelli equidistant from eye-margin 
and anterior ocellus; occiput margined; cheeks immargined; clypeus trans- 
versely linear, broadly and shallowly emarginate apically, the lateral angles 
sharp, dentiform; mandibles large, strong, bidentate, the upper tooth the 
longer; base of antennae partially covered by a curved plate; antennae 12- 
jointed; scape slightly longer than the club and nearly as wide, not notice- 
ably curved; pedicel conical, a little shorter than, but just as wide as the 
first funicle joint, less than twice as long as wide at its apex; first funicle 
joint as long as joints two and three united, of the same width as the second; 
second funicle joint as long as the next two united, globose, a little longer 
than wide; third and fourth funicle joints small, transverse, subequal in 
length and width; club cylindrical, composed of six joints, the first subtri- 
angular and transverse ; second a little wider ; third twice as wide as long and 
a little longer than the second; fourth of the same length and width as second; 
fifth as long as third but a little narrower; sixth slightly the longest, obconical, 
rounded apically; thorax obovate, rounded in front, at the tegulae as wide 
as the head; mesonotum shagreened; notuli distinct only basally; anterior 
half of episternum, sternum, and posterior border of pronotum strongly 
punctate; posterior half of episternum and epimeron polished and impunc- 
tate; scutellum twice as wide as long, separated from the mesonotum by a 
row of deep punctures and with a free apical edge separated off by a row of 
punctures; postscutellum extending over the propodeum in the form of a 
plate, three times as wide as long and one-third the length of the scutellum, 
margined apically, with regular longitudinal striae placed about twice their 
width apart; propodeum hollowed out, to receive the abdominal horn, the 
lateral edges sharp, forming a shelf over the rest of the propodeum; lateral 
face with a smooth, impunctate area; area just above hind coxae rugose; 
abdomen longer than head and thorax united, broad, spatulate, but rather 
sharply pointed apically; first tergite longer than wide, striato-punctate, the 
horn as high as the postscutellum when the abdomen is extended; second 
tergite about as long as the first, strongly longitudinally striate, its sides 
oblique, the apical edge one-third longer than the anterior; third tergite 
slightly wider than long, distinctly longer than the second, its sides parallel, 
shagreened subapically and sublaterally, and covered sparsely with white 
hairs, the rest of the surface smooth, impunctate; fourth tergite two and 
one-half times as wide as long, nearly as long as the two following, sparsely 
punctate, and covered with long white hairs as are also the two following 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 67 

tergites; fifth tergite two-thirds the length of the fourth and more coarsely 
punctate than the fourth, nearly three times wider than long; sixth tergite 
obtusely pointed, shagreened, half as long as the fourth; first sternite rugose 
and hairy; second strongly longitudinally striate, not hairy, third smooth, 
impunctate, sparsely covered with whitish hairs, fourth and fifth punctate, 
hairy, sixth shagreened, as hairy as the two preceding segments; wings hyaline, 
covered with cilia. Black; base of scape, mandibles, and legs, rufous; apex 
of scape, pedicel, and last tarsal joints fuscous. 

Male. Length 2 mm. Differs very little from female except in sexual 
characters. The antennae are 12-jointed, filiform; pedicel small, about three- 
fourths the length of the first funicle joint and of almost the same width; 
first and third funicle joints of equal length and width but the latter incised 
basally, seeming to appear curved, these two joints the thickest and longest 
in the flagellum with the exception of the terminal one, which is as long but 
narrower; flagellar joints 4-10 subequal, cylindrical, hairy, the last obconic, 
as long as the third. 

Type locality. Brookings, South Dakota. 

Other localities. Capa, South Dakota. 

Type. Cat. No. 22798, U. S. N. M. 

Described from one female and two males reared by Mr. Severin, 
from the eggs of Gryllus obbrematus Serville. The type and para- 
type are from Brookings, South Dakota; the allotype, from Capa, 
South Dakota. The latter bears the label "June 5, 1919." 

Family Platygasteridae. 
Genus Platygaster Latreiile. 

Platygaster Latreiile, Gen. Crust, et Ins., Vol. 4, 1809, p. 31. 
Polygnotus Foerster, Hym. Stud., II, 1856, p. 108. 
Coelopelta Ashmead, Bull. 45, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1893, p. 289. 
Hypocampsis (Foerster) Ashmead, loc cit., p. 298. 
Polymecus (Foerster) Ashmead (in part), loc. cit., p. 277. 
Synopeas (Foerster) Ashmead (in part), loc. cit., p. 285. 
Anopedias (Foerster) Ashmead (in part), loc. cit., p. 290. 

Ashmead in his "Monograph of the North American Procto- 
trypidae," has apparently exactly transposed the definition of the 
two genera Platygaster and Polygnotus as defined by Foerster. 
Species placed by him in Platygaster are those having a distinct 
sculpture, well developed parapsidal grooves, and a rather thick 
head, and are similar in every way to striolatiis Nees, type of the 
genus Polygnotus. Ashmead's species of Polygnotus, on the other 
hand, are those in which the sculpture is weak or indistinct, the 
parapsidal grooves poorly developed or absent, and the head 



68 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 



usually more transverse. These are the characters assigned to 
Platygaster by Foerster. No specimens of Platygaster ruficornis 
Latreille, type of the genus Platygaster, have been seen by the 
writer but it seems certain that Ashmead 's species of Polygnotus 
are typical Platygaster. Certainly they are if Foerster's inter- 
pretation of Latreille's genus is correct. 

The genus Platygaster as limited by Foerster is, in the opinion 
of the writer, too narrow and excludes many forms which cannot 
properly be placed in any other genus. All of the characters 
given by Foerster for separation of Platygaster and Polygnotus are 
purely relative. Study of a large amount of material in the 
National collection shows that there is such a perfect intergrada- 
tion of all these characters that no line can be drawn which will 
satisfactorily separate the two genera. Typical forms of the two 
groups are not difficult to recognize, but in the American fauna 
there are a large number of intermediate forms, which may as 
well be placed in one group as the other. The writer is, therefore, 
of the opinion that the two genera should be synonymized. 

The genus Coelopelta Ashmead, having as type the West Indian 
species mirabilis Ashmead, is founded upon a single imperfect 
specimen in which the scutellum is caved in from above, giving it 
a cupuliform appearance. It is true Platygaster belonging to the 
group in which the head is thin antero-posteriorly and the sculp- 
ture indistinct. 

The writer would also place in Platygaster those species having 
the scutellum unarmed which were included by Ashmead in the 
genus Polymecus. Except in the more or less elongate abdomen 
these species do not differ from typical Platygasters, and since 
there are all degrees of elongation of the abdomen, the character 
is unreliable and impracticable for generic separation. 

Certain other species described by Ashmead in the genera 
Synopeas, Hypocampsis, and Anopedias respectively, are in the 
writer's opinion, wrongly placed and belong in Platygaster. 

Besides the species of Polygnotus and Coelopelta described by 
Ashmead, the following species should be transferred to Platy- 
gaster : 



Polymecus canadensis Ashmead. 
Polymecus americanus Ashmead. 
Polymecus pallipes Ashmead. 
Polymecus nigrifemur Ashmead. 
Polymecus vancouverensis Ashmead 
Polymecus lupinicola Ashmead. 
Polymecus picipes Ashmead. 



Polymecus melliscapus Ashmead. 
Polymecus compressiventris Ashmead. 
Polymecus alnicola Ashmead. 
Synopeas antennariae Ashmead. 
Synopeas melanoceras Ashmead. 
Anopedias pentatomus Ashmead. 
Hypocampsis pluto Ashmead. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, IQ2O 69 

The genus Platygaster as limited by the writer may be separated 
from the other genera of Platygasteridae by the following de- 
scription : 

Head broadly transverse to subquadrate ; face with a truncate or emargin- 
ate projection between the antennae; lateral ocelli remote from the eye mar- 
gin; mandibles bidentate, the teeth approximately equal; antennae in female 
clavate, gradually increasing in thickness toward tip, the third joint shorter 
and narrower than the fourth ; antennae in the male filiform ; fourth antennal 
joint as long as or longer than the pedicel, not connate with the third which 
is shorter and usually narrower than the fourth; thorax short to moderately 
elongate, the notauli either absent, incomplete, or complete; scutellum con- 
vex, more or less transverse or semicircular, unarmed, and either margined 
or immargined laterally; propodeum short, with two parallel, median, longi- 
tudinally elevated carinae; wings pubescent, cilia te at the margins; abdomen 
in female as short as the thorax to several times as long as the head and 
thorax together, but always depressed, never compressed; abdomen in male 
about as long as the thorax; second tergite in both sexes with two more or 
less distinct basal foveae. 

Platygaster leguminicolae, new species. 

This species runs to mrginiensis in Ashmead's table to the 
species of Polygnotus (Monogr. Proctotrypidae, Bull. 45, U. S. 
N. M., 1893, p. 301), but differs from that species in the sculpture 
of the fourth tergite in the female and the color of the legs in the 
male. P. leguminicolae has the fourth tergite in the female 
strongly longitudinally striate, and the middle and posterior legs 
in the male black; while P. mrginiensis has the fourth tergite tra- 
versed by a row of punctures and the male with lighter colored 
legs. 

Female. Length 1.5 mm. Head as wide as the thorax, broadly trans- 
verse; vertex transversely striate, not produced over the eyes; cheeks very 
finely striate; face shining, striate all over, but more coarsely so below, the 
striae converging to an indistinct longitudinal impression in the middle of 
the face; scape about as long as next four articles, curved and aciculate; 
club fusiformly developed, composed of five articles not well differentiated; 
pedicel of the same length as and a little wider than the next two articles; 
third joint small, two-thirds as long as and a little narrower than joint four 
which is subequal in length and width to joint five; sixth joint subconical, 
longer and larger than the fifth; joints seven, eight, and nine oblong, sub- 
equal, the last slightly longer and narrower, obconical; thorax ovoid, polished; 
notauli distinct on basal half of mesonotum; middle lobe of mesonotum ad- 
vanced close to the scutellum; propodeum bare, carina widely divided; legs 
black to brownish black; apices of anterior tibiae yellow; all the tarsi lighter 
colored than the other parts of the legs; abdomen broad and long, about as 



70 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 

wide as and longer than the thorax; first tergite longitudinally striate above, 
pubescent; second tergite with two striated foveae at the base, otherwise 
not sculptured, shining; third tergite a little shorter than the fourth, both 
impuinctate but with a row of hairs across them; fifth tergite slightly longer 
than fourth, longitudinally striate; sixth as long as fifth, shining, not striate. 
Wings infuscated. 

Male. Essentially the same as the female but with the following differ- 
ences: Flagellum filiform, hairy; joints 5-9 subequal in length and width, 
a little longer than wide; fourth joint twice as long as third, emarginate at 
base; abdomen broadly elliptical; third and fourth tergites subequal in length, 
the sixth about half as long as either and a little narrower than the fifth; 
all the tergites beyond the second with a transverse row of punctures. 

Type locality. Forest Grove, Oregon. 
Type Cat. No. 22799, U. S. N. M. 

Twenty females and nine males reared August 28, 1916, from 
the clover seed midge (Dasyneura leguminicola Lintner) by G. W. 
Creel and recorded in the Bureau of Entomology under Webster 
No. 15000 and Forest Grove No. 16-38K. Nine paratypes re- 
tained by the author. 

Platygaster feltii, new species. 

This species is most closely allied to alnicola Ashmead and 
tumidus Ashmead. From the former it may be distinguished by 
the presence of a broad transverse furrow on the first tergite, and 
from the latter by the very faint striation on the vertex. 

Female. Length 1.2 mm. Head seen from above broadly transverse, one 
and one-half times as wide as long as viewed from in front, smooth and shin- 
ing, impunctate, finely striate on the vertex; lateral ocellar line equal to the 
ocellocular; antennae, when extended, reaching beyond the apex of the thorax, 
not distinctly clubbed; pedicel as long as next two joints and a little wider 
than the fourth, twice as wide as long; third joint slightly longer than wide, 
shorter and narrower than the fourth; fourth joint as long as sixth though 
considerably narrower, distinctly longer but no wider than the fifth; seventh, 
eighth, and ninth joints subequal in length and width, a little longer than 
wide; last joint longer, subconical, obtusely pointed; thorax smooth, pol- 
ished, impunctate; mesonotum faintly shagreened on the anterior half; 
notauli incomplete, traversing the basal half of the mesonotum; scutellum 
high, convex, nearly perpendicular anteriorly, sloping posteriorly; wings 
extending slightly beyond the apex of the abdomen; abdomen ovate-spatulate, 
as wide and as long as the thorax, narrowing gradually anteriorly; first ter- 
gite longitudinally coarsely striate, with a transverse impression across the 
middle and elevated anteriorly, less than twice as wide as long; second tergite 
longer than wide, with a slightly elevated rim across its base and with two 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, IQ2O 71 

longitudinal, striated foveae at its base on either side, the striae extending 
laterally to the middle of the segment; striae at the base of the second tergite 
between the foveae short but as deep as those on the first segment ; posterior 
half of second tergite and remaining segments smooth, neither striate nor 
punctured. Black; extreme base of scape, apex of front tibiae on the inside, 
and tarsi, yellowish; mandibles reddish brown; flagellum brown; wings slightly 
infuscated, more distinctly so toward their apices. 

One female paratype has the striations on the vertex slightly coarser, indi- 
cating that this character is probably of doubtful efficacy in separating the 
species of this difficult genus. The notauli are also subject to variation, as 
regards their depth and length; in some specimens they are deep to the 
middle of the mesonotum, in others they are very faintly indicated and do 
not extend quite to the middle of the mesonotum. 

Male. length 1 mm. Eedicel one and one-half times as long as wide- 
broadly elliptical, as long and as wide as the fourth joint; the latter emargin- 
ate basally and acute as its outer apical angle; third joint button-shaped, 
less than half as long as the pedicel, as wide and a little more than half as 
long as the fifth joint; fifth joint transverse; slightly narrower than the sixth; 
joints 6-10 a little longer than wide, the last a little longer but less than 
twice as long as wide, ovate, acute at tip ; wings extending a little beyond the 
tip of the abdomen; abdomen as long as the thorax. 

Type locality.- -Austin, Texas. 

Type. Cat. No. 22800, U. S. N. M. 

Nine specimens, seven females and two males from Austin, 
Texas, reared by Dr. E. P. Felt, March 19, 1919, from the gall of 
Wolshomyia texana Felt on cedar. A male and a female para- 
type retained by the author. 

Superfamily MUTILLOIDEA. 

Family Bethylidae. 
Cephalonomia kiefferi, new species. 

Differs from nubilipennis Ashmead and utahensis Brues in having 
the wings hyaline, not infuscated. From hyalinipennis Ashmead 
it differs in having the head shorter, the space from the summit 
of the eyes to the top of the head being shorter than the length 
of the eyes. 

Female. Length 2 mm. Body shining, the sculpture indistinct; head 
slightly longer than wide, rounded in front, more or less truncate behind, 
shagreened, nearly devoid of hairs; face feebly convex, shagreened, but with 
a few scattered punctures; eyes oval, their length slightly exceeding the 
distance from their upper margin to the top of the head; antennae a little 



72 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 

longer than the head ; pedicel as long as the two following joints united ; last 
joint about as long as the two preceding united, a little over twice as long as 
wide, pointed at tip; thorax in the middle as wide as the head, narrowed 
anteriorly and more or less truncate posteriorly; pronotum as long as the 
propodeum, moderately convex, finely shagreened, longer than the length of 
the mesonotum and scutellum combined ; mesonotum a little over twice as 
wide as long, nearly flat, shagreened; scutellum nearly flat, shagreened, with 
a curved cross-furrow at its base; propodeum shagreened, flat above, sharp 
laterally and angulate on each side before the apex; nearly perpendicularly 
declivous behind and with a longitudinal median carina which extends to, 
but not upon, the posterior face; anterior face of propodeum quadrate, pos- 
terior face a little wider than high; wings hyaline; prostigma nearly twice 
as wide as the parastigma; abdomen depressed, rather egg-shaped, broader 
than and about as long as the thorax, narrowed gradually posteriorly to the 
last segment which is triangular and much narrower than the preceding, 
not sharply pointed posteriorly. Black; mandibles, palpi, anterior tibiae, 
and all tarsi, yellow; antennae, except basal three-fourths of scape, middle 
and posterior tibiae, brownish yellow; tegulae, femora, base of scape, and 
abdomen dark brown. 

Male. Length 1.5 mm. Differs from the female principally in sexual 
characters. Antennae longer than the thorax; pedicel wider than either, but 
distinctly shorter than the two following joints together; joints beyond the 
fourth slightly less than twice as long as wide; last joint a little over three 
times as long as wide, slightly shorter than the two preceding united, pointed 
apically; antennae fuscous, much darker than in the female; head and pro- 
notum reddish brown; abdomen shorter than the thorax. 

Type locality. Wellington, Kansas. 

Type. Cat. No. 22801, U. S. N. M. 

Described from five specimens, one female and four males, bred 
by Mr. E. G. Kelly from Calandra oryzae Linne. One paratype 
kept by the author. One male paratype has the antennae and 
mouthparts mounted on a slide; the rest of the head is lost. 



COLLECTING SOME LITTLE KNOWN BUPRESTIDAE 

(COLEOPT.). 

BY H. E. BURKE, Bureau of Entomology. 

Little known Buprestidae, like other "rare" insects, usually 
can be found in numbers if the seeker knows when and where to 
find them. Unlike many other insects, however, the majority of 
the Buprestidae spend most of their life under the bark or in the 
wood of trees and even where they are common it often means 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 73 

patient seeking and hard work to get them. Some of the follow- 
ing species are considered the rarest of the American Buprestidae, 
yet specimens can be obtained almost every year if the seeker is 
willing to spend some time and hard work in the effort. To tell 
how, when and where to get specimens of these species is the object 
of this paper. 

Trachykele Mars. 

Taking the genus as a whole, the species of Trachykele are con- 
sidered as little known as any American Buprestidae. There are 
four named species, one southeastern and three western, and one 
apparently good unnamed one from the west. The beetles of all 
of the species transform from the pupae in the fall and remain in 
the pupal cells in the wood until spring before emerging. For 
this reason collecting from the wood will produce results over a 
much longer period than collecting by beating or chance collect- 
ing on the foliage or wood. 

T. lecontei Gory. This southeastern species has been taken in 
the bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) from Virginia to Louisiana. 
Blazes or other scars on the trunks of standing trees appear to 
be the best places to obtain it. Chop away the outer wood any 
time from early fall until late spring and the beetles should be 
found in the pupal cells beneath. Dr. A. D. Hopkins cut some 
specimens from the wood of drift logs on the ocean beach at Vir- 
ginia Beach, Va. 

The three named western species are found within a distance 
of five miles in some localities in the Sierras of California. One 
such locality is Strawberry on the Lincoln Highway in El Dorado 
County. 

T. blondeli Mars. This species, the type of the genus, has 
been found in a number of localities and hosts. At Strawberry 
it occurs in the western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) at an 
elevation of from 5700 to 8000 ft. Many of the larvae after min- 
ing up and down in the wood of the trunks of small trees while 
feeding go into the branches to pupate. In fact this habit was 
so common that the writer had the best success collecting by trim- 
ming off all of the branches of about 1 /z to 1 inch in diameter 
from the lower part of the trees. If a large mine was found in 
the center of a branch the branch was followed up until the beetle 
was found, which usually was within from ! /2 an inch to 1 foot. 

The typical form of blondeli and several variations have been 
found in the San Francisco Bay region in the wood of the Mon- 
terey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) and the Sargent cypress 
(C. sargentii). In the Sargent cypress groves on Cypress Ridge 
near San Geronimo, Marin County, golden or coppery margined 



74 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 

specimens have been found with the typical green ones. Most 
of these have been taken from the wood scars on the trunks of 
living trees. 

In western Oregon and western Washington, especially the 
lower Columbia River Basin, blondeli is found in the western red 
cedar or giant arbor vitae (Thuja plicatd) where it causes a good 
deal of damage to the timber. Scars on the trunks and tops of 
the standing trees are the best places to look for it. 

T. opulenta Fall. This close relative of blondeli appears to 
be confined to the Sierras at elevations of from 2000 to 6000 ft. 
It lives in the wood of the incense cedar (Libocedrus decurrens) 
and of the big tree (Sequoia washingtoniana] and sometimes in 
the thick bark of the latter. Stumps and scars on the trunks of 
standing trees produce the best results. As many as a dozen 
live beetles and many dead ones have been taken from a single 
scar. Good collecting grounds are found along the Lincoln High- 
way near Strawberry, El Dorado County, and in the Giant 
Forest of the Sequoia National Park. 

T. nimbosa Fall. Scars on the trunks and in the tops of the 
red fir (Abies magnified), the white fir (A. concolor) and the moun- 
tain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) are the best places to look for 
nimbosa. It is fairly common in the higher forests of El Dorado 
County and in the Sequoia National Park at elevations of from 
5000 to 10000 ft. 

T. sp. Within the past year Mr. R. D. Hartman of the Forest 
Insect Laboratory, collected some large dark ashy-gray bronze 
beetles which appear to form a distinct new species of Trachykele. 
These were taken from the wood of the scarred trunks of the 
Sargent cypress near the Toll House, Mt. St. Helena Creek, Lake 
County, Calif. 

Buprestis Linn. 

B. gibbsii Lee. This is one of the rarest of the Buprestidae in 
collections. The specimens obtained by the writer were taken 
in Tuolumne County, Calif., along the old Sonora-Mono road 
near Confidence at elevations of from 4000 to 6000 ft., and at 
Onion Valley, El Dorado County at an elevation of 4500 ft. Mr. 
Albert Wagner, of the Pacific Forest Insect Station, took one 
specimen in southern Oregon at 2000 ft. This was depositing 
eggs in a crevice in the wood of a scar on the trunk of a living 
tree. All of the specimens cut from the wood were taken from 
the solid heartwood of old fire scars on the trunks of the black 
oak (Quercus calif ornica}. Many of the fire scarred trees have 
the heart eaten out by Termites. Usually the sap wood of the 
scars still remains and is heavily infested with Polycesta califor- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 75 

nica Lee., but if the heart is gone there will be no gibbsii. The 
beetles of gibbsii transform in the spring and emerge before sum- 
mer so that the chopping for them should be done during May 
and June. So far as known the species confines itself to oak, in 
California apparently to the black oak. It was described from 
specimens collected in Washington State and there probably lives 
in the Garry oak (Q. garryana), which is the only oak native to 
that State. 

B. viridisuturalis Nicolay & Weiss. This apparently good 
species only recently named has been mixed in many collections 
with gibbsii. It lives in the wood of various species of cotton - 
wood (Popidusfremontu, P. trichocarpa, P. deltoides) and the white 
alder (Alnus rhonibifolid) . Messrs. F. B. Herbert and R. D. 
Hartman, of the Forest Insect Laboratory, found the species 
fairly common at an elevation of 800 ft. near Three Rivers, Tulare 
County, on the road to the Sequoia National Park. Mr. Herbert 
also obtained specimens at Red Bluff, Tehama County, at an 
elevation of 300 ft. Like gibbsii this species appears to prefer 
heart wood, especially the heartwood of dead trees. Pupation 
and the transformation to the adult take place during the spring, 
so that the collecting for live beetles should be done during May 
and June. Specimens have been taken from southern Oregon to 
Southern California. 

B. confluenta Say. This, one of the most beautiful as well as 
rare species, is fairly common in the aspen (Populus tremuloides} 
forests near Lake Tahoe, Calif., at elevations of 5700-7500 ft. 
The beetles transform in the spring and may be chopped from 
their cells in the wood of dead and down trees during June and 
July. Specimens have been found in the aspen and cottonwood 
(P. deltoides} in Utah and Colorado. 

Chrysophana Lee. 

C. placida Lee. This small woodborer, while rather rare in 
collections, is common in many of the Rocky Mountain and Pacific 
Slope forests. In El Dorado County, Calif., the beetles are found 
at all elevations from 1500 to 7500 ft. and in practically all of 
the coniferous trees except the cedar and juniper. The wood of 
the lower suppressed limbs, scars and dead stubs produced many 
specimens. Around the San Francisco Bay region and in southern 
Oregon it is common in the hard woody cones of the knobcone 
pine (Pinus attenuata). In Utah numerous specimens were cut 
from the wood of the trunks of fire-killed fir (Abies concolor). As 
the beetles transform in the 'fall they may be collected from the 
wood or cones from the first of September until the first of June. 



76 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 

Acmaeodera Esch. 

This genus contains a number of species little represented in 
collections. Many of these seem confined to the chaparral for- 
ests of the arid and semiarid regions of the southwest. All appear 
to transform in the fall and to remain in the pupal cells in the 
wood until spring. The various species usually can be taken in 
fair numbers during the winter months from the oaks (Quercus), 
wild lilacs (Ceanoihus), mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus) , chem- 
ise (Adenostema) , cascara (Rhamnus) and similar shrubs which go 
to make up the brush forests. Patience and a good sharp hatchet 
will produce many fine specimens for the collection. 

Collecting from the wood is not so easy as beating and not so 
much territory can be covered, but the results are surer. If the 
first tree does not produce results, try, try again, not only another 
tree but another locality and success is assured as skill develops. 
The most important point in this method of collecting is that 
once the host of a species is determined the usually desired addi- 
tional specimens can be obtained with much more certainty when 
wanted. Also, along with the specimens, one obtains many fine 
observations on the life histories. 

Very often much time can be saved by searching out the trees 
which show emergence holes instead of chopping into every scar. 
Most of the woodborers live for several years in the wood and 
usually all of the beetles of the same brood do not emerge the 
same year. 



VIERECK'S FAMILY LABENIDAE WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A 
NEW SPECIES OF APECHONEURA (HYM., ICHNEUMONIDAE.) 

BY R. A. CUSHMAN, Bureau of Entomology. 

In a paper published in the January number of the current 
(1920) volume of Entomological News, H. L. Viereck erects the 
new Ichneumonid family Labenidae, based on the single char- 
acter of the high insertion of the abdomen on the propodeum. 
In this family he includes the genera Labena Cresson and Psilo- 
paria (new genus) and "possibly Apechoneura Kriechbaumer," 
and excludes Grotea Cresson. The last named genus except in 
the position of the abdomen is obviously more closely related 
to Labena than to any other Ichneumonid genus. There can be 
no doubt that the new genus is synonymous with Apechoneura 
Kriechbaumer; the genotype is certainly congeneric with Apecho- 
neura longicauda Kriechbaumer, which is represented in the 
National Collection bv a female from Colombia. Certonotus 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 77 

Kriechbaumer is obviously the Australian and Oriental proto- 
type of Apechoneura. 

In the position of the abdomen Apechoneura is more like Labena, 
in fact, in some species at least, is more extreme in this respect 
than is Labena ; but in the general form of the body, especially of 
the abdomen, it is exceedingly like the Rhyssini. 

The position of the abdomen in Labena is subject to an appre- 
ciable degree of variation within a species. Five specimens of 
Labena grallator measured with a micrometer showed a variation 
in the distance of the lower margin of the abdominal foramen 
above the upper margin of the coxal foramen compared with the 
dorsal length of the propodeum of from 1 : 3.7 to 1 : 6.2. It should 
be noted that the Rhyssini have the abdomen inserted somewhat 
higher than is common among the Ichneimonidae, and it is 
not especially remarkable that one or more genera should go 
to the extreme in this respect. The occurrence of such extreme 
characters as this in two or more groups is not particularly 
rare. As examples may be cited the toothed hind femora of 
Odontomerus and Prislomerus, genera not at all closely related 
to each other but closely related to other genera without 
toothed femora; the carapace form of abdomen which occurs 
in several widely separated places in the Braconidae and Ichneu- 
monidae ; the strongly convergent eyes found in widely separated 
genera of Ichneumonidae; and the wingless and ant like form 
of the female in the Gelini and in the Stilpinine genera 
Thaumatotypus and Thaumatotypidea. 

The general shape of the head is perhaps more like that of the 
Labenini, especially Grotea, but the resemblance is largely super- 
ficial, for the clypeus and the immargined occiput are Rhyssine 
and the position of the junction of the occipital and gular carinae 
is more nearly that of the Rhyssini than that of the Labenini. 
The tooth on the lower posterior side of the head is not homologous 
with that of Grotea, for while in Grotea it is formed at the junction 
of the two carinae, in Apechoneura it is in the area between the 
carinae. 

Apechoneura has the mesoscutum and scutellum distinctly 
Rhyssine in character, while those sclerites in Grotea are very 
similar to those of Labena. 

The venation of the wings in Apechoneura has some features in 
common with both the Labenini and the Rhyssini. The form of 
the areolet is about midway between Labena and Megarhyssa. 
According to Morley's key 1 at least one of the species of Apecho- 
neura has the discoidella originating almost at the top of nervellus 

1 Rev. Ichn., Part II, 1913, p. 23. 



78 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, 1920 

(this is very close to the condition of the Rhyssini) while most 
of them have it originating far out on the cubitella. In Labena 
and Grotea it is not far above the middle of nervellus. 

In having the epipleura broad and concealing the sternites 
Apechoneura resembles Labena and Grotea. 

To the writer it seems that the preponderance of the characters 
allies Apechoneura with the Rhyssini and Grotea with the Labenini, 
while the former, by the few characters in which it resembles the 
Labenini, merely shows the relationship of the two tribes to each 
other and emphasizes the Ichneumonine affinities of the Labenini, 
and that the family Labenidae is not well founded. 

Genus Apechoneura Kriechbaumer. 

Apechoneura Kriechbaumer, Ann. k. k. naturh, Hofmus. Wien., Vol. 5, 
1890, p. 485. 

Psiloparia Viereck, Ent. News, Vol. 31, 1920, p. 17. 

The following additional characters of the female are of im- 
portance : 

Occipital carina curving forward below and joining the gular carina nearly 
at the base of the mandibles, the space between the carinae armed with a 
tooth posteriorly; face convexly elevated, above level of eye-margins, coarsely 
pitted; pronotum with a flange-like carina at about the middle of its upper 
lateral margin, tegulae oblong; propodeum with only the five basal areas 
completely defined, the only carinae developed behind the basal being the 
lateral longitudinal; the true ninth tergite (i. e., counting the propodeum as 
the first) nearly completely divided medially and prolonged at the sides into 
long acute lobes, the tenth not completely fused with it but lying between the 
prolongations of the ninth as a weakly chitinized, trowel-shaped flap. (See 
Fig. 1 c, d, and e.) 

The last character is most curious and not possessed, so far as 
the writer is aware, by any other Ichneumonid. It furnishes good 
specific characters. 

Apechoneura tricolor, new species. 

Closely related to (Psiloparia) Apechoneura maculata (Viereck), 
from the description of which it differs principally in color of body 
and of appendages. 

Does not agree with the description of any of the thirteen 
species tabulated by Morley (loc. cit.). 

Female. Length 16 mm.; antennae 12.5 mm.; ovipositor 15.5 mm. 
Head subglobose, the cheeks very broad, tooth between occipital and genal 
carinae very small and acute; face about as long as wide at top, narrowed 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, IQ2O 79 

below, densely pitted; elevated above level of orbits; clypeus barely half 
as long as wide, divided transversely by a sharp carina, truncate at apex, 
mostly smooth, separated from face by a deep groove which extends laterally 
and dorsally to the eye margin; sides of frons sculptured like the face; head 
otherwise polished. Thorax polished; scutellum with a few transverse welts 
rather than rugose; post-scutellum with a transverse carina; propodeum with 
the apical carina and the median carinae beyond the basal missing, basal 
median area concave, wider than long, rounded behind; spiracles slit-like, 
curved, ditected backward ; metapleurum with a distinct triangular tooth 
just in front of middle coxa; hind coxa with a prominent flange-like projec- 
tion below at base; areolet narrowly sessile, quadrangular, the second inter- 
cubitus forming its longest side; discoidella originating from cubite'lla nearly 
midway between nervellus and intercubitella. Abdomen with basal seg- 
ments polished; apical segments with dense, short, appressed pubescence; 
first tergite more than three times as long as wide at apex, the spiracles 
slightly beyond the middle; second tergite shorter than third, hardly twice 
as long as wide, its sides parallel; third slightly more than twice as long as 
wide; third to fifth slightly emarginate at apex; sixth not at all emarginate; 



--sh 




Fig. 1. Apex of abdomen of Rhyssa and Apechoneura. a -Lateral view 
of Rhyssa persuasoria (Linne). b -Dorsal view of same, c Lateral view of 
Apechoneura longicanda Kriechbaumer. d Dorsal view of same, e Dorsal 
view of Apechoneura tricolor Cushman. ?T-ioT = Seventh to tenth tergites; 
05 = ninth sternite; c = cerci; o = ovipositor ; 5^ = sheath of ovipositor; sp = 
spiracle; st = fused suture between ninth and tenth tergites. 



80 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL, IQ2O 

seventh incised nearly to base; eighth tergite (true ninth) with its lateral 
extensions obtuse at apex and reaching barely beyond the tenth. 

Yellow, mahogany red, and black ; head yellow with the frons and occiput 
partly red ; apices of mandibles and antennae black, scape red above, blackish 
within and narrowly yellow at apex, flagellum reddish at base and with a 
white annulus near apex, thorax yellow with the sutures, a large spot on each 
side of the mesoscutum confluent before and behind, prepectus ventrally, an 
irregular spot on mesopleurum, basal areas of propodeum, and a stripe below 
insertion of abdomen red more or less mixed or margined with black; front 
and middle legs yellow, their femora largely red behind ; front tibia and tarsus 
beneath, middle tibia behind with an interruption near base and the tarsus 
except narrow apices of first four joints black; hind coxae red with elongate 
yellow spots above and below; trochanter yellow with a piceous mark above, 
second joint entirely piceous; hind femur red, piceous at extreme base, the 
piceous color followed outside by a fringe of yellow and inside by a distinct 
yellow spot; hind tibia black with a broad yellow sub-basal annulus, the 
tarsus black with a white annulus embracing joints 2-4 and apex of the 
first; tegulae yellow with an apical red spot; wings byaline, apex infumate, 
venation nearly black; tergites largely red, the red more or less margined 
with blackish; median longitudinal stripe the whole length of the first ter- 
gite, an apical median spot on second, V-shaped marks, on third and fourth, 
oblique lateral marks on fifth, apical lateral marks on sixth and seventh, and 
the ventral margins of sixth to eighth yellow; tergites 3 to 7 with median 
apical blackish spots; epipleura yellow with longitudinal blackish marks 
on second to fifth; ovipositor sheath with a subapical white annulus. 

Type locality. San Bernardino, Paraguay. 
Type. Cat. No. 22817, U. S. N. M. 
One specimen collected by K. Fiebrig. 



Actual date of publication April IQ, 1920. 



VOL. 22 MAY 1920 No. 5 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BAKER, A. C., AND MOLES, M. L. A NEW SPECIES OF ALEYRODIDAE FOUND 

ox AZALLA (HOM.) 81 

CAUDELL, A. N. ZORAPTERA NOT AN APTEROUS ORDER 84 

CRAIGHEAD, F. C. DIRECT SUNLIGHT AS A FACTOR IN FOREST INSECT 

CONTROL 106 

CRAMPTON, G. C. SOME ANATOMICAL DETAILS OF THE REMARKABLE 
WINGED ZORAPTERON, ZOROTYPUS HUBBARDIS CAUDELL, WITH NOTES 
ON ITS RELATIONSHIPS . . 98 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1 103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1920. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President W. R. WALTON 

First Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Second Vice-President A. G. BOVING 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Executive Committee: THE OFFICERS and A. N. CAUDELL, A. L. QUAIN- 

TANCE and E. R. SASSCER. 

Representing the Society as a Vice-President of the Washington Academy of 
Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



PROCEEDINGS 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 22 MAY, 1920 No. 5 

A NEW SPECIES OF ALEYRODIDAE FOUND ON AZALEA. (HOM.i 
BY A. C. BAKER AND M. I,. MOLES, Bureau of Entomology. 

During the past ten years, plant quarantine inspectors have 
frequently found this species of Aleyrodes on foreign shipments 
of azalea. Plants from Belgium and Holland have been the only 
ones affected up until last year, but in November, 1919, the same 
species was found on plants shipped in from Japan. Though the 
species appears to be common in these countries it apparently 
has been left undescribed, and because of its frequency on im- 
ported plants it was thought best to describe and figure it here. 
The insect is not abundant on the host, only four or five pupa 
cases being found to a leaf, nor does it seem to be injurious at 
this time. 

The species was first intercepted in this country by Inspector 
Francis \Vendle in Philadelphia, October 15, 1910, and in Novem- 
ber of the same year it was found on imported plants in Wash- 
ington, D. C. In the year 1913, it was found on foreign ship- 
ments by B. H. Walden near New Haven, Conn., and again at 
Cromwell, Conn., by Q- S. Lowry, and in October, 1913, it was 
found by \Y. P. Flint at Beardstown, 111. C. E. Temple found 
it on foreign stock February, 1915, at Baltimore, Md., and in 
191() it was found in Gainesville, Florida by E. \V. Berger. The 
collections for the year 1916 were all from plants which had been 
inspected by Federal workers here in Washington, and the latest 
finding of this species on foreign plants was by Dr. S. I. Kuwana 
at San Francisco. 

Aleyrodes azaleae, n. sp. Baker and Moles. 

The first plants \\hich were infested with this ^peeies were received October 
1"), I'M!) from Ghent, Belgium; other plants were sent from Boskoop, Holland, 
Nov. 11'. I'.MO; Ghent, Belgium, Oct. 24 and :;<), 1<U4; Lokeren, Belgium, 
Feb. 10, l!il.~>: Mellc, Belgium, Nov. 7, 1910, and again from Ghent, Belgium, 
Dec. 1."), Hilli; Boskoop, Holland, March 15, 1920, and Shiznoke, Japan, 
Xv. lOlH. The pupa cases are light in color and without wax secretion of 
any sort. 

81 



PLATE 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22. 








BAKER AND MOLES ALEYRODES AZALEAK 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 83 

Pupa case. Broadly elliptical in shape; size 0.84 mm. long, 0..~>4 mm. in 
width: color varies from a very light yellow to an orange yellow. The darker 
color is always found where the body contents show through; submarginal 
area lighter in color than the rest of the dorsum. Margin finely crenulate 
and evenly rounded at the apex, with sutures extending mesad from each 
tooth 0.016 mm. The thoracic tracheal comb consists of six small teeth, 
the caudal comb of nine teeth. Both the caudal and tracheal combs are 
made up of unchitinized and uncolored teeth and appear as indented portions 
of the margin with very small marginal teeth. Dorsum unmarked, with 
two small setae on the thorax; abdominal segments distinct. Vasiform 
orifice elongate, cordate in shape, the caudal floor of the orifice crossed with 
folds of the orifice membrane; operculum sub-cordate, filling one-half of the 
orifice, caudal margin blunt and rounded, cephalic margin straight; lingula, 
projecting beyond the operculum, setose, bi-lobccl and with one pair of setae 
arising at the margin of the caudal lobe; cephalad and laterad of the orifice 
are found two small setae. A pair of setae, 0.64 mm. in length, is found 
caudad of the vasiform orifice and on either side of the caudal tracheal 
comb. 

Adult female. Color of body light yellow with legs and antennae lighter 
in color, wings immaculate, eyes dark brown. Length of body from vertex 
to tip of genitaha 0.99 mm.; length of fore-wing 1.12 mm., width 0.40 mm. 
Antennae seven jointed, Seg. Ill, 0.089 mm. with a fringed sensorium and a 
setae near the distal portion of the segment, Seg. IV, 0.026 mm. ; Seg. V, 
0.028 mm.; Seg. VI. 0.039 mm.; Seg. VII, 0.033 mm. in length and with a 
slender distal setae. The venation of the wings is usual for Aleyrodes, the 
remnant of the media in the fore- wing is very faintly shown. 

Adult male. The coloring of the male is the same as in the female. Length 
of body from vertex to tip of genitalia 0.92 mm.; wing measurements the 
same as in the female; genitalia long and slender, claspers upcurved, 0.10 
mm. long, with two small and one large teeth on the inner margin near the 
tip. Only three or four spines present on the claspers; penis slender, up- 
curved, three-fourths as long as the claspers. Antennae seven jointed, 
Seg. Ill, 0.07 mm. long, with a sensorium and setae; Seg. IV, 0.02 mm.; 
Seg. V, 0.028 mm.; Seg. VI, 0.08(5 mm.; Seg. VII, 0.038 mm. in length, and 
with a distal slender setae. 

Type. Cat. Xo. >M>1> U. S. N. M. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

1 Adult pupa case. '2 Caudal tracheal comb of teeth. 3- -Thoracic 
tracheal comb of teeth. 4 Margin of pupa case. ."> Vasiform orifice. 
6 Forewing of adult female. 7 Antennae of adult female. S Tarsus of 
adult. 9 Adult claw. 10 Male genitalia. 



84 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, IQ2O 

ZORAPTERA NOT AN APTEROUS ORDER. 

BY A. N. CAUDELL, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

The discovery of a winged form of a supposedly apterous order 
of insects is an event of importance in systematic entomology 
certainly well worth recording. 

The discovery of alated specimens of Zorotypus was made by 
Mr. H. S. Barber while collecting in Texas in the autumn of 1918. 
This unusually keen collector of the smaller and rarer forms of 
insect life was interested in the occurrence of /.orotypns within 
our borders, and when on a trip to Texas took the opportunity 
to see if specimens of this hitherto rare insect could be found in 
that vState. Unexpectedly good results rewarded the search, for 
on October 20th a colony of Zorotypus was located under the bark 
of a log and, in addition to numerous specimens of the ordinary 
apterous form, including various stages of both sexes, he secured 
eight alated adult specimens, all females, five of which had lost 
the wings, and three large nymphs with well developed wing- 
pads. The value and intense interest of this find were imme- 
diately apparent, and the material was generously transmitted 
to me, as was also other material comprising dealated adult fe- 
males collected later. These specimens, together with material 
collected in Florida in the spring of 1919 by Barber, Snyder and 
Wetmore form the basis of the present contribution to the knowl- 
edge of the Zoraptera. 

Dr. G. C. Crampton, the able student of insect morphology, 
spent a week in Washington studying the structural details of 
these interesting insects. The results of his studies appear in a 
paper on phylogeny which immediately follows this paper. The 
discussion of the morphological details given by Dr. Crampton 
supplements admirably the following general systematic discus- 
sion. 

The study of comparatively abundant material of /.orotypus 
comprising both winged and apterous specimens of two distinct 
species, gives a fair knowledge of this most interesting group. 
But future field observations and careful breeding will have to 
solve the many unworked problems, including that of the biology 
of the various forms. It is not even surely known if the life his- 
tory is a simple one, or if there are different casts, similar to 
Termites. However, it is assured that there are apterous as well 
as fully winged adults and it is almost equally sure that there 
are two forms of reproducing apterous individuals, and mayhap 
more. We have in the recently described species '/.. hubbardt ] 
the following types of individuals: 

1 Caudell, Can Knt. Vol. :>(). pp. :*7.">-.SXl (1918). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, \O. 5, MAY, 1920 85 

1. The fully winged chitinized adults with well developed eyes and ocelli, 
most specimens studied having lost the wings by shedding them in a manner 
similar to that in Termites. 

2. A very slightly or barely chitinized nymph' with nine segmented anten- 
nae, similar to those of the adult, with eyes and ocelli situated subcutaneously 
and with wing-pads more or less developed. 

3. Unchitinized apterous larvae without external eyes or ocelli, and possess- 
ing antennae with but eight segments, though otherwise similar to those of 
the adult. 

4. A wingless, unchitinized form, without eyes or ocelli, and with 9-seg- 
mented antennae, the form described in my former paper as adults, and which 
they very surely are. In this case some of them certainly are nymphs cor- 
responding to form 2 of the winged phase as above enumerated. But it 
appears impossible to differentiate them, as they agree in all diagnostic 
character with the more mature adult form. The apterous, unchitinized 
larva of this type is also apparently inseparable from those of the winged 
phases. 

In /. snyderi, the new species herein characterized, we have 
the same forms as in hubbardi and in addition there is an apterous 
form, fully chitinized and superficially resembling the dealated 
chitinized adult of /. hubbardi, but differing in having neither 
eyes nor ocelli. The larvae and nymph are as in 7.. hubbard-i, the 
9-segmented antennae of the latter indicating its stage of develop- 
ment. For the present, descriptive notes on these various types 
of the two species is all that can be given, leaving the future to 
reveal the biological relationships of the various forms. 

Z. hubbardi Caudell. In addition to the ten specimens in the 
lot discussed in the former paper, a total of over one hundred 
specimens has been examined in the preparation of the present 
treatment of '/.. hubbardi. The material represents collections from 
three localities in Texas and four in Florida. In Texas Mr. Bar- 
ber took three fully winged and five dealated aclult females, three 
nymphs of the alated form, thirty-five unchitinized apterous ad- 
ults and seven larva and nymphs under the bark of a liquidambar 
log near Jackson's Landing on Buffalo Bayou, about eight miles 
below Houston ; this was the first discovery of the winged form and 

The term nymph is usually applied indiscriminately to the various stages 
of insects with incomplete metamorphosis, from the first stage after leaving 
the egg to that preceding maturity. But a separate term is sometimes needed 
to design-ale that stage of ;i winged insect's development when wing-pads 
first appear. This is especially desirable in the case of Zorotypus, where it 
is apparently in this stage of development that the antennae become nine- 
segmented, and the wing-pads appear. The term nymph, therefore, is used 
in the present paper for the immature stages succeeding the molt at which 
wing-pads appear, larvae being used for the sta^e- preceding that molt. 



86 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

comprised the only specimens of /. hubbardi yet secured with the 
wings attached. The date of this initial find was October 20, 
1918. A fortnight later, November oth, he collected additional 
dealated adults and apterous unchitinized specimens under the 
bark of a pine stump near Wallisville in Chambers County. He 
also secured a single apterous unchitinized adult female ten miles 
north of Liberty on November 20th. In Florida Mr. Barber took 
one adult and one nymph of the apterous form at Timm's Ham- 
mock, or Naranja, on February 24, 1919, and at the same place 
and date Mr. Alex. Wetmore took one dealated female of the 
alated form and one apterous adult form. On March 1st Mr. 
Wetmore collected again at this locality and took a number of 
apterous specimens. Mr. T. E. Snyder collected specimens of 
the apterous form in Florida at the following localities : Princeton, 
February 24th; Miama Beach, February 28th, and at Ortega, 
near Jacksonville, March 5th, all in 1919. 

Adult of Winged Form (Female, Male Unknown) (Figs. 1, 2.) 

The general appearance of the winged adult is very well repre- 
sented by Figs. 1 and 2, the latter depicting the lateral aspect 
of a dealated specimen. 

This winged form differs fundamentally from the apterous form in various 
ways; the head differs very little in shape from that of the apterous form, 
the apparent difference shown in Fig. 1, as compared with Fig. 4, being 
due to the different angles at which the head was viewed while being drawn. 
In the winged form, however, there are well developed and clearly fasceted 
eyes and three prominent ocelli, the latter situated in the form of an anter- 
iorly directed triangle, as shown in the illustrations; the ocelli are moderately 
protuberant, projecting noticeably beyond the level of the surrounding sur- 
face of the head. The eyes are large, the fascets visible under a moderately 
high magnification, and in alcoholic specimens usually appear as if surrounded 
by a whitish area of varying width; this light area, however, disappears almost 
entirely when the specimen is dried, and then is seen to form a part of the 
eye itself and not an area surrounding it. Fig. 2 was made from a specimen 
in spirits. 

The antennal structure is practically as in the apterous form, as is also the 
armature of the posterior femora, the form of the dorsal thoracic segments, 
however, as might be expected, differs very decidedly from that of apterous 
individuals, as shown by the figures. The whole insect is here quite heavily 
chitinized, the general color being blackish, a decided contrast to the scarcely 
chitinized whitish colored apterous specimens. 

The wings have a reduced venation quite different from that of allied or- 
ders of insects; the figured specimen shows the venation better than any 
description can portray it. The wings are evidently habitually shed, as in 
the Termites, as 15 of the 18 adult specimens examined "are dealated, only the 
stubs of the wings remaining. The fracture of the wing does not take place at 



PROC. EKT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. 5, MAY, 1920 87 

any definite point hut, so far as observed, always occurs at some point 
basad of the commencement of the veins, which is, as shown in Fig. 1, a 
short distance from the base of the wing. The wing stubs of dealated 
specimens appear like two paired projections, the membrane between the 
costal and anal marginal stubs being visible only on close examination, as 
it splits and folds closely to the stubs. 

The abdomen is elongate, mesially broadened and has eight distinct chitin- 
ized dorsal segments, the first four shorter than the others, the basal ones 
sometimes not very distinct. The eighth segment is broadly rounded pos- 
teriorly; beyond this eighth dorsal segment is a broad, apically rounded, 
partially chitinized, moderately declivate plate; these features are discussed 
and figured by Dr. Crampton in the paper immediately following this. In 
his paper Dr. Crampton indicates that there are 9 ventral segments, including 
the Hypogynium or 8th ventral segment, and the Hypoproct or sub-anal 
plate; but as I make them out, there seems to be only 8 visible segments and 
the basal one of these is not always easily observed. 

Length, to tip of abdomen, 2 mm., anterior wings, o mm. 

Eighteen specimens, o winged and 15 dealated, from the fol- 
lowing localities: Buffalo Bayou, 18 miles below Houston, Tex., 
October 1C), 1U1S, Barber, 3 winged, 4 dealated. 

Near Wallisville, Chambers County, Tex., near, but not in, 
occupied galleries of Termites, November 5, 1!>1S, Barber, 9 
dealated. 

Miami Beach, Fla., under bark of red mangrove near base 
where it was damp, with Prorhinotermes simplex, T. E. Snyder, 1 
dealated. 

Naranja, Fla., March 1, 1 <)!'., Alex. Wetmore, 1 dealated. 

Nymph of Winged Form. (Fig. 3.) 

The only specimens of this form examined arc apparently in 
the last stage prior to the change to maturity. 

This form has well developed wing-pads, and the general appearance is 
well shown by Fig. 3. The thoracic structure differs materially from that 
of the adult, also better appreciated from the figures than by description ; 
the eyes and ocelli are present and distinct, but are situated subcutaneously, 
as shown by careful examination of alcoholic material but not brought out 
in the figure ; in dry material the covering cuticle is more opaque, making the 
organs of sight much more obscure, the ocelli in fact being almost or quite 
invisible in such specimens. 

The antennae are essentially as in the adult but the posterior femora are 
without strong chitinized spines below, in this particular agreeing with the 
corresponding stage of the apterous form. The nymphs in this stage of 
development, that apparently preceding maturity, are very slightly chitinized 
and the dorsal hairs and bristles of the body and legs are pale and obscure. 



88 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

Buffalo Bayou, 8 miles below Houston, Tex., October 20, 1918, 
Barber, 3 specimens. 

Mr. Snyder, an able student of Termites, suggests that it may 
be possible that some of these supposed nymphs may be brachyp- 
terous reproductive adults, similar to certain forms present in 
Termites. But microtome sections of several specimens made by 
Miss C. B. Thompson. Prof, of Zoology in Wellesley College, have 
not substantiated this supposition. 

Apterous Unchitinized Adult. (Fig. 4.) 

This is the form, and the only form, of Zorotypus hubbardi dis- 
cussed in the original account and description of this species, the 
two specimens mentioned in that paper as probably male nymphs 
being really adult females. 

Mention was made in this former pape'r to certain pigmented 
lateral spots on the head of this form, seen in a couple of speci- 
mens mounted on a slide. Since that note was written Miss 
Thompson sectioned the head of this form with the view to de- 
termining if there really were vestigial eyes present or not. 
Her decision is set forth in the following quotation from a letter 
written by her to Mr. T. E. Snyder: 

"There are no functional compound eyes nor ocelli. In some specimens 
nothing is left of the compound eyes but the optic nerve running to a mass 
of fatty tissue just the size of the eyes in the dealated form, but in one speci- 
men in among the fatty tissue there were vestiges of the outer parts of 
several ommatidia, the cones and cuticle. So we may call this, together 
with the optic nerves present in all specimens, evidence of faint vestiges of a 
very degenerate compound eye." 

The general appearance of this apterous form is well represented 
by Fig. 4. This represents a female and, like the other figures 
illustrating the present paper, except Fig. o, was drawn by Mrs. 
Mary Carmody Thompson. As indicated by this figure, there 
is probably one more abdominal segment than stated in the 
original account of the species, the terminal segment, however, 
being illy defined. An examination of the somewhat ample ma- 
terial accumulated since the previous account of this insect was 
written shows some variation to exist in the ventral armature of 
the posterior femora; rarely there are no chitinized spines on the 
ventral inner margin of these femora; in such cases the specimens 
may be ones but recently transformed and killed before completely 
chitinized. But usually there are two chitinized spines on this 
margin, as described in the former paper, and sometimes there is 
a third somewhat smaller spine situated about midway between 
the base of the femora and the basal one of the other two spines, 
and rarely there are also a few very short spines between the longer 
ones and distad of the apical ones. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 89 

The mesonotum is noted in the original paper as being about 
one-half as long as the pronotum; this is not correct, the actual 
length being about the same as that of the pronotum, as shown 
in Fig. 4. The terminal setae of the cercus are usually about 
one and one-half times as long as the cercus itself. The fourth 
segment of the antennae is also usually a little smaller in all dimen- 
sions than the succeeding ones, though there is some variation 
in this respect, as there is indeed in other features of the antennal 
structure; one specimen has one antennae normal while the other 
one is abnormal in having but eight segments instead of nine; 
that this abnormal antennae is complete is shown by the struc- 
ture of the terminal segment. In two specimens, one from Texas 
and one from Florida, the antennae are asymmetrical, as in each 
one antennae is normal while the opposite one has the fourth 
segment scarcely larger than the third. The hairs and bristles 
of the entire insect are pale and inconspicuous. 

In the article immediately following the present one Dr. Cramp- 
ton describes a minute hooked structure of the obscure ninth 
segment of the abdomen of the male which was not noticed in the 
previous account. This character is illustrated by Dr. Cramp- 
ton in his Fig. 2, and he calls it the notocornus, or notal horn. 
Opposite this organ, on the posterior margin of the eighth seg- 
ment of the abdomen is a small projection which Dr. Cra'mpton 
calls the notoprocessus, or tergal process, and this is also shown 
in his figure. 

The nymph of this form is very likely represented in the numer- 
ous specimens examined, but, if so, cannot be distinguished from 
the more mature specimens. It appears quite certain that some 
of these apterous unchitinized individuals are really adults, for 
if they were all nymphs it seems as if at least a few of the cor- 
responding apterous chitinized adults would be found. But not 
a single such adult has been found among the scores of individuals 
examined by the writer, and Mr. Barber, a keen observer and 
one who has seen hundreds in nature, has seen none. Mr. Bar- 
ber is also quite certain that a fragment of an egg found by him, 
but subsequently lost, was laid by one of these wingless unchitin- 
ized individuals, and other specimens have been seen with a 
rounded object visible within the body which may be an egg. 
Future observations will eventually settle this point. 

Length about '2 mm. or a little more. 

Numerous specimens from the following localities: Naranja, 
Fla., Mar. 1, H>H), A. Wetmore; Miami Beach, Fla., Feb. 2s. 
1919, Snycler; Princeton, Fla., Feb. 21, MM'.), Snyder; Ortega, 
near Jacksonville, Fla., Mar. 1."), l!Hi, Snyder; near Wallaceville, 
Chambers Co., Tex., Nov. .">, I'.MS, Barber; ten miles north of 



QO PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, IQ2O 

Liberty, Tex., Nov. 20, 1918, Barber; Buffalo Bayou, eight miles 
below Houston, Tex., Oct. 20, 1918, Barber. 

The Larva of Winged and Apterous Forms. 

Immature stages of the wingless Zorotypus were not represented 
in the material forming the basis of the former paper, the two on 
a slide recorded as probably being male nymphs being really 
adult females. But in the material studied in the preparation 
of this present paper there are a goodly number of larvae. 

In general appearance these resemble quite closely the eyeless and apterous 
unchitinized adult described above ; the antennae, however, differ decidedly 
from those of adults and nymphs in having only eight segments instead of 
nine, and generally the second segment alone is decidedly smaller than the 
others, instead of both second and third being small; the terminal five seg- 
ments of the antennae of the larva also tend to be noticeably less elongate 
than in the more matured insect, this feature is more obvious in the younger 
specimens examined. There is some variation in the relative size of the seg- 
ments of the antennae; thus the third segment is usually noticeably smaller 
than the fourth but often it is not, or barely, so. The reduction of the num- 
ber of antennal segments in the young from nine to eight is probably brought 
about by the union of the third and fourth segments, as is indicated by a 
very obscure indication of an illy defined transverse sub-basal sulcation of 
this larger segment, faintly visible in one or two of the several specimens 
examined. The larvae are also differentiated by the smaller size and by 
the absence of chitinized spines on the ventral margin of the posterior femora. 
A few apparently mature individuals lack such spines, but, as stated above, 
these are very likely freshly matured individuals. The hairs and bristles of 
the body are pale and obscure. There are about three sizes of larvae, the 
smallest measuring about 1 mm. in total length, the largest almost twice as 
much. There are no characters, so far found, to separate the larvae of 
the winged and apterous forms. Thus the above notes apply to both. 

Many specimens from : Naranja, Fla., Feb. 24, 1919, Barber; 
id, Mar. i, 1919, Wetmore; Princeton, Fla., Feb., 24, 1919, 
Snyder; Ortega, near Jacksonville, Fla., Mar. lo, 1919, Snyder; 
near Wallaceville, Chambers Co., Tex., Nov. 5, 1918, Barber; 
Buffalo Bayou, eight miles below Houston, Tex., Oct. 20, 191 S, 
Barber. 

Zorotypus Snyderi, n. sp. (Fig. 5.) 

All of the material of this apparently undescribed species was 
taken by Mr. T. E. Snyder, in whose honor the insect is named, 
at Miami Beach, Fla., all on April 29, 1918, except one apterous, 
pigmented male on Feb. 28, 1919. In 1918 pieces of a red man- 
grove log containing colonies of a white ant, Prorhinotermes sim- 
plex Hagen, were brought to the Field Station of the Bureau of 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, xo. 5, MAY, 1920 91 

Entomology at East Falls Church, Va., and enclosed in 50-lb. 
lard cans. These proved congenial quarters for the Termites, 
which lived and thrived. In the summer of 1919 it was dis- 
covered for the first time that the cans also harbored a thriving 
colony of Zorotypus, furnishing the material here discussed, ex- 
cept a single male above noted as being taken in 1919. 

This is a very distinct species from Z. hubbardi, but seems 
quite closely allied to the Costarican species described 1 by Syl- 
vestri as Z. neotropicus. It does not agree, however, sufficiently 
well with the characters of neotropicus as described by Sylvestri 
to justify its being considered that species. 

In this species are found the various forms or phases as noted 
above under hubbardi and in addition there is an apterous and fully 
pigmented adult. The various forms are here descriptively noted. 
Adult of Winged Form (Female, Male Unknown). 

In general appearance very like hubbardi as shown in Fig. 1. The size 
and color is practically the same, as is also the structure except as here noted. 
Antennae with the second segment small as in hubbardi but with the third 
segment of sub-equal length with the fourth and enlarging from the base to 
the apex, where it is nearly as thick as the fourth segment; beyond the third 
segment the antennae are about as in hubbardi. Fig. 5, drawn by Mr. R. 
E. Snodgrass, shows the antennae of this species. Thoracic segments from 
a dorsal view not differing noticeably from those of hubbardi. Bristly hairs 
of the abdomen, especially those situated posteriorly above, noticeably 
stouter and longer, the terminal bristle of the cercus fully twice as long as 
the cercus itself. Fore tibiae with short spines above and below, those on 
the ventral margin not worthy of special notice such as is described in Z. 
neotropicus. Hind femora with more conspicuous bristles above and armed 
beneath with two long slender spines on the apical fourth of the outer mar- 
gin and with a series of about ten shorter and stouter ones, on the apical 
three-quarters of the inner margin, the basal two and one near the apex 
the larger. Some variation will probably occur here. Abdomen essentially 
as described under the corresponding stage of Z. hubbardi. The more heavily- 
armed posterior femora, the basal structure of the antennae and the longer 
terminal seta of its cerci make very easy the separation of this species from 
Z. hubbardi. Length, to tip of abdomen, about 2 1 / 2 mm., fore wings 3 mm. 

A single fully winged female which I choose as the Holotype, 
Miami Beach, Fla., 1917, Snyder. No dealated specimen found. 

The fact that no winged males of either of our species of Zoro- 
typus are known might seem to indicate that there are no males 
of this form. But, considering that but sixteen winged specimens 
in all have thus far been found, this would be a presumptions 
hypothesis to advance. 

1 Boll. Lab. Agr. Portici, vol. 10, p. li'O (1916). 



92 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

Nymph . 

Of this stage specimens of three or four periods of development 
have been examined. Several specimens in the stage apparently 
immediately preceding complete maturity, corresponding to those 
noted under hubbardi in having well developed and mobile wing- 
pads, occurred. 

Specimens in this stage of development can be readily distinguished from 
the corresponding form of hubbardi, as the diagnostic characters of the alated 
adult are present here also, and in addition the eyes only are distinctly- 
present subcutaneously, the ocelli not being indicated; there may, however 
be variations found to exist here when more material is examined. But in 
the earlier stages of this form, where the wing-pads are not well developed 
the diagnostic characters so readily separating the more advanced nymphs 
and the adults from hubbardi are progressively less well marked. In the 
smaller of the two or three stages noted the characters are closer to those 
of hubbardi, the bristles and spines of the legs being less specifically different 
and the structure of the antennae varying to the form found in hubbardi. 
The second and third segments of the antennae of the smallest specimen area, 
are sub-equal and both decidedly smaller than the others. But the spines of 
the body are black and very decidedly more conspicuous than in hubbardi, 
especially when seen against a white background, and the terminal bristle 
of the cercus is fully twice as long at the cercus itself, characters serving to 
identify with considerable assurance even the smallest specimens of this stage. 
The eyes are not, or barely, visible in smaller specimens, growing more dis- 
tinct as the insects approach maturity. 

Length l 3 / 4 -2V4 mm. Wing-pads of largest specimens about l / z mm. 

Four specimens with fully developed wing-pads and half a 
dozen younger specimens, all from Miami, Fla., collected by Sny- 
der. 

The specimens with fully developed movable wing-pads are ap- 
parently quite different from the smaller, less developed ones 
without movable wing-pads. They may, indeed be brachypterous 
adults, as considered by Snyder as set forth under the correspond- 
ing phase of hubbardi. 

Apterous Chitinized Adults. (Fig. f>.i 

Female. This form, not represented, so far as now known, in hubbardi. 
superficially resembles dealated specimens of the winged form. The head 
is, however, without either eye or ocelli, the place where the eyes would be 
located being marked only by a few obscure bristles. The antennae are a> 
described in the winged adult, as are also the posterior femora, though here 
more of the inner ventral spines are stout. There is some variation appar- 
ent in the exact number of these spines, but usually there are about si-vi-n or 
eight. Otherwise this apterous adult form is essentially like the winged form 
described above. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 93 

Male. Similar to the female except the apical segments of the abdomen; 
here, what is apparently the ninth dorsal segment is roundly prolonged ap- 
ically, depressed below the plane of the eighth segment, the tip more heavily 
chitinized than the membranous basal portion, and the apex notched mesially 
with three minute tuberculous teeth on each side of the notch and with a 
small hook in the apex of the notch. This last described character is exceed- 
ingly minute and very difficult to make out even under fairly high magnifica- 
tion. The apical ventral segment is mesially cut apically by a V-shaped 
notch, and several small spines are situated on the lobes formed by this notch. 
The penis is concealed, very rarely visible as a simple minute chitinous point. 

Seventeen females, (i males. One of these females confined in 
a vial between June 4 and 12, 1919, deposited a single egg, which 
is briefly described at the end of this description. 

Apterous Unchitinized Adult (or Nymph of Apterous Chitinized Adult). 

Among the lot of a dozen or so specimens examined there are 
probably three forms represented. First very surely the nymph 
of the apterous pigmented adult last described, second possibly 
the reproductive unpigmented adults corresponding to that noted 
under Z. hubbardi, and the third the nymph of the last. But no 
morphological character has been found for separating the ma- 
terial into such divisions, all specimens being essentially alike 
except for minor variation. This form is essentially the same as 
the unchitinized apterous adult of hubbardi as set forth in the 
original description of that species, and as amended and figured 
in the present paper, except for the specific characters noted in 
the discussion of the winged form of the present species. 

The constant feature distinguishing this from the corresponding form of 
hubbardi is the terminal bristle of the cercus being twice as long as the cercus 
itself, the more coarsely and densely spinous ventral surface of the post fe- 
mora and especially the more conspicuously black bristled body. The 
larger and more elongate third segment of the antennae is also diagnostic 
but, as in the nymph of the winged form, this character grows less marked 
in the earlier stages of development, the third segment, especially in small 
specimens, but often also in larger ones as well, being but little or no larger 
or longer than the second. Probably the best method for the separation 
of this form of these two species is to examine the specimens under a glass 
against a white background, when the black hairs and bristles of snyderi are 
very decidedly more conspicuous than the lighter ones of hitbbardi. 

Specimens of this complex examined range in total length from about 
l l /2 to nearly 2'/2 mm. 

Larva. 

This stage is represented by a goodly number of specimens. 
It is apparently impossible to separate those destined to trans- 
form to winged specimens from those giving rise to apterous 



94 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

adults. Nor is the separation of these larvae from the correspond- 
ing stages of Z. Jmbbardi so easy, especially in the smaller speci- 
mens. The bristles and leg spines are not sufficiently developed 
to exhibit decided differences and the segments of the eight 
jointed antennae are not very strikingly different from those of 
lutbbardi, though in larger specimens they grow more towards 
the type characteristic of snyderi. The terminal setae of the 
cercus, moreover, are so small as to be generally not easy to 
observe and they constitute, therefore, not a convenient char- 
acter for separation. There are, however, two good characters 
which will invariably enable one to separate with assurance the 
respective larvae of these two species: the first is the hairs and 
bristles of the body, for in snyderi especially when viewed against 
a white background, as noted under the description of the pupa, 
the dorsal hairs and bristles of the body and legs are decidedly 
conspicuous, while in Jmbbardi they are apparently finer and 
light colored, being scarcely visible; the second character is the 
^antennae which, especially of the smaller specimens, are very 
"noticeably larger and heavier in snyderi. The relative size and 
shape of the antennal segments of these nymphs vary decidedly 
and seem to furnish no dependable character for separating the 
two species. In both species the usual structure of the antennae 
of a young nymph is as follows : 

The second segment of the antennae is half as long as the basal one and 
noticeably smaller, being itself about as long as broad, almost globular in 
shape; third segment slightly larger than the second and of similar shape; 
fourth segment decidedly larger than the third and globular, the fifth still 
larger and also globular, apically barely perceptibly pointed, sixth and sev- 
enth scarcely larger than the fifth, but very slightly elongated and apically 
a little more pointed; the eighth, and last, segment is basally as large as the 
preceding one and tapers nearly from the base to a narrowly rounded apex, 
the whole segment about twice as long as the basal width. In the succeed- 
ing stages of snyderi the third segment becomes more elongate in the larger, 
and presumably the more completely developed, specimens and then becomes 
useful in distinguishing these larvae from those of hubbardi. 

In the material examined, apparently representing about three instars, 
the individuals range from about 1 m. to ! 3 /4 mm. in total length. 

The typical material of this species is in the collection of the 
U. S. National Museum. 

Type. No. 22880, U. S. N. M. 

Egg. 

On July 4, 1919, a number of individuals, representing apter- 
ous chitinized adults, larva and nymphs, were isolated in small 
vials and cells, each with a small fragment of wood. On the 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. 5, MAY, IQ2O 95 

12th a small egg was noted on the piece of wood enclosed with 
an adult female. It is barely possible that this was there when 
the fragment of wood was enclosed, and is not the egg of Zoro- 
typus at all. But that it is really the egg of this insect, and was 
deposited by this specimen is very probable. This egg is r> / s mm. 
in length by 3 '& broad, the ends broadly and evenly rounded and 
the surface roughened by small hexagonal areas with elevated 
divisional lines. The probability of this being the egg of Zoro- 
typus is enhanced by the fact that this sculpturing of the surface 
is as Mr. Barber recalls being true of a fragment of an egg he 
found with /. hubbardi in Florida, and that another exactly sim- 
ilar egg was found in the cans containing the colony of Zorotypus. 
If this is really the egg of Zorotypits the size would indicate that 
these insects probably deposit a single egg at a time. 

This insect does not thrive in solitary confinement, as out of 
a lot of 27 specimens enclosed, mostly one in a receptacle, on 
June 4, 1919, most were dead by June 20, a number dying before 
that date and few living beyond the middle of July. Growth, 
at least under such conditions, is seemingly slow, as nothing in 
the way of development occurred, other than probable deposi- 
tion of an egg by a female as noted above, and the changing of one 
larva with S-jointed antennae enclosed on June 4 to a nymph 
with 9-jointed antennae on the 25th. 

Conclusion. 

The discovery of the fact that Zoraptera is a winged order has 
served to strengthen its distinction from allied groups. The re- 
lationship of Zoraptera to allied orders is discussed by Dr. Cramp- 
ton in the article immediately following this. 

The habit of shedding the wings by the adult alated form is 
apparently an acquired one. In the blattid genus Panesthia 
this habit is now apparently being acquired, but is in a com- 
paratively early stage of development; here the wings are 
torn off by only a moderate percentage of individuals and in a 
somewhat irregular manner, the fracture, however, following more 
or less the course of the anal vein. The development of this 
habit in the Zoraptera approaches that attained in the Termites, 
where in some cases there are well defined cross-sulci formed at 
the point of alar rupture. 

Both species of Zorotypus are social insects, occurring in col- 
onies of various sizes. They generally occur near Termites, but 
are not usually mingled with them and are probably never really 
inquilinous with them, as was at first thought probable, due to 
their usual proximity to white ants and their frequent occupancy 
of their galleries. Mr. Snyder took specimens oiJutbbardi at Ortega, 



PLATE 6 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22 




fcv "\ 



CATJ DELL ZOROTYPUS. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, IQ2O 97 

near Jacksonville, Fla., under the loose moist bark of a decaying 
log where there were no Termites present. Thus it appears as if 
their frequent occurrence with or near Termites is only a result of 
their requiring the same environmental conditions, mainly a matter 
of the proper amount of moisture. 

The discovery of alated individuals of Zorotypus raises some 
doubts as to the real status of the wingless individuals, heretofore 
the only form known. From a general consideration of the 
structure of both alated and apterous specimens and from the 
fact that this is a social insect may be inferred that it is a case 
of cast, allied to the closely related order Isoptera. The fact 
that alated adults shed the wings in a manner similar to that of 
the white ants seems to strengthen this view. If such is actually 
the case, however, it will have to await actual demonstration 
until something more is known of the biology of these interesting 
insects. 

In Texas and in Florida nymphs of the hemipterous genus 
Systellodems were taken in colonies of /orotypus. These insects 
are predatious and probably feed on the Zorotypus. The Texas 
species, taken by Mr. Barber near Liberty on November 20, 19 IS, 
was determined by Mr. Gibson as 5. biceps Say. Mr. Wetmore 
took the Florida bugs at Timm's Hammock on March 1, 1919. 
This form w r as determined by Gibson as a species near angiistatn* 
Champ., of the West Indies. 

Associated with the Z orotypus at Timm's Hammock Mr. Wet- 
more found a number of very young nymphs of the earwig Ani- 
solabis annulipcs, which resembled in size and action specimens 
of Zorotypus so much as to be mistaken for them. Mr. Barber 
has also noted this resemblance in the field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell. (Alated adult of winged form. Fe- 
male.) 

Fig. 2. Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell. (Dealated adult of winged form. In- 
male, i 

Fig. 3. Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell. (Nymph of winged form. Female. > 

Fig. 4. Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell. (Unchitini/.ed adult of apterous form 
Female.) 

Fig. o. Zorotypus snyderi Caudell. (Antcnn i of diitini/.ed adult of aptemu- 
form. Male, i 



98 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH.. VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

SOME ANATOMICAL DETAILS OF THE REMARKABLE WINGED 

ZORAPTERON, ZOROTYPUS HUBBARDIS CAUDELL, WITH 

NOTES ON ITS RELATIONSHIPS.* 

BY G. C. CRAMPTON. PH.D. 

Through the generosity of Mr. A. N. Caudell, I have been able 
to make a morphological study of the winged Zorapteron de- 
scribed by him in the preceding paper and to his general descrip- 
tion of Zorotypus hubbardi, I would add the following supple- 
mentary discussion of certain anatomical details of this remark- 
able insect. Zorotypus is not only of great interest from the fact 
that it is anatomically intermediate between the Isoptera and 
Plecoptera, but it's position at the base of the line of descent of 
the Psocidae (sensu lato] makes it an extremely important insect 
for the study of the phylogeny of the higher forms as well. 

The head of a winged Zorotypus (Figs. 5 and 1) is very like that 
of the small primitive Plecoptera Capnia, Leuctra, etc., in con- 
tour, and is also somewhat suggestive of the head of a Psocid 
in outline. Three ocelli "oc" (Figs. 5 and 1) are present in the 
winged Zoraptera, and in their position and arrangement they 
resemble those of the primitive Plecoptera mentioned above. I 
do not find the ocelli in the blind, wingless forms, which I am 
inclined to regard as the representatives of a caste distinct from 
the winged forms, and if this be correct, the occurrence of castes** 
in these insects is a feature very suggestive of affinities with the 
Isoptera. 

The compound eyes of the winged Zoraptera usually exhibit 
a darker pigmented central region surrounded by a whiter ring 
as shown in Fig. 1, although merely the outline of the compound 
eyes is shown in Fig 5. The frontal maculae "fm" (Figs. 5 and 
1) occurring near the compound eyes of a winged Zorotypus, are 
very similar to those of Capnia and other primitive Plecoptera, 
and since they are not usually well developed in many 
primitive orders of insects, they furnish additional evidence of 
the affinities of the Zoraptera to the Plecoptera. The position 
of the antennae (i. e., their attachment far down the front of the 
head) is another feature in which the Zoraptera resemble the 
primitive Plecoptera; but the outlines of the individual segments 
are rather more like those of the antennae of the Embiidae (which 
are very closely allied to the Plecoptera), although in regard to 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

** Since this was written, Mr. Caudell has described the pigmented ap- 
terous representatives of the group, which were unknown to me at the time 
of writing. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 99 

the relative sizes of the basal segments of the antennae, the Zor- 
aptera exhibit certain features peculiar to themselves. 

The neck plates and prothoracic sclerites "dc," "Ic," etc. (Fig. 
1) of a winged '/.orotypus, are extremely like those of Capnia, and 
other primitive Plecoptera, especially in the occurrence of the 
peculiar dorsal cervical sclerite "dc;" and since the neck and pro- 
thoracic regions are among the least modified structures of an 
insect's body, they furnish some of the most valuable evidence 
available for determining the interrelationships of the orders of 
insects. In order to show the outlines of the sclerites as well as 
possible, an abnormally distended specimen was chosen for mak- 
ing the drawing shown in Fig. 1 , so that the parts are considerably 
more separated from one another than would be the case in a 
normal specimen; but a glance at Fig. 1, after studying a primitive 
Plecopteron such as Litctra or Capnia, would serve to convince 
one that the neck and prothoracic regions of a winged Zorapteron 
are strikingly like those of the primitive Plecoptera in question; 
so that the evidence of the head, neck and prothoracic regions 
alone, would point to a very close relationship between the Zor- 
aptera and the Plecoptera. On the other hand, the mesothoracic 
and metathoracic structures present a curious combination of 
features occurring in the Psocidae, Isoptera, Grylloblattidae, and 
certain insects related to the Plecoptera. 

The mesonotum and metanotum of Zorotypus (Fig. (5) are very 
like those of the Psocidae in some respects, such as the outline 
of the prescutum "ps 2 ," scutellum, "sc! 2 ," etc.; and the presence 
of a prealar bridge "pa" extending from the notum to the pleural 
region (see also "pa 2 ," Fig. 1) is a feature which occurs in the 
Plecoptera and their relatives, as well as in the higher insects, 
but is not found in any of the group to which the Isoptera belong 
(i. e., the Mantidae, Blattidae, etc.), as is also true of the pres- 
ence of a postscutellum, "p 2 " (Fig. 1) in the mesothoracic region. 
A mesothoracic postscutellum, however, occurs in the Plecoptera 
and their relatives, as well as in the Psocidae and higher insects. 
In the Blattidae, Alantidae, Isoptera and many other lower in- 
sects, there is a marked tendency for the metanotum to surpass 
(or at least to equal) the mesonotum in size; but in the winged 
Zoraptera (Fig. 6), the mesonotum is markedly larger than the 
metanotum, as is also the case in the Psocidae and higher forniN. 
In general, the mesonotum and metanotum of the winged Zor- 
aptera are very suggestive of those of the Psocidae and higher 
insects; but the outlines of the nota of the wingless Zoraptera un- 
surprisingly similar to those of the wingless Grylloblattidae. 

The sternal regions of the thorax of the Zoraptera are quite 
like those of the Isoptera, and similar lateral plates, or latero- 



100 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

sternites "e?" and "e ;i " (Fig. 1) occur in the mesothorax and 
metathorax of the Grylloblattidae and Isoptera, although they are 
also found in the Embiidae and certain other forms related to 
the Plecoptera. The sclerites of the pleural region in general are as 
much like those of the Isoptera as any insects, but they also 
present certain features suggestive of the Dermaptera and other 
insects related to the Plecoptera as well. 

With regard to the appendages of the thorax, we find in them 
also, a curious combination of features present in several other 
group of insects. The coxae, "ca" (Fig. 1) resemble those of the 
Grylloblattidae very markedly, but the other portions of the legs 
resemble those of certain immature Plecoptera and the wingless 
Psocidae in many respects. The reduction of the number of tar- 
sal segments is a feature found in certain higher insects (Hemip- 
tera, Thysanoptera, etc.) related to the Psocidae; but there is also 
a tendency toward such a reduction, in the immature Plecoptera 
and their allies. The wings, as figured by Mr. Caudell, appear 
to be much like those of certain Psocids and Embiidae (which 
are related to the Plecoptera), but they also present many points 
of resemblance to the Isoptera particularly in the breaking off 
of the wings near the base (a feature which seems to be peculiar 
to the termites and certain Blattids), as Mr. Caudell has pointed 
out. I find something vaguely suggestive of the wings of certain 
Psocids and Thysanoptera in the Zoraptera; but I am not suffi- 
ciently familiar with the venation of the insects related to the 
Psocidae (i. e., the Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, etc. and possibly 
the Strepsiptera also), to be able to tell which of these insects 
approaches the Zorapteron type the most closely in their venation. 

There are two types of individuals in the blind, apterous 
"caste" of the Zoraptera. In one type (Fig. 2), which I have 
interpreted as the male form (since it has genitalia very sugges- 
tive of those of the male Mantidae) there is one less ventral 
plate than in the forms I have interpreted as the females, the 
ventral plate labeled "hp" in Fig. 4 of the female, being either 
not developed, or not sufficiently strongly chitinized and pig- 
mented to be visible in the males (Fig. 2). 

In some males, the genitalia were retracted beneath the plate 
labeled "ha" in Fig. 2, so that only their tips protruded behind 
its margin; but the specimen from which Fig. 2 was drawn was 
chosen to illustrate the exserted condition of the parts, since they 
seem to be better developed in such specimens. From the some- 
what more developed condition of the parts, and from the fact 
that they are marked extruded, I would regard such forms as 
sexually mature, despite the fact that they are apterous; but, of 
course, the extruded condition of the genitalia may have been 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 IOI 

due to squeezing the specimen when it was captured although 
I could not detect any indications of such a squeezing or distor- 
tion in these specimens. 

As was mentioned above, the valves "pv" (Figs. 2 and 3) of 
the genital appratus of the male are asymmetrically developed, 
and being terminated by hooks "u" (Fig. 3), etc., they are very 
like the parts of the genitalia of a male Mantid (see Figs. 70, 
7S, etc., Plate 6, of an article on genitalia of male insects, pub- 
lished in the Bulletin of the Brooklyn Ent. Soc., Vol. 13, p. 49); 
and when Dr. Walker, who is at present working out the details 
of the genitalia of the male of Grylloblatta, publishes his results, 
I am sure that the parts will be found to resemble those of a male 
of Zorotypus quite markedly.* The basal portions of the valves 
"pv" (Fig. 3) are buried in the tissues of the genital apparatus, and 
were, therefore, not shown in Fig. 3. The genitalia of male Ple- 
coptera are usually more symmetrically developed in those forms 
having paired penis valves, and doubtless more nearly represent 
the primitive condition than the asymmetrical valves of the 
Zoraptera, Mantidae and Blattidae do. Since the terminal struc- 
tures of the Zoraptera are quite like those of the Isoptera, it is 
quite surprising that the Isoptera have not developed penis valves 
like those of their allies; but I have been unable to find them in 
any of the termite material which I have examined. 

Situated near the posterior margin of the eighth abdominal tergite 
"8'" (Fig. '2} of the apterous male insects, is a small median dor- 
sal process "d," while a small median procurved hook "n," at 
whose base is a second tiny prominence, is apparently borne on 
the narrow indistinct ninth tergite. I find certain structures in 
the Plecoptera, which are very suggestive of these organs; but I 
have not been able to determine their significance as yet, although 
I am hoping to do so later, when material suitable for dissection 
is available. In examining the internal anatomy of the apterous 
males of Zorotypus, in connection with the above mentioned or- 
gans, I observed two flat coils of "wavy" fibers, somewhat like 
cotton fibers in appearance (but more "crinkly" in character), 
located in the posterior half of the abdomen. I was unable to 
determine their relation to the above-mentioned organs,** however, 
if any exists, and until a thorough preparatory study of the in- 
ternal of the male Plecoptera has been made, it is useless to spec- 

* In the meantime, Dr. Walker's paper has been published in the Can. 
Entomologist. The genitalia of Grylloblatta are not like those of Zorotypus, 
but superficially, at least, the terminal structures of Grylloblatta are strik- 
ingly like those of the Embiidae. 

** A further study of the coiled structures would indicate that tlu-y an 
associated with the testes. 



102 PROC. EN T T. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

ulate on the probable significance of these structures in the Zor- 
aptera. 

The plate labeled "ep" in Figs. 2 and 4 is apparently made 
up of the supraanal plate and parapodial plates of the Orthop- 
teroid insects, and doubtless represents the united tenth and 
eleventh dorsal segments. Near the base of the region above 
the anal opening, the cerci "cu" (Figs. 2 and 4) are attached. I 
formerly suggested that the large central axial spine, which looks 
like a modified second segment of the cerci in some of Silvestri's 
figures of the Zoraptera, might represent a second segment of the 
cerci in these insects. An examination of Zorotypits hubbardi, 
however, has convinced me that the cerci of this insect are com- 
posed of but one apparent segment, as is the case in certain small 
Plecoptera. 

Below the region labeled "ep" in Figs. 2 and 4 is the anal open- 
ing. There frequently protrudes from the anal region of the 
apterous forms, a papilla-like projection, which appears to be an 
everted portion of the rectal region. Since this projection is not 
visible in all of the specimens, I do not know whether it is the 
result of squeezing the insect when it was captured, or whether it 
is associated with the act of defecation. 

The terminal segments of the female differ from those of the 
male principally in the development of a transverse band-like 
ventral subanal plate "hp" (Fig. 4), which I have been unable 
to detect in any male specimens. There thus appears to be one 
more ventral segment in the females (both winged and ap- 
terous forms) than in the males, although this additional segment 
is rather difficult to distinguish in the apterous females, due to 
lack of pigmentation in these forms as compared with the winged 
females. The opening of the female reproductive organs is con- 
cealed by the plate labeled "hg" in Fig. 4, which represents the 
sternum of the eighth abdominal segment, as in other lower in- 
sects. The terminal structures of the winged females are very 
like those of the Isoptera, although those of the apterous males 
have some features suggestive of the Plecoptera, and their gen- 
italia are quite like those of the Mantids, Grylloblattids, etc. 

The resemblances between the Zoraptera and other insects 
may be briefly summarized as follows: The head of a winged 
Zorotypus is essentially Plecopteroid, with some suggestions of a 
resemblance to the Psocid type. The neck and prothorax are 
largely Plecopteroid, while the lateral and ventral regions of the 
mesothorax and metathorax are quite like those of the Isoptera. 
The mesonotum and metanotum of the winged forms are more 
like those of the Psocidae and Neuropteroid insects, such as the 
Hymenoptera, etc., but also suggest affinities with the Plecoptera 



PROC. EXT. SOC. \VASH., VOL. 22, XO. 5, MAY, IQ2O 103 

and Embiidae among the lower forms, although the nota of the 
wingless Zoraptera are strikingly like those of a wingless (,'ryllo- 
blatta. While the coxae are like those of the Grylloblattidae, the 
legs in general resemble those of certain wingless Psocidae and 
immature Plecoptera. The genitalia of the apterous males are 
as much like those of male Mantidae as any other insects, although 
they will doubtless prove to be quite similar to the genitalia of a 
male (,'rvlloblatta also. The terminal segments of the males bear 
certain structures somewhat similar to those of certain Plecoptera; 
but the terminal segments in general, and those of the winged 
females in particular, are quite Isopteroid. 

The following diagram will serve to locate the line of descent of the Zor- 
aptera among those of the other lower winged insects. 

PSOCIDS. 



ZORAPTERA \ DERMAPTERA 

ISOPTERA\ i / EMBIIDS 

PLECOPTERA 




MANTIDS 
GRYLLOBLATTIDS 



Taking their anatomy as a whole, I would regard the Zoraptera 
as intermediate between the Isoptera and the Plecoptera, with 
their closest affinities tending slightly toward the side of the 
Isoptera, although the balance of characters is so evenly divided 
between the two groups, that it is very difficult to decide whether 
the Isoptera or the Plecoptera are the nearest relatives of the 
Zoraptera. There can be no doubt, however, that the Plecoptera 
are extremely close to the forms from which the Zoraptera were 
derived, and represent as nearly as any living insects, the com- 
mon ancestral type of insects giving rise to the lines of descent 
of the Zoraptera and Isoptera. On the other hand, the Zoraptera 
themselves are very like the ancestors of the Psocidae, so that 
they are extremely important insects for a study of the evolution 
of the higher forms such as the Hymenoptera, N'europtera, etc., 
whose ancestors were undoubtedly extremely colsely related to 
those of the Psocids. The position of the Zoraptera in the super- 
orders of winged insects, may be seen in the following list. 



IO4 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1920 

PALAEODICTYOPTEROID SUPERORDER 

(Panplectoptera ) . . Protephemerida, Ephemerida, Protodon- 

ata, Odonata, Palaeodictyoptera (in 
part), etc. 
PLECOPTEROID SUPERORDER ( Pan- 

plecoptera.. . Haplopteroida, Plecoptera, Hadentom- 

oida, Embiidina, Dermaptera, Coleo- 
ptera, etc. 
ORTHOPTEROID SUPERORDER (Pan- 

orthoptera) Protorthoptera, Grylloblattida, Phas- 

mida, Orthoptera (sensu str.) etc. 
ISOPTEROID SUPERORDER < Paniso- 

ptera) . Protoblattida Zoraptera, Isoptera, Blatt- 

ida, Mantida, etc. 
PSOCOID SUPERORDER (Panhomo- 

ptera. . . Psocida, Mallophaga. Anopleura (Pedi- 

culidaj Homoptera Hemiptera, Thys- 
anoptera, Strepsiptera, etc. 
NEUROPTEROID SUPERORDER ( Pan- 

neuroptera) Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Mecoptera, 

Protomecoptera, Par a mecop t e'ra, 
Paratrichoptera Trichoptera, Lepido- 
ptera, Diptera. Siphonaptera, etc. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

The subscripts ]( o, and 3 , indicate that the structure in question 
belongs to the prothorax, mesothorax, or the metathorax, respec- 
tively. The numerals on the segments denote the number of the 
abdominal segment, the letters "t" or "s" being added above, to 
indicate the tergites and sternites of the segments. 

a Epimeron. ha Hypandrium, or plate below 

ant Antenna (abbreviated). male genitalia. 

I) Lateropleurite, or lateral plate rig Hypogynium, or plate below fe- 

of pleural region. male genitalia. 

c Episternum. hp Hypoproct, or subanal plate, 

ca Coxa. Ic Lateral cervical plate, 

cu Cercus. Ip Labial palpi, 

d Notoporcessus, or tergal process mp Maxillary palpi. 

of male. n Notocornus, or procurved notal 
dc Dorsal cervical plate. horn of male. 

e Laterosternite, or lateral plate () Trochantinus. 

of sternum. oc Ocelli, 

ep Epiproct, or supraanal plate. p Postscutellum. 

f Femur. pa Prealare, or prealar bridge, 

fm Frontomaculae. or frontal areas pn Pronotum. 

near eyes. ps Presctitum. 



PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22 



d.c 




CRAMPTON ZOROTYPUS. 



106 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, IQ2O 

pv Penisvalvae, or valves of t Tegula. 

male genitalia. tb Tibia. 

s Sternum. tc Trochanter. 

sa Subalare, or subalar plates. ts Tarsus. 

sc Scutum. u Postuncus, or terminal hook of 
scl Scutellum. penis valve. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Lateral view of head and thorax of dealated female. The parts of 

the neck and prothorax are abnormally distended. 
Fig. 2. Lateral view of terminal structures of apterous male, with genitalia 

extruded. 
Fig. 3. Dorsal view of genital valves of apterous male. The basal portions 

of the valves, being imbedded in the genital tissues, are not 

drawn. 

Fig. 4. Lateral view of terminal structures of dealated female. 
Fig. o. Frontal view of head of dealated female. 
Fig. 6. Dorsal view of thoracic region of dealated female. The parts of the 

prothorax are abnormally distended in this specimen. 



DIRECT SUNLIGHT AS A FACTOR IN FOREST INSECT CONTROL. 
BY F. C. CRAIGHEAD, PH. D., Bureau of Entomology. 

Control and preventative measures in Forest Entomology are 
necessarily based on different principles from those commonly 
used against orchard, field or truck crops. The inaccessability 
of many of the regions, the enormous area involved, and the low 
annual returns on the investment demand protective measures 
that can be correlated with systems of forest management or 
lumbering practices at the least expense. 

This requirement has been the basis on which all control or 
preventative measures are formulated. To quote from Dr. Hop- 
kins: 1 

'The desired control or prevention of loss can often be brought 
about by the adoption or adjustment of those requisite details 
in forest management and in lumbering and manufacturing opera- 
tions, storing, transportation, and utilization of the products 
which at the least expenditure will cause the necessary reduction 
of the injurious insects and establish unfavorable conditions for 
their future multiplication or continuance of destructive work." 

As examples of such methods are the cutting or girdling of 
certain woods at definite seasons of the year to prevent attack 

1 Some Insects Injurious to Forests: Insect Depredations in North Ameri- 
can Forests and Practical Methods of Prevention and Control. Bulletin 58, 
Part V, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. of Agric. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, 1 920 IO7 

by insects, submerging in mill ponds during the flight periods, 
and rapid utilization of the felled timber before the insects have 
had time to injure it. 

It was accidentally discovered by the writer that direct ex- 
posure to the sun can be utilized in connection with forest man- 
agement and lumbering practices as a highly efficient method of 
prevention or control of certain of the more destructive tree- 
killing and wood-boring insects. 

In the summer of H)17 several hickory logs containing Cyllene 
-pictus (Drury) in the pupal and immature adult stages were ac- 
cidentally left in direct sunlight for several hours. Later in the 
same day these insects were removed from their cells and isolated 
in vials. As they were taken out it was found that many from 
the top side of the logs were dead. This discovery, together 
with the well known fact that logs exposed to direct sunlight are 
in many localities attacked only on the under surface, immediately 
suggested possibilities of utilizing the heat of the sun in control 
or prevention of damage by certain insects. The same summer 
a few tests were made by turning both infested and uninfested 
logs in the sun which gave promise of future possibilities where 
other methods were not practical. 

Since then further experiments have been made at Falls Church, 
Va. ; Yicksburg, Miss., and Tucson, Ariz., giving conclusive evi- 
dence as to the effectiveness of this method under certain con- 
ditions. The experiments were primarily based on the turning 
of infested logs in the sun and a series of observations on about 
three million feet of ash logs cut at different seasons and handled 
in various ways. 

In the following paragraph several examples of these prelim- 
inary experiments are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this 
method. 

At Sabino Canyon, Ariz., during June, 191S, an assortment of 
infested mesquite sticks containing several species of Bostrichids, 
both larvae, pupae and adults, several species of Chrysobothris 
larvae and larvae of Cyllene antennatns were removed from par- 
tial shade where they had been infested and placed in the direct 
sunlight. Two days' exposure killed 4() c ( of all larvae, pupae 
and adults to the depth of one-half inch, one week's exposure 
7.")' ( to depth to three-quarters of an inch, and two weeks' expo- 
sure over '.>()' ', to the same depth. 

From June to September uninfested green mesquiu- sticks were 
laid out in the sun and turned w r eekly for 4 to 10 weeks, then placed 
in the shade. A few ( 'hrysobothris and Bostrichids attacked the 
under side of the logs at first but all were killed during turning 
and no subsequent attack resulted. 



108 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY, IQ2O 

At Vicksburg and Delhi, Miss., during May, 1918, ash logs 
cut at various times during the preceding six months, some of 
which had been submerged for various periods, were exposed to 
the sun as described for the mesquite. Most of the earlier cuts 
were infested with ambrosia beetles and Neoclytus erythrocephalus 
larvae, while many of those recently felled contained no insects. 
Weekly turning of these logs killed all insects on or beneath the 
bark and the uninfested logs were not subsequently .attacked by 
the following November. 

At Falls Church, Va., June 1, 1919, ash, pine, oak and hickory 
sticks that had previously been submerged in water (i 1 2 and 
x 1 o months and, therefore, particularly suitable for the attack of 
ambrosia beetles were removed from the water and exposed to 
the sun. They were turned weekly during June, July and August. 
Ambrosia beetles immediately attacked on the under surface. 
The first turning killed all these beetles before they had entered 
more than one-quarter inch into the sap wood. On following 
turnings the underside was likewise attacked and the beetles 
subsequently killed. This was repeated for four weeks, after 
which the sticks were sufficiently dried to prevent further attack, 
and no beetles penetrated far enough into the wood to cause 
any injury. 

Experiments at the same place in July, 1919, demonstrated 
that various species of Scolytid adults and larvae and Monoham- 
ni us titillator larvae in pine could be killed or their attack pre- 
vented by the same measures. 

Experiments have since been undertaken to determine the 
sections of the country where this method can be utilized, the 
season of year during which it is effective, and what constitutes 
killing temperatures and their relation to humidity. A few ob- 
servations have shown that the inner bark on logs exposed to 
direct sunlight may reach a higher temperature than the sur- 
rounding air by as much as 00 , depending on the locality, the 
condition of the sky and the angle of the sun's rays. 



Ac! mil date of publication June 14. IQ2O 



^ 

VOL. 22 JUNE 1920 No. 6 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 



BARBER, H. S. A NEW TROPICAL WEEVIL FROM FLORIDA AND CUBA. 150 

SNYDER, THOMAS ELLIOTT THE COLONIZING REPRODUCTIVE ADULTS OF 

TERMITES. . 109 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., 

under Act of August 24, .1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1 103, Act of 
October 3, 1917. authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held on the first Thursday of 
each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p.m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the PROCEEDINGS and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over that submitted by non-members. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1920. 

Honorary President E. A. SCHWARZ 

President W. R. WALTON 

First Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Second Vice-President A. G. BOVING 

Recording Secretary R. A. CUSHMAN 

Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer S. A. ROHWER 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Editor A. C. BAKER 

East Falls Church, Va. 
Executive Committee: THE OFFICERS and A. N. CAUDELL, A. L. QUAIN- 

TANCE and E. R. SASSCER. 
Representing the Society as a Vice- President of the Washington Academy of 

Sciences. . . .S. A. ROHWER 



PROCEEDINGS 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

VOL. 22 JUNE, 1920 No. 6 

THE COLONIZING REPRODUCTIVE ADULTS OF TERMITES. 

BY THOMAS ELLIOTT SNYDER, Bureau of Entomology. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction 110 

The Three Types of Reproductive forms: 

Description of the adults of the first form of species of Reticulitermes 

Holmgren Ill 

Description of the adults of the second form of species of Reticulitermes 113 

Description of the adults of the third form of species of Reticulitermes. 114 

Occurrence of these three reproductive forms in other genera 115 

Body pigment and eyes 116 

"Intermediate" reproductive forms 1 17 

Other insects with similar reproductive forms 118 

Mobility of the reproductive forms 119 

Habits of the reproductive forms 121 

"Anthropomorphisms" 122 

Trophallaxis or instinctive behavior 123 

The Nymphs of the Three Reproductive forms : 

Description of nymphs of the first form of species of Reticulitermes. . . . 125 

Description of nymphs of the second form of species of Reticulitermes. 125 

Description of nymphs of the third form of species of Reticulitermes . . . 125 
Description of nymphs of the reproductive forms of other genera of 

termites 126 

Development of the nymphs of the reproductive forms 126 

Comparison of the development of termite nymphs with that of 

nymphs of aphids and Zorotypus 127 

The Methods of Colonization (Formation of New Colonies) : 

(1) Flight of the winged colonizing forms of termites 12S 

Diurnal swarming 129 

Nocturnal swarming 129 

Seasonal variations in the time of swarming 1 29 

(2) "The pseudo-flight" of the second form colonizing adults of Reticu- 

litermes I'irginicus Banks 130 

(3) Subterranean exodus of third form colonizing adult termites 134 

IOQ 



110 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

Results of Breeding Experiments: 

Progeny of first form adults 136 

Progeny of second form adults 139 

Progeny of third form adults 142 

Progeny of "intermediate" reproductive forms of termites 143 

Infertility of termite soldiers with wing vestiges 143 

Attempts at Cross-breeding: 

Methods 144 

Results 144 

Summary and Conclusions 145 

Literature Cited 148 

Introduction. 

Interest is always attracted by unusual flights of any animals, 
whether birds or the less conspicuous insects. In tropical coun- 
tries, even to the scientist, there is almost an element of magic 
attendant upon a termite swarm. Apertures are opened in the 
ground or parent colony mound and suddenly the air is alive with 
fluttering winged hordes which emerge from these exits. After 
the flight, the holes are closed from within by workers and all 
trace of life disappears as suddenly as it appeared. The only 
evidence of the swarm is the discarded wings lying upon the 
ground. 

Every year the Department of Agriculture receives numerous 
requests from householders in the United States for information 
in regard to "flying ants" in buildings. These so-called flying 
ants are in reality colonizing male and female adult termites, 
which leave the parent nest or colony in the woodwork of the build- 
ing and fly or "swarm" in large numbers for the purpose of estab- 
lishing new colonies. Similar swarms may be observed issuing 
from colonies in decaying stumps and logs in the forest on warm 
sunny days. 

It is not known what causes this annual swarm or exodus of 
the winged adults. Possibly they are impelled to leave the 
parent colony by some instinct, as by the call of sex, or there may 
be a "spirit of the colony" similar to that which Maeterlinck so 
aptly described in "The Life of the Bee" (1904) as the "spirit of 
the hive." It is not the queen honey bee who rules the hive 
and induces the swarm of queen, drones and workers, but this 
elusive "spirit of the hive," evidenced in the assembly of the 
workers, which are said to have the larger brain. In the case of 
the termites, however, the winged males and females which 
alone swarm have a far larger brain than the worker, Thomp- 
son (1916). This "spirit of the colony" in termites may be merely 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 III 

the result of such a stimulus as body odor perceived by contact, 
which, according to Beebe (1919), is probably the governing 
factor in establishing routes of travel by army ants in the tropics. 

The winged termite is not the only colonizing reproductive 
form. Although the most striking form and the one that has in 
the past received the most attention from entomologists, there 
are other less conspicuous reproductive forms which are also im- 
portant to the termite colony. The two most common of these 
other reproductive types will be described in some detail and men- 
tion will also be made of "intermediate" forms. 

The following pages will discuss the occurrences of these differ- 
ent colonizing reproductive forms in colonies, their origin, devel- 
opment, and the manner in which each type establishes new col- 
onies regarding which, except in case of the winged adult, but 
little is known. The progeny of the different reproductive forms 
will also be described. A brief account of attempts at cross breed- 
ing between two different types of reproductive forms will be 
given. 

The Three Types of Reproductive Forms. 

In addition to the normal, pigmented, winged reproductive 
forms that engage in this colonizing flight, there are two other 
stable reproductive types. The more or less darkly pigmented 
body, functional eyes, and aerial habit in colonizing (i. e., swarm- 
ing) are found only in adults of the first form; after fertilization 
they attain the greatest post-adult size. In general, there is a 
subterranean mode of life, less body pigment, and smaller eyes 
in the second and third form, the former caste having short wing- 
pads, the latter being entirely apterous and worker-like. 

A brief descriptive comparison of the three different reproductive 
forms will be necessary before the manner in which new colonies 
are established can be described. 

Description of the Adults of the First Form of Species of Reticnlitermes 

Holmgren. 

The winged, sexual adults of the first form are deeply pigmented, 
the compound eyes are pigmented and functional; this caste is 
especially adapted for flight and is capable of enduring full sun- 
light. Lightness of body for the colonizing flight is a primary 
necessity and the admirable manner in which this has been at- 
tained may be seen upon comparison with the other reproductive 
forms particularly in the more slender thorax, mouthparts and 
legs. 

"Stylets" or abdominal appendices on the ventral surface of 



112 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

the 9th abdominal segment of the female are absent, disappear- 
ing during the final nymphal molt. 

At the time of the annual swarm the sex organs of this form are 
not ready to function. 

After this flight and deflation , unlike most insects, the young 
parent adults feed and there is an actual "post-adult" growth; 
the abdomen of the queen becomes distended, due chiefly to the 
development of the ovaries; but later there is also a multiplica- 
tion of cells fat cells and blood cells. The abdomen of the male 
or king also becomes slightly increased in size with the later 
inflation of the body with fat, together with the development of 
the sex organs. The male of the first (and also the second) 
reproductive type continues to cohabit with the queen and there 
is repeated copulation. 

Although their abdomens are slightly distended, the males of 
the first form are very active; they are usually present in the 
royal cell together with the queen, but, on account of their small 
size, they frequently escape when the colony is broken into. 
Sometimes, when escape is shut off, the male will attempt to 
hide under the greater body of the female but they usually desert 
their consorts at the first sign of danger. 

There is only a single pair in each colony, since first form adults 
are normally monogamous. Sometimes in incipient colonies there 
may be temporarily at least one male and two females or vice 
versa. 

Rarely, a male of the first form has been found in a colony with 
numerous females of the second form. 

"True queens" (of the first form) of our common species were 
thought either to be very rare or not to exist until quite recently ; 
this idea has been disproved by Joutel (1893), Hubbard and 
Schwarz (1901), Schaeffer (1902), Heath (1903) and the present 
writer (1912), A historical account of the first finding of these 
forms in the United States is given by the writer (1915). In 
searching for the cell which contains the queen, it must be re- 
membered that its location depends upon the species and the 
habits of the termite, the geographical locality and its climate, 
and, in some degree, upon the season of the year. The fact must 
also be borne in mind that termites have several different types 
of reproductive forms. The commonest type appears to be the 
dealated, colonizing, sexual adult, developed from nymphs of the 
first form, i. e., an adult queen of the first form. Queens of this 
type reach the largest dimensions (in species of Reticulitermes 
14.5 mm. in length). This reproductive form is apparently the 
parent of all the other reproductive forms as well as of the soldier 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 113 

and worker castes. These reproductive forms of the three types 
should be considered as distinct castes. 

All of these reproductive forms have been described in more 
detail and figured, (Snyder, 1915 and 1916). 

Description of the Adults of the Second Form of Species of Reticulitermes. 

Another type of reproductive form fairly common in species 
of Reticulitermes is that of the second form with short wing- 
pads. This type is developed from the nymph of the second 
form (Lespes) with short wing-pads, instead of wings or the stubs 
(scale) of the first form adults. This form is not rare in colonies 
of species of Reticulitermes in the eastern United States. 

Unlike the reproductive individuals of the first form, these 
males and females have not the chitinized parts deeply pigmented ; 
while the compound eyes are reduced in size and palely pigmented 
they are probably functional. Probably only the first form 
adults are able to perceive images; the other reproductive castes 
may be able to perceive light and direction by means of the 
ocelli and reduced compound eyes. The body pigmentation is 
slight, but is characteristically straw-colored or grey, suggesting 
a subterranean habitat and seclusion from light. 

In this type of reproductive form the head, thoracic segments, 
and abdominal tergites and sternites are both longer and broader 
than in the reproductive forms that develop from nymphs of the 
first form. The meso- and meta-thoracic tergites have a dis- 
tinctly irregular shape ; in the second form, these chitinized plates 
of the abdominal tergites and sternites more markedly approach 
the semicircular in shape and are much more projecting; in 
mature queens of the first form the tergal and sternal nota of the 
abdomen are more fused or compressed. However, this latter 
character may be due to relatively greater age and consequent 
distention and growth of the fleshy tissue, since in the younger 
queens of the first form the tergites and sternites are slightly 
more projecting than in older queens. In first form reproductive 
adults the legs are more slender and the mouthparts slightly 
smaller (less gross) than in those of the second form. 

In general, recently matured reproductive adults of the second 
form have a grosser structure ; they are heavier and not intended 
for flight. At the time of maturity (at approximately the same 
time as the first form adults mature and are ready to swarm), 
the sex organs of second form adults unlike those of the first 
form- are ready to function. Often the abdomen of second form 
queens has an irregular, lumpy appearance due to the develop- 
ment of ovaries or fatty tissue. Mature queens of the second 
form of R. flavipes, attain a length of 12 mm.; the development of 



114 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

the ovaries is much less than in queens of the first form. The 
abdomens of second form queens never become as elongate as in 
case of queens of the first form; they become as much distended, 
but do not have the oblong or quadrate shape, being more oval, 
or wider near the end which tapers markedly. Externally, the body 
tissue of second form queens appears to be coarser and thicker 
than that of first form queens (possibly due to presence of fat). 

"Stylets" or abdominal appendices on the ventral surface of 
the 9th abdominal segment of the female are absent, disappear- 
ing during the final nymphal molt. 

The males of the second form reproductive type have the ab- 
domens compressed laterally, which gives the appearance of a 
narrow, ridged back. 

In colonies in eastern United States, the males of the second 
form are usually found associated with many females of the same 
form; they are either congregated in one large chamber or suit- 
ably distributed in many small chambers. The relative number 
of the sexes in a colony of Reticulitermes virginicns Banks in south- 
ern Florida was 32 females to 8 males ; these were young repro- 
ductive forms. In a colony of R. flavipes Kollar, in Virginia, the 
relative number of the sexes was 28 females to 15 males; the 
largest female was 10 mm. in length, the average 8.2 mm. 

It was formerly believed that adults of the second form, accom- 
panied by groups of workers and soldiers, left the parent colony 
through subterranean galleries and thus established new colonies. 
Recent studies by the writer have shown that this is not the only 
method of colonization, if indeed it occurs at all. This will be 
discussed in detail later. 

There is proof that this type of reproductive form may breed 
true, i. e., it produces reproductive nymphs only like itself, and 
not winged adults, or the wingless third forms, (Thompson and 
Snyder, 1919). 

Description of the Adults of the Third Form of Species of Reticulitermes. 

A rarer type of reproductive form is that of the apterous third 
form, sometimes known as "ergatoid" or "worker-like." 

The adult of the third form of species of Reliculitermes has no 
wings nor wing-pads, being entirely apterous and worker-like or 
"ergatoid." There is but little pigment in the chitinized parts; 
there are only traces of eyes, no doubt due to the wholly sub- 
terranean mode of life of this form. The abdomen of the mature 
queen is oblong quadrate, its shape being, more like that of the 
first form queen. The compound eyes are without pigment. 
The head, thoracic segments and tergal and sternal nota are not 
as broad as those of adults of the second form. The segments of 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 115 

the abdomen of mature queens of the third form are less project- 
ing than those of the second form and are less semicircular. The 
mouthparts and legs are also less gross in structure. Indeed, 
these queens more nearly approach those of the first form. The 
development of the egg tubes of third form queens is less than 
that of either the first or second forms; these queens are of rela- 
tively small size 9 mm. being the length of the largest queen of 
R. flavipes so far collected. The antennae of the mature queens 
consists of 15 segments. "Stylets" or abdominal appendices on 
the ventral surface of the 9th abdominal segment of the female 
are absent, disappearing during the final nymphal molt. 

Only twenty-four of these forms, all but one of which are fe- 
males, have been found in colonies of species of Reticulitermes in 
this country. They are apparently rare in species of this genus, 
but both males and females are fairly common in colonies of 
Prorhinotermes simplex Hagen. The colonies of the species of Re- 
ticulitermes in which they have been found, have in all cases except 
two been small. The colony where the young male of R. tibialis 
was found was very large. Three individuals of the species 
llavipes Kol. were found in the same colony, and seventeen in 
another in Virginia; one of virginicus Banks in North Carolina 
and one in Virginia, (Snyder, 1915); one of tibialis Banks in Colo- 
rado by A. B. Champlain, and one male of this species found in 
a large colony collected by B. T. Harvey at Colorado Springs. 

Only one mature male of this type has yet been found in colonies 
of species of Reticulitermes; hence nothing is known of the relative 
proportion of the sexes in the same colony, in case of this repro- 
ductive form. However, in colonies of P. simplex Hagen, 8 
females and 2 males occurred in a colony in southern Florida. 

This apterous reproductive form is not able to leave the parent 
colony except by subterranean tunnels. Like adults of the sec- 
ond form, this type apparently breeds true to type, for no nymphs 
with long wing-pads, or winged adults, have been found in col- 
onies where mature queens of this form were present. 

Occurrence of These Three Reproductive Forms in Other Genera. 

The genus Reticulitermes, the reproductive forms of whose 
species I have just discussed, is about midway in the systematic 
classification between the "lower" and "higher" termites, /. e., 
the most primitive termites and the termites most highly special- 
ized. 

The most primitive Nearctic termites are species of Tcnnoptis 
Heer and Kalotermes Hagen. Reproductive adults of the first 
and third forms have commonly been found in colonies of species 
of Termopsis; those of the second form are apparently not so com- 



Il6 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL- 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

mon in this genus. Only one queen of the third form has as yet 
been found in colonies of species of Kalotermes (i. e., K. jouteli 
Banks of southern Florida). Matured queens of the first form are 
not rare in species of these genera. In species of Termopsis 
adults of the third form are more common and also apparently 
more numerous in colonies. 

The reproductive forms of the species of the family Kaloter- 
mitidae Banks, including the genera Termopsis Heer, Kalotermes 
Hagen, also Neotermes Holmgren and Cryptotermes Banks, which 
are not subterranean in habit, are always to be found in the wood 
in which the colony is located and are hence often more exposed 
to the light and their enemies. Species of Termopsis, in the north- 
ern extension of their range, inhabit logs, stumps, etc., which are 
covered by snow and ice for long periods in winter. 

In the species Prorhinolermes simplex Hagen closely re- 
lated systematically to species of Reticnlitcnnes whose habitat 
is the coastal region and the keys of southern Florida, also the 
\Vest Indies (occurring mainly on islands), third form or apterous 
reproductive forms are common. This may be an adaptation to 
the habitat; it is frequently stated that wingless forms are more 
numerous on islands, the winged forms being blown into the 
water. Colonies of this species are liable to be caught up by 
the waters and scattered broadcast. Such apterous forms are 
adapted to island life by their lack of wings; the isolation helps 
to perpetuate them and they are dispersed in driftwood. 

So far as my own observations go, there are no third form 
reproductive types in the Nearctic genera of the higher termites, 
i. e., Holmgren's family the Metatermitidae. The "intermediates," 
as well as the third form adults, have disappeared in the higher, 
but have persisted in the lower termites. Holmgren and Fritz 
Miiller have each recorded an "ergatoid" queen as occurring in 
"Eutermes;" it may not, however, be a typical third form but 
the second form with rudimentary wing-pads. 

However, the absence of this form may only be apparent, due 
to insufficient study in the field. 

Body Pigment and Eyes. In species of termites which live in 
wood above ground but not in earth, certain castes have a more 
deeply pigmented body than in the case of the subterranean 
species Reticulitermes flavipes; these are the third form reproduc- 
tive individuals of Termopsis, the soldiers and third form repro- 
ductive individuals of Kalotermes, and the workers, soldiers and 
third form reproductive individuals of Prorhinotermes simplex'. 
The castes of the subterranean species of the genus Reticulitermes 
have pale or dirty white bodies, except the winged adults, which 
at the time of swarming have a light or dark brown skin, although 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. 6, JUNE, 1920 IIJ 

later, after the underground life has begun, ci'cn this caste may 
lose some of its pigment. Species of Reticulitermes abandon their 
galleries in wood above ground during winter and periods of 
drought and retreat to subterranean tunnels. 

The compound eyes and the ocelli are large and well developed 
in all the castes of P. simplex, a species which lives in dead tree 
trunks or logs, is not subterranean, and hence is more exposed to 
light in its habitat, so that there seems to be a correlation between 
the high state of development of the eyes and the habitat of these 
insects. 

In the subterranean species of Reticulitermes there are evidences 
of loss of pigment and the structural elements of the eyes in all 
castes except the winged insects. 

A more thorough and detailed morphological comparison of 
these three types is to be found in another paper, (Thompson and 
Snyder, 1920). 

"Intermediate" Reproductive Forms. 

As previously stated, (Thompson and Snyder, 1919), up to the 
present time rather few "intermediate" reproductive forms have 
been described. The reason for this may be either that they 
have been overlooked thus far, or that they do not exist. The 
intermediate forms known at present are as follows: 

The Rev. F. L. Odenbach, S. ]., of Cleveland, Ohio, has reared 
artificial colonies of termites for over 20 years. He has kept 
manuscript notes on the forms in the colonies which he has kindly 
turned over to me. "In one of Odenbach's artificial colonies of 
Reticulitermes flavipes, an enlarged egg-laying queen, figured in 
manuscript notes and referred to by Snyder (1915, p. 56) has the 
abdomen distended and the abdominal tergites separated, but 
possesses long, well-developed wing-pads like a nymph of the 
first form," (Thompson and Snyder, 1919). The abdomen was 
distended and the abdominal tergites were separated. This 
queen laid eggs; she was quite different in shape and color from 
the normal second form queens. She was slow in her move- 
ments and did not change her location in the colony very often; 
she was tended by the workers. 

"Grassi (1893) has figured a queen which, in respect to the 
length of the wing-pads, is an intermediate between the first 
and second forms in the species R. Im-ifugits Rossi," (Thompson 
and Snyder, 1919). 

vSimilar intermediate reproductive forms have been found in 
colonies of species of Reticulitermes in the United States. 

In species of Tennopsis there are a larger series of intermediates 
between the apterous third form and the normal second form 



Il8 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNK, IQ2O 

with short wing-pads than in species of Reticulitermes . Such 
forms are also of more common occurrence. The wing-pads vary 
in length from mere vestigal buds to a length approaching that 
of the second form. 

"In colonies of Termopsis angusticollis Hagen, Heath (1903) 
describes fertile soldiers with wing buds, which produced 'normal 
progeny.' The question might well be asked what would be 
'normal progeny' under these circumstances?" (Thompson and 
Snyder, 1919). ' 

"Soldiers with vestiges of wing-pads have been noted by the 
writers in several species of Calotermes; C. occidentis Walker, and 
two new species from southern Florida; and by N. Banks in C. 
minor Hagen, and other species of Calotermes. Vestigal wing-pads 
are evidently of frequent occurrence in this genus, although these 
soldiers are in general not fertile," (Thompson and Snyder, 1919). 

These intermediate reproductive forms, their fertility, and 
their progeny will be discussed in more detail later. 

Other Insects with Similar Reproductive Forms. 

In the aphids there are both winged and apterous reproduc- 
tive forms. There are also a large series of intermediate repro- 
ductive forms with both short and vestigial wing-pads. Apter- 
ous females are a common reproductive type. Unlike termites, 
parthenogenesis exists among aphids. 

Another insect with both winged and apterous reproductive 
forms is Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, in Silvestri's new order 
Zoraptera closely related to termites, (Silvestri, 1913). This 
species of Zorotypus produces winged, deeply pigmented adults 
in the autumn (in Texas). In the parent communities, unpig- 
mented apterous reproductive forms are also present and fairly 
numerous in communities in Florida and Texas. 

In parent communities of another species (Zorotypus snydcri 
Caudell MS) both winged, pigmented adults and a deeply pig- 
mented apterous form occur in Florida. 

In case of the dealated adults, apparently no more than a 
single pair is present in the same Zorotypus community in Florida. 
The winged adults develop from nymphs with wing-pads, which 
gradually increase in length, as in termites. The winged adult 
has both compound eyes and ocelli as has the winged adult ter- 
mite, but has three ocelli, the normal two lateral ocelli (but lo- 
cated differently than in termites) and a median ocellus, instead 
of the usual two in termites. 

As previously stated, two types of apterous reproductive forms 
occur in species of Zorotypits an unpigmented form and a form 
which has just as deep pigmentation as the winged adult which 



PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, xo. 6, JUNE, 1920 119 

is not usually the case in termites. The compound eyes in- this 
apterous pigmented form are vestigial; the ocelli are as in the 
winged adult. There are also differences in the antennae of the 
reproductive forms. See Table I. 

y.orotypus lives under conditions closely similar to termites, in- 
habiting runways under bark on dead standing trees or logs, 
where it is moist. Often termites are present, and indeed Zoro- 
typus at first was believed to be a "termitophile" or "inquiline.' 
Both insects pass the greater portion of their lives in the dark, 
(Caudell, 1918 and 1920). 

Mobility of the Reproductive Forms. 

Queens of all three types of reproductive forms of Nearctic 
termites are more or less active at all periods of their life time, 
are not imprisoned in a permanent cell and never lose their power 
of locomotion as do the queens of tropical species which are im- 
prisoned in a permanent, central "royal" cell in a stable colony. 
The Xearctic queens do not attain the size they are less than 
one inch in length nor is their rate of egg laying as great as that 
of the queens of tropical species. This must be an advantage, 
since certain species of Rcticulitcrmes, subterranean in habit, are 
able to go below the frost line in winter and adapt themselves 
to the most favorable conditions of temperature and moisture 
when either above ground in wood or in subterranean galleries. 
Probably in the prairie regions of southwestern United States 
the reproductive forms are also below ground during long periods 
of drought when the ground is dry and caked hard ; at any rate, 
they have not been found above ground. 

The queens of tropical termites often reach very large dimen- 
sions, several inches in length, and become immobile, egg-laying 
machines. Adequate protection is afforded to these large queens 
by the huge mounds of great hardness or, in the case of species 
the queens of which do not attain such large size, but are over 
one inch in length, by the large spherical tree nests of tough 
texture. 

The queens of Nearctic termites that live in wood only i species 
in genera of the family \\aloiermitidae Bks.) are more mobile and 
their abdomens become relatively less distended than those of 
subterranean species which are able to retreat to underground 
galleries. 

In young or "incipient" colonies the young first form adults 
must do all the excavating and forage for themselves. Later, 
after they have reared broods of workers and soldiers, the former 
feed them and gradually their rate of egg laying at first very 
slow increases. Eventually the abdomens of mature queens 



120 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 



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the case i 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 121 

become greatly distended and, while these queens are able to move 
about, they are practically (in case of species of Reticnlitennes) 
a charge of the workers. It is not known how long a time is 
required for queens to reach their maximum post-adult growth 
probably a matter of many years in species of Reticnlitennes. 

Queens of species of Temwpsis and Kalotermes, our largest and 
most primitive living North American termites, have a remark- 
ably small post-adult growth as compared to queens of the smaller 
and more specialized species of Reticulitermes. These more prim- 
itive termites are more active; since they do not live in the ground, 
they can not retreat to subterranean galleries and they are more 
exposed to the light. These reproductive forms of species of Ter- 
nwpsis and Kalotermes represent a generalized, primitive, ances- 
tral type, possessing the more independent habits of the non- 
social insects. In progressing to the higher termites, the queens 
become more specialized, more dependent and less active. 

Habits of the Reproductive Forms. 

For several days after the swarm and consequent deflation, 
pairs of young first form adults of species of Reliculitermes in the 
eastern United States may commonly be found under small pieces 
of decaying wood lying on the ground suddenly disappearing 
into shallow cells excavated in the ground or into similar cells in 
wood. In these cells copulation takes place and in them the first 
brood of young is reared. On account of unfavorable moisture 
conditions, many pairs fail to survive, even after escaping their 
numerous animal enemies at the time of the swarm. 

After several broods have been reared a process which be- 
comes more rapid and frequent after the first brood is full grown, 
the colon}- branches out, extending galleries through the wood 
and soil underneath. Factors of temperature and moisture greatly 
affect the colony life and activity is regulated in accordance with 
these conditions. There is a seasonal variation not only in the 
predominance of the castes in the colony but also in their posi- 
tion in the galleries. On pleasant days during the warm spring 
months previous to the swarm, in colonies of species of Rcticnli- 
termes in the eastern United States, the nymphs of the reproduc- 
tive forms, the young and eggs are to be found in the outer 
layers of the colonv where they will receive the benefit of the 

* J j 

warm sun. 

The mature reproductive forms of the wood-boring subter- 
ranean species may be found either in the earth or in the wood, 
depending upon the season of the year and the climate of the 
locality in which the species lives. During warm weather they 
are usually above ground in the wood. In winter they are below 



122 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

the frost line in the ground; in the prairie regions, during hot, 
dry weather when the soil is caked and cracked, they are far 
below ground. 

During warm summer weather, all of these reproductive forms, 
of species of Reticulitermes in eastern United States, are usually 
within the more solid wood of infested trees, logs and stumps, but, 
strange to say, they are often in the outer layers of wood. 

The burrows in the vicinity of the cell in which large mature 
queens of species of Reticulitermes are present are of larger diameter 
than usual; these have been used as passageways by the queen 
in coming up from the ground. A large number of eggs or re- 
cently hatched young are usually present in the nest in the vicin- 
ity of the reproductive forms. 

In the case of the non-woodboring subterranean species, the 
reproductive forms are usually deep below the surface of the 
ground, especially during warm, dry weather. Sometimes they 
are found at a lesser depth in the earth or under stones. In winter 
they are in the ground below the frost line. 

Due to the huge size of normal first form termite queens as com- 
pared with the workers and soldiers and the enormous egg-laying 
capacity of the tropical species, there has always been an unusual 
interest displayed in these forms. In many tropical termites the 
large queen is enclosed in a permanent centrally located cell, is 
unable to move and is a mere egg-laying machine. Certain sav- 
age peoples search for these large queens (mere large sacks of 
eggs) for food; they are considered to be quite a delicacy. 

It was formerly believed that, since the queen mother was the 
source of the colony life, if she were destroyed the colony would be 
exterminated. This, of course, has been disproved by more recent 
investigations which have revealed the existence of several other 
reproductive forms. Young of these other reproductive forms 
may be among the offspring and continue to populate the colony. 
Study of the various types of reproductive forms found in the 
same species of termite and their life cycle has been necessary in 
order to determine measures of preventing damage by these numer- 
ous and widespread insects. Hence any investigations of repro- 
ductive forms are of not only biological but also economic im- 
portance. 

' 'A nthropomorph isms. ' ' 

The colony life of the so-called "social insects," i. e., the ants, 
termites, bees and wasps, has always excited interest. The care 
of the brood and the queen by the workers and the alarm man- 
ifested by the workers and soldiers of termites when the colony 
is broken into and the brood or queen are disturbed have called 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. 6, JUNE, 1920 123 

forth praise. In these prosaic days of biological facts, much of 
the mystery of the complex social system of the ants and termites 
which led to admiration by man has had to "go by the board." 
Many fantastic theories have collapsed. 

One of the first of these theories to go was the instinct for the 
care of the brood and queen. Nils Holmgren (1909), in his 
studies of the anatomy of termites, devotes considerable space 
to the exudate tissues. All of the castes, but especially the 
queens, have extensive exudate tissues in the abdomen. This 
exudate passes through pores in the chitin to the surface. Here 
it is greedily licked up by other members of the colony. Holm- 
gren evolved an "Exudat-theorie" to show that there is a rela- 
tionship between the amount of exudate tissue and the care that 
a termite received, i. e., licking and feeding. Instead of the in- 
stinct to care for the brood, it is mere selfish desire for the exuda- 
tion. Holmgren concludes that he regards the exudate secretion 
not only (1) as the cause of feeding but (2) as the cause of caste 
differentiation. The work of Miss Thompson (1917) disproves 
Holmgren's second conclusion and also the whole subject of the 
"manufacture" of reproductive forms through feeding by the 
workers, so dear to students of termite biology of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries. 

" Trophallaxis" or Instinctive Behavior. According to Wheeler 
(1918), this attribute of the parental feelings of man to insects 
is termed "anthropomorphism" by the orthodox behaviorists. 
In a remarkable paper on ant larvae Wheeler suggests the term 
"trophallaxis," i. e., exchange of nourishment, for the cooperative 
relationship between adults and larvae. Wheeler further states 

"Although considerable evidence thus points to trophallaxis as the source 
of the social habit in wasps, ants and termites, it must be admitted that 
the phenomenon has not been observed in the social bees." 

***** 

"If we confine our attention largely to the ants, I believe it can be shown 
that trophallaxis, originally developed as a mutual trophic relation between 
the mother insect and her larval brood, has expanded with the growth of 
the colony like an ever-widening vortex till it involves, first, all the adults 
as well as the brood and, therefore, the entire colony ; second, a great number 
of species of alien insects that have managed to get a foothold in the nest 
as scavengers, praedators or parasites (symphily) ; third, alien social in- 
sects, i. e., other species of ants (social parasitism); fourth, alien insects that 
live outside the nest and are 'milked' by the ants (trophobiosis), and fifth, 
certain plants which are visited or sometimes partly inhabited by the ants 
(phytophily)." 

In the termite colony the workers and young nymphs of the 



124 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

reproductive forms may be seen carrying away eggs and young 
when the colony is disturbed. They solicit exudation from the 
anus of the queen and also assiduously "clean," i. e., lick, over 
the bodies of other workers or nymphs, brushing them with the 
maxillary palpi. 

When the colony is broken into, both workers and soldiers 
evidence alarm when near the reproductive forms, i. e., indulge 
in convulsive jerky movements of the body a method of com- 
municating news of the danger to other members of the colony? 

At the time of the emergence of the winged colonizing adults, 
workers and soldiers congregate near the points of emergence with 
heads toward the exterior. 

Reproductive forms of termites are often minus an antenna or 
leg and nymphs of the reproductive forms sometimes have the 
wing pads partially bitten off, also the prothorax at the base of 
the lateral edges possibly due to eagerness for exudate. 

Most of these actions or facts can be explained as due to "tro- 
phallaxis." In cases of the bitten wing-pads on the nymphs of 
the reproductive forms, this may be merely incipient cannibal- 
ism; cannibalism exists among termites. 

The termite Anoplotermes fumosus Hagen, of Mexico and Texas, 
is usually found in the colonies of other termites or at least closely 
associated with other termites in the same colony; the other ter- 
mites are usually species of Amitermes. This may be termed 
"social parasitism" or another form of trophallaxis. 

At any rate, these biological facts of behavior are just as inter- 
esting, even if due to trophallaxis, as they were when explained 
psychologically under the fantastical theories of the older writers, 
which can now be exploded and decried. 

The Nymphs of the Three Reproductive Forms. 

The three forms of nymphs of the reproductive types of ter- 
mites have a nomenclature corresponding to that of the mature 
reproductive forms, i. e., first, second and third. The nymphs 
of the first and second forms have been known since Lespes in 
1856 recognized the second form and described it. Although the 
adult of the third form has been known since the time of Grassi's 
classic work in 1893-4 where he termed it a "complementary" 
form the nymph has remained unknown until recently when dis- 
covered by the present writer in 1917. 

The nymphs of these three forms will be described in detail 
later; briefly, the primary form has elongate wing-pads and de- 
velops into the winged, colonizing sexual adult. The nymph of 
the second form has short wing-pads; it is slightly more elongate 
than the nymph of the first form; these nymphs are much more 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 125 

active than nymphs of the first form. Nymphs of the third form 
have neither wings nor wing-pads and but slight traces of eyes. 

Description of Nymphs of the First Form of Species of Reticiditermes. 

Nymphs of the first form are quite unlike the winged adult, to 
which they transform; this is not the case in nymphs of the sec- 
ond and third forms. 

First form nymphs are white in color, 7 mm. in length (R. 
flavipes), and have elongate wing-pads which extend backward as 
far as the 5th abdominal segment. These pads are opaque at 
maturity; they show traces of the adult wing venation. The 
compound eyes have a reddish brown pigmentation. The an- 
tenna consists of 17-18 segments. 

The body of this nymph, like most immature insects, has its 
parts somewhat grosser in structure than the adult. 

Stylets or genital appendices are present in both sexes on the 
ventral surface of the 9th abdominal segment. 

Description of Nymphs of the Second Form of Species of Reticiditermes. 

Except for the mature pigmentation, second form nymphs in 
general resemble their adults. 

Second form nymphs are white in color and 7-7.5 mm. in length 
(R. flavipes}. Instead of the long wing-pads of the nymphs of 
the first form, nymphs of this form have but short wing-pads or 
vestiges extending only to the 3rd abdominal segment. The an- 
tenna has 17-18 segments (R: flavipes). When matured to 
adults they attain slight pigmentation to the chitinized portions 
of the body; they possess only partial pigment in the compound 
eyes. Adult maturity is attained normally after the nymphs of 
the primary form have developed to winged, pigmented adults. 
Even as immature nymphs, second form nymphs are more active 
than those of the first form, yet their body structure is grosser in 
all parts. 

As adults of the second form, they are sexually mature, whereas 
first form adults do not attain their maturity until after the swarm. 

Stylets or abdominal appendices are present in both sexes on 
the ventral surface of the 9th abdominal segment. 

Description of Nymphs of the Third Form of Species of Reticiditermes. 

For many years the writer had noted that in certain colonies 
of species of Reticiilitermes, where there were numerous eggs and 
recently hatched young, it was impossible to find any enlarged 
first, second or even third reproductive forms. Nevertheless, in 
these colonies, nymphs worker-like in form, but with creamy 



126 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

white abdomen, often occurred. It was then suspected that 
these might be young reproductive forms of the third type. 

Careful histological study has proved this to be the case, (Thomp- 
son and Snyder, 1920). 

In general, third form nymphs resemble the adults except they 
lack the mature pigmentation. 

Third form nymphs are creamy white in color, 5-6 mm. in 
length (R. flampes); these nymphs are entirely apterous and 
possess neither wings nor wing-pads and but slight traces of the 
compound eyes; the antenna has 16-17 segments (R. flampes). 
Hence they are worker-like or "ergatoid." When mature, they 
attain a partial very slight pigmentation. 

Stylets or abdominal appendices are present in both sexes on 
the ventral surface of the 9th abdominal segment. 

Description of Nymphs of the Reproductive Forms of Other Genera of Termite's. 

In species of Termopsis nymphs of both the first and second 

forms have relatively shorter wing-pads than in species of Reticu- 

litermes. There are numerous forms with rudimentary wing-pads 

intergrading intermediates between the nymphs of the second 

and third forms. These intermediate nymphs and nymphs of 

the third form are common. Nymphs of the second form are 

apparently not common in colonies; this is also true of second 

form adults. 

Prorhinotermes simplex Hagen, an Antillean termite, which oc- 
curs in southern Florida, has second form nymphs with peculiar 
curved and fused wing-pads (expanded thoracic plates). These 
nymphs and nymphs of the third form are common. Nymphs of 
the first form of this termite have not been found in Florida, but 
occur in Jamaica. 

Development of the Nymphs of the Reproductive Forms. 

In eastern United States nymphs of the first, second and third 
reproductive forms of species of Reticulitennes may attain their 
full mature length in the autumn. During late October and 
November, 1918, first form nymphs were found in colonies at Falls 
Church, Va., on which the wing-pads were of full length and 
with a light-pinkish pigmentation in the eyes, as Dobson (1918) 
has found to be the case in the vicinity of Boston, Mass. How- 
ever, full maturity of the nymphs of the first form, with the 
attainment of opaqueness of the wing-pads and fuller pigment 
to the eyes, is not until spring (the last of March or first of April) 
in Virginia. The nymphs of the second form become mature 
shortly afterwards before the swarm. It is not known definitely 
when the third form nymphs become mature. Nymphs appar- 
ently mature have been collected in the late summer and fall in 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 127 

Virginia and Massachusetts. 1 Nymphs of the first, second and 
third forms at the proper season of the year pass through quies- 
cent stages of comparatively short duration, during the final molt, 
to their adult type. 

Prior to this final molt a series of molts have occurred, the 
number varying with the caste; in case of Nearctic termites, 
however, the definite number of molts necessary from hatching 
to maturity is unknown. Nevertheless, it is known that nymphs 
of the adults of the first form require a greater number of molts 
before attaining maturity than do the workers or soldiers. 

In the case of the nymphs of the first and second reproductive 
forms of species of Reticulitermes, there is an elongation of wing- 
pads during development; in all castes the segments of the an- 
tennae increase in number. During the final molt of all three re- 
productive forms which occurs normally in the spring or summer 
in the case of eastern species, the anal appendices are lost in the 
female sex. Shortly after the molt, mature pigmentation is at- 
tained. This quiescent stage apparently serves the same pur- 
pose as the pupal stage of insects with a complete metamorphosis 
or development, since the most marked changes, both external and 
internal, take place during this molt. 

The whole period intervening between the fully developed 
nymph of the first form and the maturely pigmented winged 
adult is about one day and one-half to two days for individuals, 
and about one week to ten days for the colonies, in case of species 
of Reticulitermes in southeastern United States. 

A more detailed illustrated description of the quiescent stage 
and final molt of nymphs of the first and second forms has already 
been given in a previous paper, (Snyder, 1915). The manner in 
which the skin is shed, the attaining of pigmentation, the influ- 
ence of moisture, and peculiar abnormalities are all discussed. 

Comparison of the Development of Termite Nymphs with that of Nymphs of 

Aphids and Zorotypus. 

It is rather interesting to note that in the nymphal develop- 
ment of aphids, unlike termites, the "intermediate" female repro- 
ductive form, with short wing-pads, originates from a nymphal 
form with long wing-pads, (Turner and Baker, 1915). From the 
normal nymph ("pupa") with the usual type of wing pads there 
develop a large series of different "intermediate" reproductive 
forms; in some cases there being a loss of eyes and wing-pads or 
the length of the wing-pads is reduced a reversion. 

In the case of Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, as in termites, the 

1 Mature young third form reproductive adults were found in a colony of 
R. flavipes at Chain Bridge, Va., May 6, 1920, (before the swarm) along with 
mature young second form reproductive adults and mature winged sexual adults . 



128 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

unpigmented apterous reproductive adult develops from an ap- 
terous nymph, while the pigmented winged adult develops from 
a nymph with long wing-pads. It is not known what nymph is 
the prototype of the pigmented apterous reproductive adult of 
Zorotypus snyderi Caudell. 

The Methods of Colonization (Formation of New Colonies). 

Flight of the Winged Colonizing Forms of Termites. 

The terms "swarm" and "nuptial flight" are neither appro- 
priate in referring to the emergence of the winged sexual adult 
termites, which is merely a colonizing flight and an aid in the dis- 
persal of the species. In case of species of Reticulitermes , after a 
short, irregular, unsteady flight, the males and females alight on 
the ground and separate into pairs. There is a marked sexual at- 
traction and the males follow the females about. The females 
find a suitable site for the new colony and the pair becomes estab- 
lished. Sexual mating or copulation does not take place at the 
time of the swarm, which is, therefore, not a "nuptial flight." 
Neither does copulation take place immediately after the swarm, 
but only after the pair are established in the new colony and the 
sexual organs have matured. Usually males and females from 
the same colony mate, but sometimes they mate with individuals 
from nearby colonies which are swarming at the same time. 

These insects that have taken this flight never return again to 
the parent colony, or again congregate in the same colony as does 
the honey bee, but form new colonies. 

Usually the colonizing adults of the same species make their 
first flight, which is numerically largest, at the same time in a 
wide area of country. This annual production of winged sexual 
adults in enormous numbers is undoubtedly for the further dif- 
fusion and perpetuation of the species; a wider diffusion can be 
accomplished by flight than through subterranean tunnels. Fur- 
thermore, places otherwise inaccessible can be reached; for exam- 
ple, some termites have colonies in the buttresses of the few 
remaining large bald cypress trees (Taocodium distichum) in Lake 
Drummond, Dismal Swamp, near Wallacetown, Va. 

Unless carried by the wind, termites do not fly very far. The 
great majority of the colonizing adults of species in the genus 
Reticulitermes and other subterranean species, after the short 
vacillating flight, alight or fall to the ground and lose their wings. 
They then excavate cells in or under decaying wood lying on the 
ground. 

The night-flying species of the family Kalotermitidae are stronger 
fliers; they retain their wings until they have located a suitable 
place to excavate a cell in wood. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, N T O. 6, JUNE, IQ2O I2Q 

Diurnal Swarming. The species of Reticnlitcrmes in the east- 
ern United States always swarm during the day time; in the 
vicinity of Washington, D. C., usually in the morning or about 
noon of a \varm, sunny day in the spring or summer. Some- 
times there are large numbers of winged adults present in colo- 
nies of species of Reticnlitenncs in the eastern United States, and 
it is probable that there are also swarms in autumn. 

Only one species of this genus (R. aureus Snyder) has ever been 
collected at night fat light in Arizona), so they are probably not 
normally nocturnal in habit. Rainfall is not a factor that in- 
duces swarming in the more humid east. 

Amitermes tubiformans Buckley and A. (?) per plexus Banks 
swarm during the day in Texas. 

Small inconspicuous species swarm during the daytime. 

Nocturnal Swarming. Species of the genera Termopsis, Kalo- 
termes, Constrictotermes Holmgren, and Nasutitermes Banks are 
night-flying termites, and their winged adults have been collected 
in large numbers on the wing at lights at night; this is probably 
an aid to mating, by bringing the sexes together. They are 
strong fliers. In the case of Termopsis angusticollis Hagen and 
T. nevadensis Hagen, the swarm usually begins at dusk but the 
insects continue to fly until late in the evening. The same is 
true of the species of Kalotennes. 

The period of flight of species of Termopsis in the same locality 
extends over a period of several months in summer and autumn, 
i. e., often from early to late summer. In this case the flight 
does not consist of large numbers of adults, but of 50 to 200 
adults, more or less. 

Large conspicuous species swarm after dusk. 

In arid or dry sections of the country, as in certain portions of 
the southwestern States, on the prairies and Great Plains, termites 
usually swarm after a rainfall or during alight drizzle, as is charac- 
teristic of many tropical termites. This is an adaptive habit 
probably due to the fact that the ground is dry and hard and, 
unless the swarm occurred just after or during a rain, the termites 
could not establish or would have great difficulty in establishing 
new colonies. These conditions of soil do not prevail in the more 
humid eastern portions of the United States, where the ground is 
usually more moist and favorable ; in consequence rainfall has no 
influence on the time of swarming. 

Seasonal Variations in the Time of Swarming. 

The different species of the same genus rarely swarm at the 
same time in the same locality; this effectively prevents inter- 
specific breeding. 



130 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

The dates of swarming, or the colonizing flights of termites 
vary not only with the species and the geographical location, but 
also with the season. 

There may be several swarms of adults of a species of Reticuli- 
termes from one colony, distributed over a period of several weeks. 
The first swarm, however, consists of the greatest number of 
individuals. 

Species in the family Kalotermitidae may fly irregularly over a 
period of several months. 

New or incipient colonies are established, after a short flight, 
by the winged colonizing sexual adults of the first form, that 
swarm. These colonies are formed in the earth under decaying 
wood lying on the ground; in this wood; under loose bark on 
dead trees or logs; or in crevices in trees anywhere where there 
is a sufficient supply of moisture. Within a few days after the 
swarm the young parent adults may be found in such sites, but 
they later disappear, penetrating more deeply into the wood. 

These winged males and females of the first form, after losing 
the wings, become the reproductive forms of the normal or first 
form type with wing stubs. Reproductive forms of this type are 
not rare or difficult to find at the proper season of the year 
in colonies of species of Reticulitennes eastern United States, 
but in the region of the Great Plains they must be far below 
ground during dry seasons, since they have not been found as 
yet. Conditions in these regions may be somewhat similar to 
those in Sicily where Grassi (1893) studied the habits of R. 
lucifugus Rossi, and account for the fact that he was unable to 
find this type of reproductive form. Grassi believed that the 
colonizing forms were all destroyed or irretrievably lost at the 
time of the swarm. 

The "Pseudo-Flight of the Second Form Colonizing Adults of Reticulitermes 

Virginicus Banks. 

As has been previously stated: "The colonies of Reticulitermes 
flavipes Kollar and mrginicus Banks, found in the southeastern 
United States in the spring, often contain nymphs of the second 
form, sometimes in large numbers, associated with either nymphs 
of the first form or winged sexual adults. These young repro- 
ductive types of the second form attain their mature pigmenta- 
tion at about the same time that the colonizing winged adults or 
reproductive types of the first form swarm, but after the swarm 
they are not found in the parent colonies. We may ask why 
they are produced and what becomes of them? They are not 
needed in the parent colony any more than the winged colonizing 
forms, and it may be that they are impelled to leave the old col- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 131 

ony by the same irresistible force that induces the swarm or 
flight." "Since the origin of the castes is due to 

intrinsic causes, (Thompson, 1017), a certain proportionate num- 
ber of these nymphs of the second form may be produced each 
year in long established colonies with parent first form adults, 
they would evidently be superfluous if the original reproductive 
forms of the parent colony were present, and might, therefore, be 
forced to migrate," (Thompson and Snyder, 1919). 

The manner of formation of new colonies by adults of the sec- 
ond form is not even yet definitely known. It was formerly be- 
lieved that, at about the time of the swarm of the colonizing 
adults of the first form, the wingless adults, accompanied by 
workers and soldiers, left the parent colony through subterranean 
galleries. This method of colony formation would be fairly sure 
and rapid, avoiding most of the dangers to which the winged 
adults are exposed when they come above ground and fly in the 
sunlight. This would be another safeguard to insure the dis- 
persal and perpetuation of the species. Under these circum- 
stances, the reproductive forms would not have to establish a 
home for themselves nor forage for food as do the adults of the 
first form, they would be cared for and nourished by the workers, 
their only function would be reproduction. The number of eggs 
laid and the rate of increase would be rapid in colonies founded 
by second form adults on account of the care and also the fact 
that these forms are polygamous and that a large number of 
females and a proportionate number of males are present. The 
rate of increase in such colonies would greatly surpass, from the 
first, that of the single pair of first form adults. 1 

In view of these previous surmises as to methods of subter- 
ranean colonization, an observation made of a swarm of Reticuli- 
termes mrginicus Banks at Falls Church, Va., on June 7, 1919 

1 Feytaud states that the first form adults are useful to the entire race, 
whereas adults of the second form are merely useful to the individual colony. 
It will be shown later, however, that second form adults may mate with 
members of other colonies and thus escape in-breeding. 

Silvestri believed that the substitution of the "complementary" sexual 
forms for the dealated was due to calculation on the part of the workers, 
due to the greater reproductive powers of the larger number of "comple- 
mentary" queens than that of a single dealated "true" queen. In that 
event the latter was sacrificed. 

Feytaud also explains the more general occurrence of the "substitute" 
queens in case of the species R. lucifugiis as due to climatic influence, main- 
taining that the winged forms were very sensitive to varying conditions of 
humidity. 



132 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

is of interest and value. The winged adults were observed at 
10.45 A. M. (sun time) flying from a stump at an oblique angle in 
a narrow mass; they flew towards the southwest. The winged 
forms were clustered in large numbers on top of the stump (in 
woodland) in which the colony was located, the white wings and 
black bodies giving the mass a grey appearance. The day was 
hot and bright and the insects were strikingly visible as they flew 
in the sunshine. The beginning of the swarm was not observed, 
but the flight was over at 11.15. (There was a thunder storm 
and rain about 4 P. M.) As is usual, chinquapin (Castanea pum- 
ila) was in first full bloom, coincident with the swarm of R. 
mrginicus. 

When the winged adults had nearly all left the top of the stump 
and I had finished taking photographs of the s\varm, a careful 
examination of the top of the stump was made in search of the 
abnormally developed winged adults or deformities which usually 
accompany a swarm, (Snyder, 1915). With these abnormalities 
and a few belated remaining normal winged adults were found 
quite a few pigmented adults of the second form actively running 
about the top of the stump in the nearly full sunlight. They 
came out of crevices and ran about and sought other crevices, 
fell off the stump to the ground or into a spider web at one side 
of the stump near the base. This was possibly a manifestation 
of or a reversion to the ancestral habit of swarming these apter- 
ous forms have inherited the instinct to swarm but not the 
wings and this running about is all that they can achieve. Ap- 
parently, these adults were able to "keep their course," either by 
vision, by tactile sense or olfactory sense perception. 

Second form adults of both sexes w r ere present; the body pig- 
mentation in some cases was darker than usual (although just 
as dark forms have been found previously) and the compound 
eye was more pigmented and prominent than is normally the 
case. 

Several theories may be propounded to account for the presence 
of the second form adults outside of the parent colonies or the 
"pseudo-flight:" 

1. These may be in reality abnormally developed first form 
adults. The shortness of the wing-pads and pigment would ren- 
der this doubtful since first form adults do not attain pigment 
till the wings are fully expanded. However, there are other 
characters, both external and internal, which have definitely dis- 
proved this conjecture. The chief external character by which 
it can be proved that these are second, and not first form, adults 
are the meso- and meta-thoracic tergites. In the first form they 
are in two main parts, whereas in the second form they seem to 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 133 

be only in one part. The size of the body and the size of the 
eyes and ocelli are other external characters which determine that 
these are second form adults. 

Stained total mounts show definitely that, according to form 
and size of the brain, frontal gland, sex organs, and other internal 
organs, these are young second form adults. 

Therefore, if they are normal second form adults, this theory 
is disproved. 

However, granting that: 2. They are normal second form re- 
productive adults, they might have been accidentally carried out 
of the parent colony by the emergence of the winged forms -the 
normal ( ?) method of egress of second forms being by subterranean 
galleries. Only additional observations in the field can def- 
initely determine whether this is the case or not, but it is very 
improbable ! 

Another view might be that: 3. This "pseudo-flight" is the 
normal method for the egress of second form adults from the 
parent colony they being later "adopted" by small bands of 
foraging workers and soldiers. This may be possible, but is a 
rather haphazard "hit or miss" method. 

It is much more probable that: 4. This "pseudo-flight" is the 
normal manner of the exodus and the young second form adults 
are able to survive alone. This is the natural and an entirely 
reasonable supposition, but there are biological facts that tend 
to disprove this, or at least throw some doubt on this view. As 
will be shown below, this reproductive caste is apparently greatly 
dependent upon workers. 

It may be that: 5. The normal egress is through subterranean 
galleries, the reproductive forms being accompanied by workers 
and soldiers. 

Or that: -6. The second form adults, emerging from the par- 
ent colony through subterranean galleries, are "adopted" by forag- 
ing workers. 

The most probable of these views, based upon rather incom- 
plete field data, are : 

That the "pseudo-flight" is the normal manner by which 
second form adults establish new colonies and that they are able 
when young to survive without the aid of workers and soldiers. 
It is possible that second form adults may also leave the parent 
colony through subterranean galleries, being accompanied by 
workers and soldiers. 

Subcolonies or temporary colonies are frequently found with 
apparently only workers and soldiers present; these subcolonies, 
which furnish increased facilities for habitation and food sup- 
plies, are possibly offshoots from the parent colony or nest and 



134 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

are established by means of subterranean passages, which are 
extended for long distances by the foraging workers and soldiers. 

Sometimes, however, similar small colonies are found with 
young second or third reproductive forms present. 

From the foregoing will be seen that it would be possible dur- 
ing this "pseudo-flight" for adults of the second form from one 
colony to mate with those of another colony a rather remote 
possibility in case the exodus were through subterranean gal- 
leries and exclusive in-breeding avoided, just as in case of the 
winged colonizing adults. 

In view of the fact that the sex organs of the young second 
form adults are ready to function at the time of the pseudo-flight 
which is not true of the young first form adults at the time of 
the flight copulation undoubtedly occurs as soon as the sexes 
are established under decaying wood on the ground, under bark, 
or in some other suitable location. It is probable that many 
adults congregate together in a suitable habitat. It is extremely 
doubtful if there ever is monogamous pairing in this caste, as is 
the rule in the case of the first form adults. 

Indeed, even mating and subsequent cross-breeding between 
first and second form adults might be brought about by means 
of the pseudo-flight. But on account of the rarity of the occur- 
rence of such cross-breeding between two different types of repro- 
ductive forms in colonies in nature, such an event probably does 
not often occur. 

These peculiar relations are also, however, usually under con- 
ditions of polygamy due to congregation of the sexes. It would 
be rather difficult for even a zealous and adventurous first form 
male to collect a "harem" of 16 second form females, such a 
ratio of sexes and castes being found in colonies in the field. But 
a first form male could enter the habitat of second form repro- 
ductive types and breed with the females (or the sex relation be 
reversed), after the sex organs of the first form adults had ma- 
tured. 

Subterranean Exodus of Third Form Colonizing Adult Termites. 

Young adults of the third form are present in colonies of spe- 
cies of Reticulitermes in the southeastern United States, at the 
proper season of the year. Like adults of the second form, these 
third form adults become sexually mature before the winged 
adults of the first form. 

The lack of pigmentation to the body and absence of the com- 
pound eyes very probably indicate a subterranean mode of 
exodus from the parent colony accompanied, without doubt, by 
workers and soldiers. If it were necessary for these forms to be 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 135 

exposed to the light there would be pigment in the body tissue. 

In case of species Termopsis, which are not subterranean in 
habit, third form adults, which are found in colonies, have deeper 
pigment to the body and portions of compound eyes are present. 
Offshoot colonies may be established in the same log or even in 
nearby logs by these third form adults. 

Third form adults of Prorhinotermes simplex Hagen have a deep 
pigmentation to the body and have both eyes and ocelli; hence 
these reproductive forms are capable of coming out of parent 
colonies in infested logs into the full sunlight and establish new 
colonies in nearby logs. The deeply pigmented apterous adults of 
species of Zorotypus may do likewise ; it is not yet proved whether 
Zorotypus is a social insect with a caste system, or not, i. e., lives 
in colonies or is merely gregarious and lives in communities. If 
the latter is true, of course the migration would necessarily not 
be accompanied by workers. Much of this, however, is conjec- 
ture. 

Third form adults of termites, like adults of the second form, are 
polygamous, there being a large number of females to a small 
number of males. The presence of either of the two types of third 
form reproductive adults of Zorotypus in large numbers in the 
same community indicates that the habit of polygamy likewise 
occurs in case of apterous adults in the order Zoraptera. 

Results of Breeding Experiments. 

The preliminary results of breeding experiments conducted 
with species of Reticulitermes, Neotermes and Termopsis have al- 
ready been briefly outlined in previous papers, (Snyder, 1915, 
Thompson and Snyder, 1919, and Banks and Snyder, 1920). A 
more detailed account will be given herewith. Heath (1903) has 
described breeding experiments conducted with species of Reticu- 
litermes and Termopsis; some of Heath's results need further 
elucidation. 

Feytaud (1912) has published the results of his breeding ex- 
periments with Reticulitermes lucifugus Rossi; Feytaud's results 
differing somewhat from those obtained by the writer with other 
species of Reticulitermes in the United States; unlike in the writ- 
er's experiments, no soldiers were reared in his incipent colonies. 

Wheeler (1907) states that: "In incipient ant colonies, the queen 
mother takes no food, often for as long a period as eight or nine 
months, and during all this time is compelled to feed her first 
brood of larvae exclusively on the excretions of her salivary 
glands. This diet, which is purely qualitative, though very lim- 
ited in quantity, produces only workers, and these of an extremely 
small size (micrergates)." 



136 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

It will be seen that, while the life history of ants and termites 
is quite different, in both insects the establishment of incipient 
colonies is no easy matter, and that the results of this struggle 
for existence are reflected in the character (both as to caste and 
stature) of the progeny. 

A discussion follows of the progeny of the different types of 
termite reproductive forms. 

Progeny of First Form Adults. 

In case of termites, in incipient colonies of species of Reticuli- 
termes and Termopsis the young couple of dealated adults share 
the small, shallow cell, at which time the abdomens of both the 
male and female become slightly distended. This is due both 
to development of sex organs and body fat. Unlike the young 
dealated queen ant in an incipient colony, both young parent 
adults masticate wood for food. The first brood of young de- 
velop to workers and a few soldiers, these individuals of both 
castes being slightly smaller than normal adult individuals in 
old, long-established colonies. No nymphs of sexual adults are 
produced during the first year ; the reason for this will be explained 
later. 

This smaller size of workers and soldiers of the first brood may 
be explained by the fact that, while in the older colonies the young 
would receive food from and be cared for by a large number of 
workers, in incipient colonies, the young would receive only the 
care of the young parent adults. 

The rate of egg laying of the young and active queens of species 
of Reticulitermes is not very rapid; clusters of eggs in numbers 
varying from 6 to 12 are in the cells with the young pairs. Hence, 
the new colony is at first very small; even after rearing the first 
brood of workers and soldiers the increase in numbers is not 
rapid. 

About the middle of July, 1912, at Falls Church, Va., about 
12 small white eggs in a cluster were observed in a cell with a 
young pair of Reticulitermes ftavipes Kollar. At least three repro- 
ductive forms were observed, probably two males and one fe- 
male. These had been captured after the swarm on May 8, in 
the earth under a small piece of decaying wood. On July 29, 
the first newly hatched young were observed, and on October 30, 
seven workers and one soldier surrounded a single dealated pair 
of reproductive forms. Fragments of the chitinized parts of 
another dealated reproductive adult were found in the wood near 
the cell containing the young colony. The abdomen of this egg- 
laying female, 13 months after swarming, was oblong and some- 
what distended, the segments of the abdomen being slightly sep- 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. 6, JUXE, 1920 137 

arated and displaying the white pleural tissue between. No eggs 
had been laid since those deposited in July; during this time the 
male continued to cohabit with the female and both adults were 
active. 

Thus it will be seen that development under the foregoing con- 
ditions is at best a slow process. The male and the female are 
equally important in the establishment of the new colony and in 
the independent rearing of the first brood of young. This brood 
is reared within the confines of this small chamber. 

On February- 21, 191.3, nine or more additional eggs were ob- 
served in a cluster near the cell of the above mentioned pair. On 
February 24, the first recently hatched young were observed. 
The abdomen of the queen at this time was not markedly dis- 
tended. On May 16, freshly hatched young were again present 
in this colony. On August 15, six eggs, as well as recently hatched 
young, were present in the cell. The male still cohabited with 
the female, and the abdomen of this young queen was not as yet 
markedly distended. 

While recently hatched young are active, they are dependent 
on the care of the young parents, or later, upon the workers for 
prepared food. 

Termites differ from other social insects, such as the ants and 
the honey bee, in that the sexual relations of the male and the 
female are continuous. Copulation probably does not take place 
until about one week after the swarm and the establishment of 
the pair in a cell in wood, but is repeated at irregular intervals 
over a period of many years. Copulation and egg laying ceases 
in the young colony after the first batch is laid and is not re- 
sumed until this brood is mature. Thereafter copulation and egg 
laying occur at shorter intervals and more frequently until with 
the growth of the colony the abdomen of the queen gradually 
enlarges, eventually becoming greatly distended, due to the enor- 
mous development of the ovaries through the constant care and 
feeding of the workers ; she no longer masticates wood for food (the 
jaw muscles degenerate Thompson and Snyder, 1920), but is 
ifed on prepared food by the workers. Such an actual post-adult 
growth is rare among insects. 

However, queens of Nearctic species of termites never attain 
the size of tropical species. Even in large, well-established col- 
onies the rate of egg laying of single dealated queens is not re- 
markable. However, in large long-established colonies tens of 
thousands of eggs are present; unfortunately, the type of repro- 
ductive forms present in such colonies is not known. 

Similar rearing experiments were carried on with other species 
of Reticnlitermes with practically the same results. The following 



138 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

is a tabulated statement of the rearing of a brood by a pair of 
dealated adults of R. virginicus Banks. 
On May 18, 1915, at Palls Church, Va. 

Mature nymphs of the first form and those in quiescent stages, also 
sexual adults attaining wings and mature pigmentation, were placed 
in rearing. 

June 5, 1915. Sexual adults swarmed. 
June 25, 1915. First eggs in royal cells in wood. 
Middle July, 1915. Egg laying completed. 

August 4, 1915. Eggs not yet all hatched, nymphs in various stages of 
development. Abdomens of queens not markedly distended, males in 
cells with females. 

December 3, 1915, Workers and soldiers attaining maturity. 
January 8, 1916. Same. 

February 9, 1916. Workers and soldiers nearly mature, workers 3 mm. 
in length. Soldiers 4 mm. in length. Eggs in clusters in galleries 
over 1 dozen. Eggs approximately .70 mm. in length and nearly .5 
mm. in width, vary in size. Many workers with mutiliated antennae. 
Reproductive, forms active antennae mutilated and abdomens of 
queens not markedly distended or the segments as yet separated. 
February 17, 1916. Eggs as yet unhatched since February 9/16. No 

recently hatched nymphs, only about x /2 dozen eggs observed. 
March 2, 1916. 2 recently hatched nymphs and 6 unhatched eggs in 

nest, eggs in cluster and active young nymphs near eggs. 
March 15, 1916. 2 unhatched eggs and 2 recently hatched young ob- 
served in nest, nymphs near eggs. 

April 5, 1916. Eggs all hatched, nymphs in various stages from recently 
hatched to twice this size, 3.5 mm. workers, 4.5 mm. soldiers; workers 
and soldiers 13 segments to antennae, mature. 
June 6, 1916. Worker 3.5 mm. in length, mature, some soldiers only 

3.5 mm. in length. 

It has been shown that, in incipient colonies of Reticulitermes 
in southeastern United States, most of the young of the first 
broods develop to workers with a few soldiers and that no nymphs 
of the sexual individuals are developed during the first year. The 
workers constitute the caste most necessary for the welfare and 
conduct of the new colony. 

Feytaud (1912) obtained no soldiers in the initial broods of 
colonies of Reticulitermes lucifugus Rossi in Europe; he did find 
nymphs of sexual adults in colonies during the first year (after 8 
months) which leads him to the conclusion that this was a sign 
that the stability of the colony was assured. 

When old, first form queens with distended abdomens are taken 
from well stocked long-established colonies and are placed in 
artificial colonies with or without the male and with workers 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 139 

and soldiers, their abdomens soon become shrunken and the 
female dies. This is possibly due to insufficient nourishment. 
Very often the male survives. 

Younger first form queens from small colonies, although the 
abdomen becomes shrunken, continue to live with or without 
the male since the number of workers necessary for their sup- 
port is not so great. 

In the absence of the male the eggs which are laid by mature 
queens are infertile; they do not hatch. 

In case of species of Termopsis large primitive termites the 
initial rate of egg laying and development is somewhat more 
rapid. As many as 15 to 30 eggs are laid by young dealated par- 
ent adults, (Heath, 1903). 

Nearctic species of Kalotermes, which although some morpho- 
logical characters make it appear to be more primitive than Ter- 
mopsis such as the presence of ocelli are less primitive, as is 
evidenced in the numerous, more sharply defined species of Kalo- 
termes and in the reduction of certain parts. The initial rate of 
egg laying of species of Kalotermes is about the same as that of 
species of Reticulitermes namely 6-12 eggs in the first batch. 

Progeny of Second Form Adults. 

In certain colonies of termites, reproductive individuals of the 
second form occur with a small proportion of males to a large 
proportion of females. In the genus Reticulitermes as many as 
eight males together with thirty-two females, and fifteen males 
with twenty-eight females, both sexes of the second form, have 
been found. 

In species of Reticulitermes, 40 to 100 reproductive individuals 
of the second form may be present in the same colony, suitably 
distributed by small groups in separate chambers in different 
locations in the colony. 

Apparently these reproductive forms are more numerous in 
small sized colonies than in older, long-established colonies. 
Doubtless there is a high rate of mortality among young reproduc- 
tive forms of this type. While the ovary development of mature 
individual queens of the second form is not as great as in queens 
of the first form, the habit of polygamy makes the rate of egg 
laying in the colony greater in case of second form queens. 

Both field observations and breeding experiments seem to indi- 
cate that the second and possibly the third forms produce, in 
addition to the sterile workers and soldiers, only their own fer- 
tile types and never nymphs of the first form. In other words, 
the second and third form reproductive adults apparently breed 
true to their fertile types. In some artificial colonies with pun-nt 



140 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

reproductive individuals of the second form, no reproductive 
forms but only sterile workers and soldiers have been produced. 
This seems to be the case in the two following experiments, 
(Thompson and Snyder, 1919). 

The Rev. F. L. Odenbach received in September, 1900, a small 
colony of termites (Neotermes castaneus Burm.) from Florida. 
He placed these insects in an artificial nest and has continued to 
make observations on their habits. On July 1, 1902, eggs were 
found in the nest. In February, 1908, about 150 members were 
present in the colony. In September, 1908, and again in June, 
1909, reproductive forms were observed in the nest, much larger 
than the other members of the colony, and some with an enlarged 
abdomen, the body segments appearing as prominent chitinous 
bands, due to distention, a characteristic of the older termite 
queens. From Odenbach's description these were evidently re- 
productive individuals of the second or third form; this will be 
determined later, since at present it is not desirable to disturb 
the activity of the colony. In December, 1910, approximately 
200 individuals were in the nest. This colony was still alive in 
September, 1917. Nymphs and soldiers, but no forms with wing- 
pads nor any winged adults have been produced in this colony 
after 17 years of breeding. 

On August 2, 1915, the writer received a colony of a termite 
(Reticulitcnncs tibialis Banks) from Ivywild, Colo., found in a 
scrub white oak, and consisting of workers, soldiers and nymphs. 
On November 22, 1915, 3 females with abdomens considerably 
distended and 2 males with slightly distended abdomens were 
observed in the nest. These were reproductive individuals of 
the second form and had greyish and yellow pigmentation in the 
chitinized parts. While numerous eggs have been found every 
month in the year in this artificial colony, maintained indoors, 
and while the number of workers and soldiers has increased, no 
forms with wing pads or wings have been produced up to De- 
cember, 1918, after 3 years of breeding, and the colony is large- 
several hundred members and healthy. 

On December 31, 1918, the wood in which this colony was lo- 
cated was opened and a careful inventory was taken of the colony. 
Four reproductive forms and young were observed. Since then 
the colony has failed and a large number of workers died, prob- 
ably due to this disturbance. 

On June 27, 1919, second form reproductive adults were still 
living in the wood; very few workers were observed. The abdo- 
mens of the reproductive forms had shrunken. 

On September 25, I'll'), only 2 second form adults were found 
to be alive; the abdomens were shrunken but the pigmentation 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 141 

of one form appeared to be darker the latter possibly due to 
unfavorable moisture conditions. Very few workers and no sol- 
diers were observed; the colony appeared to be moribund. 

A more careful examination on October 4, 1919, revealed that 
the darkly pigmented form was a male of the normal second form 
with short wing pads, whereas the lighter colored form was a 
female with very short or vestigial wing pads an intermediate. 
The abdomen of this queen was not distended. Only (i living 
workers were found. The colony was still alive and was watched 
with considerable interest to observe developments. It was not 
believed that these old forms could thrive or reproduce without 
a large number of workers to care for and feed them. 

On December 15, 1919, all the termites in this colony were 
dead. 

The criticism can scarcely be made that there has not been 
sufficient time for the production of winged forms, for even in 
recently established incipient colonies in nature the nymphs of 
the winged reproductive forms are produced after IS months. 

Heath (1903) found winged adult termites of Termopsis angus- 
ticollis Hagen swarming from nests in which males and females 
of the first form were present, the nests being only two years old 
and containing 200 individuals. 

The writer has made observations on the habits of termites 
since 1912, mainly in the southeastern United States, but in the 
season of 1917, during an extensive field trip through Florida, 
the southwest, the Rocky Mountain and the Pacific Coast regions. 
It may be stated with certainty that: (1) In long-established 
colonies, in which large fertilized queens of the second form oc- 
curred, no nymphs or winged adults of the first form have been 
found; (2) in all colonies in which queens of the third form were 
found, no nymphs or winged adults of the first form occurred; 
most of these colonies, however, were small or young, that is, 
they had been recently established. 

In one large colony of R. ftavipes in Virginia, with 17 third 
form queens present, a few nymphs of the second form were 
found. 

In species of Reticulitermes, mature second form queens, like 
those of the first form, will not survive in artificial colonies unless 
there are a large number of workers present to care for them. 

No mature second form adults have as yet been found in col- 
onies of Prorhinotermes simplex. 

Insufficient specimens of reproductive individuals of the second 
form have been thus far found in colonies of Termopsis and Kalo- 
termes to warrant the drawing of definite conclusions. 

In the higher termites the Termitinae Banks such as Ami- 



142 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

termes tubiformans Buckley, as yet only a few form second adults 
have been found and these have been young, (Banks and Snyder, 

1920). 

Progeny of Third Form Adults. 

For many years the writer has found that in certain colonies of 
species of Reticulitermes, where there were numerous eggs and 
recently hatched young present, it was often impossible to find 
mature or enlarged reproductive forms present. Nevertheless, 
in these colonies often nymphs, or young adults, worker-like in 
form but with creamy white abdomens occurred. It was sus- 
pected that these might be reproductive forms and such has 
proven to be the case, (Thompson and Snyder, 1920). 

The ovary development of individual queens of the third form 
is less than that of either that of the first or second forms, (Thomp- 
son and Snyder, 1919). However, reproductive adults of the 
third form, as well as those of the second form, have the advantage 
over those of the first form of being polygamous. 

It is not known what the relative proportion of males is to 
females in reproductive individuals of the third form, due to the 
difficulty in distinguishing these males from the workers. 

In a large, long-established colony of Reticulitermes flavipes at 
Falls Church, Va., 17 mature queens of the third form with 
markedly distended abdomens were transferred to an artificial 
colony. The abdomens became shrunken, although a fairly large 
number of workers and soldiers were present, and they soon 
died without doubt due to lack of sufficient nourishment. 

In case of species of the more primitive genera Termopsis and 
Kalotermes, reproductive individuals of the third form are active 
and their abdomens are relatively not so markedly distended as in 
species of Reticulitermes. They are not so dependent upon the 
immature nymphs of the reproductive forms for care and nour- 
ishment as these queens are upon workers in species of Reticuli- 
termes; the nymphs take the place of the workers, which are 
lacking. 

There are no data at hand, as yet, as to the habits of the mature 
third form queens of Prorhinotermes simplex. The proportion of 
the mature males to the females in a representative large colony 
in southern Florida was '2 males to 8 females. In a smaller 
colony of this termite, 11 young third form adults were found, 
4 being males and 7 females. 

There is need of more data on reproductive adults of the third 
form. Like adults of the second form, they apparently breed 
true to type and never produce first or second form adults. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 14.; 

Progeny of "Intermediate" Reproductive Forms of Termites. 

There is, as yet, no reliable data on the progeny of any of the 
intermediate reproductive forms. However, it is believed, from 
facts noted during observations of colonies in the field and from 
the results of breeding in artificial colonies, that the intermediate 
forms with mere wing vestiges probably breed true to type, as do 
second form adults. 

It w r ould be extremely interesting to know whether or not the 
intermediate reproductive form with long wing-pads resembling 
a nymph of the first form except for the mature pigment, which 
is as in second form adults produced winged adults or not. 

Infertility of Termite Soldiers with Wing Vestiges. 

In colonies of species of Kalotennes soldiers with rudimentary 
wing-pads and deeper pigmentation are fairly common a pos- 
sible reversion to the winged ancestral condition. 

In this connection, it is also interesting to note that recently 
a colony of the large primitive termite Kalotennes occidentis 
Walker has been found in Sabino Canyon in the Santa Catalina 
Mountains of Arizona. Formerly this species had only been 
known from the two type specimens in the British Museum, de- 
scribed by Walker in 1S5.S from the west coast of Central America, 
and several soldier nymphs from Angel Guardia Island in the Gulf 
of Mexico, Lower California. A large series of soldiers from this 
colony in Arizona showed the characteristically long wing-pads 
(longer and with the traces of wing venation more distinct than 
in other species) which occurred on the species from Angel Guardia 
Island. Every specimen of a large series of all soldiers of this 
termite, including the types, shows these vestiges of wing-pads. 
This is very unusual, and is not true of the soldiers of any other 
species of termite; other primitive termites have occasional sol- 
diers with wing-pads. 

None of the higher more specialized termites have soldiers with 
wing-pads. It was thought some of these soldiers might be fertile 
Wheeler (1907) records workers and soldiers with vestiges of wings 
in ants ; he terms them "pterergates." "The pterergate is a worker 
or soldier with vestiges of wings on a thorax of the typical ergate 
or dinergate form, such as occurs in certain species of M yrmica 
and Cryptocems" - (Wheeler, 1913). 

The fertility of these soldier termites if it had been estab- 
lished together with the vestigial wing-pads could be looked 
upon as evidence of a primitive ancestral condition, when all ter- 
mites were winged and fertile. No fertile workers have as yet 
been found to occur among termites, nor any workers with wing- 
pads or vestigial wings. There is no definite proof that fertile 



144 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

termite soldiers occur despite the presence of soldiers with wing- 
pads, nor is any data at hand as to their progeny, although Heath 
(1903) has recorded fertile soldiers in the species Termopsis angus- 
ticollis Hagen that produced "normal progeny." In fact, recent 
histological work by Miss Thompson has definitely proved that 
soldiers with wing-pads are not fertile. 

Attempts at Cross-Breeding. 

In colonies of Reticulitermes, in logs in the forest, sometimes 
a male of the first form is found with numerous (as many as 
sixteen) mature females of the second form. Grassi would have 
described these second form females as "substitute" queens, pro- 
duced by the workers to fill the place of a missing "true" first 
form, dealated queen. 

It is an open question how they are to be accounted for with 
our present knowledge, as we have no exact data as to the progeny. 

In another instance, three queens of the third form and one 
queen of the second form of a species of Reticulitermes were 
found together in the same colony. However, both sexes of two 
different mature reproductive castes have never been found in one 
and the same colony of a species of Reticulitermes. 

On account of the lack of reliable data on the progeny of such 
reproductive forms which undoubtedly were cross-breeding under 
natural conditions as previously stated, (Thompson and Snyder, 
1919), it was planned to undertake, with Miss Thompson, a 
thorough investigation of the termite castes, especially of the 
three stable reproductive types, with an analysis of their breeding, 
to be carried on by means of field and laboratory observations and 
by breeding experiments which would require several years to 
complete. A beginning was made in the spring of 1919 to cross 
reproductive forms of different types of Reticulitermes flavipes 
under artificial conditions. The following is a brief summary of 
these attempts: 

Methods. 

A large series of young second form female adults of Reticuli- 
termes ftavipes, which possibly may have been fertilized by second 
form males, were taken from a fairly small colony and placed 
with mature first form dealated males, which had not copulated, 
in small shallow cells in decayed wood sunken in moist sand in glass 
jars and tin boxes. 

Results. 

After a period of ten days to two weeks all these second form 
females had died, but the first form males were still living and were 
active; they evidently were prepared to forage for themselves, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 145 

whereas the second form adults needed the care and nourishment 
usually afforded them by the workers. Possibly the jaw muscles 
in these young second form adults had begun to degenerate, 
through disuse in masticating wood, as happens later, (Thompson 
and Snyder, 1920). On account of lack of specimens and oppor- 
tunity to collect others at the proper season, no further crossing 
was attempted. It is believed that second form males like the 
females would have succumbed, without the workers. Never- 
theless, further efforts at crossing the different reproductive types 
will be made, with species of several genera. 

Summary and Conclusions. 

In the preceding pages, the three types of colonizing reproduc- 
tive forms of termites, and the nymphs from which they develop, 
have been described; "intermediate" forms have also been dis- 
cussed. 

Data on the occurrence and habits of these different reproduc- 
tive forms have been presented. 

The different methods by which these three reproductive forms 
establish new colonies have been outlined and the progeny of these 
forms described. 

The results of experiments in breeding and cross-breeding have 
been used to supplement observations on these reproductive forms 
made in the field. 

It seems to the writer not unreasonable to conclude that the sec- 
ond and third reproductive forms, as well as the intermediates, 
in termites are mutations! They, so far as is known, breed true 
to type; in this case then, all the castes are mutations from the 
parent first form, and a plausible explanation for the phenomenon 
of polymorphism is afforded. As has been shown before, (Thomp- 
son and Snyder, 1919 i "A gradation of characters can be traced 
throughout the series." "These castes might be 

interpreted either as gradations in a series of continuous or fluc- 
tuating variations, or as a series of regressive mutations, i. c., 
mutations formed by the loss of characters, comparable to the 
series of mutations found in Drosophila." "Should the 

former prove to be the case, then transitional or intermediate 
forms between the existing castes should be expected, but it must 
be remembered that mutations also may be arranged to form a 
structural series, even though they may not have originated in this 
order," (Thompson and Snyder, 19111). As has been shown, 
rather few intermediate forms have as yet been found. 

The sterile worker and soldier (also nasuti) castes and colony 
life have existed among termites since the late Tertiary period, 
for these forms are found as fossils in gum copal, indicating an 



146 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

early development of polymorphism. However, the highly 
specialized different types of colonizing reproductive forms (with 
the exception of the winged first form) and the "intermediates" 
very probably have been evolved comparatively recently in geo- 
logical history since the Tertiary period. 

The three main evolutionary factors are Lamarck's factor of 
the origin of variations through environmental action; Darwin's 
the survival of chance variations, which are adapted to the en- 
vironment; the DeVries' chance variations, i. e., mutations, which 
may or may not be useful, i. e., adapted to the environment. 

A morphological study of termites indicates to the writer that 
certain structural peculiarities in case of the workers and soldiers, 
which appear to indicate adaptation to environment and as the 
result of use, are rather to be explained as chance variations \vhich 
have survived through adaptation to environment, (Snyder, 
1919). 1 The workers of certain species of subterranean termites 
living in the hard dry soil of the semi-arid southwestern states 
have the prothoracic tibiae enlarged, i. e., subfossorial, and the 
enlarged legs might appear to be the result of use or response 
to environment. However, other termites living under the same 
conditions, have not the enlarged tibiae. 

The highly specialized soldier caste is in certain species often 
of little apparent use to the colony life. There is great variation 
in the size and shape of both the mandibulate soldiers and the 
nasuti. In the case of species in the genus Capritermes Wasmann, 
the peculiar twisted shape of the mandibles of the soldier caste 
can certainly not be explained as a useful adaptation; the man- 
dibles must be almost useless 'for the purpose of defense against 
marauding enemies of the colony. 

It appears to the writer that the origin of the castes of termites 
can only be explained by DeVries' mutation theory. It will be 
remembered that mutations are chiefly of two kinds progressive 
and regressive ; progressive mutations possess new characters not 
present in the parents and regressive mutations are those which 
have lost some of the parental characters. 

In termites, in addition to the worker, soldier, the three stable 
reproductive types, and the "intermediate" reproductive types, 
there are other forms which may be considered to be mutants. 
I have already discussed these forms in a previous paper, (Banks 
and Snyder, 1920) : 

"Certain abnormalities have been noted, (Snyder, 1915) in the metamor- 
phosis of the nymphs of the first form to the winged adult. Individuals 

1 1919. Snyder, T. E. Some significant structural modifications in Nearc- 
tic termites. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 21, No. 5, May. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 147 

may be observed with partial pigmentation to the chitinized parts, but with 
the wings partially unfolded, or unfolded but crumpled wings, or merely the 
long opaque wing pads of the mature nymph before the last quiescent stage 
and molt. Other individuals that may have the mature body pigmentation, 
but distorted or poorly developed wings, or even wing-pads, emerge with the 
normal winged adults at the time of the swarm. 

"It was formerly explained that these abnormally developed individuals 
were merely abnormalities due entirely to unfavorable conditions of moisture. 
Now, however, when considered with certain 'intermediate' forms, these ab- 
normalities may be termed fluctuating variations or mutations from the nor- 
mal winged reproductive forms, (Thompson and Snyder, 1919). These ab- 
normal forms, together with the 'intermediate' forms represent almost a 
complete series beginning with normal wings and ending with the apterous 
reproductive form, a large intergrading series. On these intermediate forms 
the length of the wing pads ranges from the long wing pads of the nymphs 
of the first form to vestigial buds. 

"These abnormalities and 'intermediates' have partial pigmentation to the 
body, and the intermediates have various stages of eye development, ranging 
from partial mature pigmentation to the eye to merely traces of the eye. 

"In the forms which develop abnormally at the time of the quiescent stage 
and final molt of the nymph of the first form there are various forms which 
might be compared to the 'club,' 'vestigial,' and 'stumpy' wings of the 
mutants of Drosophila melanogaster (ampelophila). 

"The writer has, unfortunately, only preserved a small series of these ab- 
normalities which occur 'wild,' or in nature, as well as in rearing cages or 
artificial colonies; these are mostly females 5 females and 3 males." 

It will be noted that there is not only much variation in the 
development of the eye of the intermediate reproductive adults 
(near the stable second form adults), but there is also much range 
in the intensity of body pigment. 

To summarize, from the viewpoint of the mutation theory, all 
of these problems, involving the social system and the highly 
specialized castes, which can not be satisfactorily explained by 
the evolutionary theories of Lamarck and Darwin can be ex- 
plained by DeVries' mutation theory. This is the view held by 
many modern workers. 1 

A similar view of the origin of castes is suggested in a more 
recent paper by Imms (1919). 

The second and third reproductive forms would be chiefly pro- 
gressive mutations, also the workers and the two types of sol- 
diers; there has been a loss of characters. The workers and sol- 
diers have also gained characters which are often useful, as seen 
in the legs, heads, mandibles and nasuti. Now a mutation is 
not necessarily useful, but a Darwinian variation must be useful. 

1 1903. Morgan, T. H. Evolution and adaptation. New York. 



148 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

Other interesting "abnormalities" are the soldiers with wing- 
pads, a reversion to the ancestral winged condition. 

Of course, when their origin is explained as mutations, the 
value of any of these castes to the colony life is not essential; 
indeed, they even may be a hindrance, provided their presence 
is "not entirely fatal to the community," (Morgan, 1903). 

Imms (1919) states that the origin of the castes in termites may 
be explained by Mendelian inheritance. 

It will readily be seen that my studies of the biology and breed- 
ing habits of the three types of reproductive forms are as yet in- 
complete. The results of the breeding and especially the cross- 
breeding experiments are, in general, unsatisfactory. Neverthe- 
less, it is believed that, while these preliminary results of breeding 
and attempts at cross-breeding are not conclusive, they show the 
trend that future experiments should follow. 

Future biological and histological studies should in time solve 
the problems. 

Some of the especially important problems needing elucidation 
or confirmation are: 

(1) More exact proof that the second and third reproductive forms breed 
true to type. 

(2) The nature of the progeny of the "intermediate" reproductive forms. 

(3) The methods of colonization of the second and third reproductive forms 
and whether they can survive without workers. 

(4) The exact number of molts undergone by each caste and the accom- 
panying external and internal changes that occur at the time of the molt 
or between molts, as the increase in the number of antennal joints, etc. (The 
growth of the latter, however, apparently has no relationship to the time 
and number of molts that take place.) 

(5) Studies of the third reproductive form in the more primitive termites, 
as Termopsis, Neotermes, etc. 

(6) Proof of the apparent absence of the third form reproductive type in 
the higher, more specialized termites (of the family Termitidae Bks.) and also 
that of the second form reproductive type in some genera of the higher ter- 
mites (as in species of Nasutitermes Bks.). 

LITERATURE CITED. 

1893. Grassi, B., and Sandias, A. Costituzione e Sviluppo della societa dei 
termitidi, etc. Dagli Atti dell'Acad. Gioenia di sci. nat. in Cata- 
nia, Vol. Vie ser. 4 Catania. 

1893. Joutel, L. H. Some notes on the ravages of the white ant (Termes 
flavipes}. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 89-90, June. 

1901. Schwarz, E. A. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 347 (Jan., 1889). 

1902. Schaeffer, C. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 251, December. 
1904. Maeterlinck, M. The life of the bee. New York. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 149 

1907. Wheeler, W. M. Concerning the polymorphism of ants. Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. 23, January. New York. 
1909. Holmgren, N. Termitenstudien 1. Anatomische Untersuchungen. 

K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., Bd. 44, No. 3, pp. 215, Taf. 1-3, 

Uppsala & Stockholm. Die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Ter- 

miten, pp. 208-213. 
1912. Feytaud, J. Contribution a 1'Etude du Termite lucifuge. Arch. 

d'Anat. Micros.-, Vol. 13, fasc. 4, pp. 482-606. Paris. 

1912. Snyder, T. E. Record of the finding of a true queen of Tennes flav ipes 

Kol. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 107-108, June 19. 

1913. Silvestri, F. Descrizione di un nuovo ordine di insetti. Boll. Lab. 

Zool., Portici, Vol. 7, pp. 193-209 (the order Zoraptera described). 
1913. Wheeler, W. M. Ants, their structure, development and behavior. 

New York. 
1915. Snyder, T. E. Biology of the termites of the eastern United States, 

with preventive and remedial measures. U. S. Dept. of Agric., Bur. 

Ent., Bull. No. 94, Pt. II. 

1915. Turner, W. F., and Baker, A. C. On the occurrence of an intermediate 

Aphis pomi De Geer. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 
42-64. 

1916. Snyder, T. E. Termites or "White Ants" in the United States: Their 

damage and methods of prevention. U. S. Dept. of Agric., Bur. 
Ent., Prof. Paper Bull. 333. 

1916. Thompson, C. B. The brain and frontal gland of the castes of the 

"White Ant" Leucotermes flavipes Kollar. Jour. Comp. Neurol., 
Vol. 26, No. 5. 

1917. Thompson, C. B. Origin of the castes of the common termite Leuco- 

termes flavipes Kol. Jour. Morph., Vol. 30, No. 1. 

1918. Caudell, A. N. A new species of Zoraptera from the United States. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vol. L, No. 11, pp. 375-381. November, 
1918, London. 

1918. Dobson, R. J. A European termite Reticuliterm.es lucifugus Rossi in 
the vicinity of Boston. Psyche, Vol. 25, No. 5. October. 

1918. Wheeler, W. M. A study of some ant larvae, with a consideration of 

the origin and meaning of the social habit among insects. Proc. 
Amer. Philos. Soc., Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 293-343, Phila. 

1919. Beebe, W. The home town of the army ants. The Atlantic Monthly, 

pp. 454-464, October. 

1919. Imms, A. D. On the structure and biology of Archotermopsis, together 
with descriptions of new species of intestinal protozoa and general 
observations on the Isoptera. Philos. Trans, Royal Society of Lon- 
don, Ser. B, Vol. 209, p. 75. 

1919. Thompson, C. B., and Snyder, T. E. The question of the phylo- 
genetic origin of the termite castes. Biol. Bull., W'oods Hole, Mass., 
Vol. 36, pp. 115-132, February. 



150 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, 1920 

1920. Banks, N., and Snyder, T. E. Revision of Nearctic Termites with 
notes on biology and geographic distribution. U. S. Nat'l. Mus., 
Bull. 108, April 13. 

1920. Caudell, A. N. Zoraptera, not an apterous order of insects. Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 22, No. 5. 

1920. Thompson, C. B., and Snyder, T. E. The "Third Form," the wing- 
less, reproductive type of termites. Reticulitermes and Pro- 
rhinotermes. Jour, of Morphology, in press,. 



A NEW TROPICAL WEEVIL FROM FLORIDA AND CUBA. 

BY H. S. BARBER. 

A three week's vacation (in February and March, 1919) was 
spent by Mr. E. A. Schwarz and the writer, collecting in the 
southern part of Florida, most of the time at Paradise Key, which 
the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs is seeking to preserve 
as the "Royal Palm State Park."* One day's collecting on Big 
Pine Key (about 30 miles from Key West), and another day at 
Marathon on Vacas Key (18 miles further east) added several 
forms not found by us at Paradise Key, and brought the number 
of species of beetles we had brought together in this short expe- 
dition to well above 500. Among them are several forms pre- 
viously known only for Cuba, and the probability that a consider- 
able percentage of the species inhabiting the Southern Everglades 
have been described from the West Indies, greatly complicates 
the task of identifying the unfamiliar forms. In fact the most 
interesting part of the beetle fauna of the Everglade Keys and 
the Outer Keys is identical with that of the West Indies. The 
species here described is an example of this difficulty. Belonging 
to a genus quite numerous in species throughout the American 
tropics, though not previously known to occur naturally within 
our boundaries, and supposedly breeding in certain epiphytal 
plants of the treetops in the jungle-like "hammocks," the probable 
wide range of the species immediately confronts us and in spite 

* Since the construction of the automobile road towards Cape Sable has 
made the region easily accessible, Paradise Key has very justly attracted 
much attention and we were greatly assisted in our field work by having pre- 
viously read the several botanical papers by Dr. J. K. Small (Journ. N. Y. 
Bot. Garden, 1916, 1917, and 1918), narrating his experiences here and 
throughout the region; and partly familiarizing us in advance with the flora 
we were to encounter. See also the preface to Small's "Ferns of Royal 
Palm Hammock;" -Snyder's description of the locality in these Proceedings 
(Vol. 19, p. 143, pi. 15 and 16); and Safford's "Natural History of Paradise 
Key " (Smithsonian Report, 1917, PP- 377-434, 64 plates). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O I.^T 

of a search through the available literature dealing with South 
American forms, the possibility must remain that it may have been 
missed among the old species listed under Sphenophorus. Among 
its congeners in the National Collection the present species is 
remarkable for its small size, brilliant color, and absence of any 
external sexual character usual in the genus. It is with much 
pleasure that this beautiful species is named in honor of its first 
finder on our mainland, Mr. C. A. Mosier, the warden of the 
Royal Palm State Park, whose great interest in the study and 
preservation of the tropical natural history of his region has re- 
vealed so many forms hitherto unknown within our geographical 
limits and whose many personal kindnesses helped greatly in our 
comfort and collecting ability during our work on Paradise Key. 

Metamasius mosieri, new species. (Plate 8.) 

Small: alutaceous except head, rostrum, antennae, legs, metasternum and 
median half of underside of abdomen which are shining ; black, except most 
of pronotum, meta thorax and basal half of elytra which are bright red. 
Length 6.5-9.0 mm.; width 3.0-3.6 mm. Habitat Florida and Cuba. 

Rostrum about three-fifths as long as pronotum in 9 , slightly more than 
half in cf, moderately curved, feebly compressed, impunctate in apical third, 
becoming sparsely punctate towards base; base feebly dilated above antennal 
sockets which are almost contiguous to the margin of the eye ; gular peduncle 
narrow, compressed, and strongly dentiform anteriorly. Prothorax nine- 
tenths as wide as long, impunctate or very minutely and sparsely punctuate on 
disc, a few scattered punctures before base and in the subapical constriction ; 
strongly but sparsely punctate below; the bright sanguineous color of the 
pronotum extends down the sides half way to the coxae, but leaves the apical 
margin narrowly bordered with black, and a broader bilobed black border at 
base. Scutellum narrow, flat, impunctate, black. Elytra finely striate with 
fine, deep, widely distant, strial punctures; intervals flat and impunctate 
except for a median series of very fine, close set, almost obsolete punctures ; 
basal half sanguineous, each elytron with a small round, antemedian black 
spot between third and sixth stria, which is obscurely connected to the black 
apical area on two specimens, these two also displaying a small faint posthu- 
meral macula. Pygidium deeply, moderately densely punctate, apex broadly 
rounded in tf , much narrowed in 9- Metasternum sanguineous except 
small infuscate areas near middle of hind coxae; metepisternum rufous at 
middle the anterior and posterior ends black. Metanotum and dorsal por- 
tions of abdomen under the wing covers yellow. An internal segment pro- 
truding under the raised pygidum in three females is testaceous, sulcate 
(almost cleft) medially at apex, laterally coarsely punctured and with fine, 
sparse hairs. 

Type and paratypes No. 22768, U. S. National Museum. 
Described from five specimens: A male collected at Cayamas, 



1.52 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 6, JUNE, IQ2O 

vSanta Clara Province, Cuba, May 8, 1904, by E. A. Schwarz, 
and four females collected on Paradise Key, Florida (Type lo- 
cality) November 10, 1917 (C. A. Mosier) February 19, 1919 (H. 
S. Barber) December 10, 1919 (C. Ikey Mosier) and January 8, 
1920 (Graham Fairchild). 

One of the specimens was beaten from a fern growth near the 
crown of a cabbage palmetto, and another was found high in an 
oak tree. The multitude of Orchids, Bromeliads, and other 
epiphytic plants on the branches of the hammock trees offers a 
difficult problem in the determination of the breeding habits of 
this beautiful little species, and all our attempts were futile with 
the possible exception that the old dead basal core of one of the 
large Bromliads (probably Tillandsia utriculata) was found dis- 
playing such exit hole and larval gallery as should be expected for 
this species, but no fragments of larval skin could be found. The 
quarantine against the related pests of sugar cane, banana, pine- 
apple, and palms, certain of which (Metamasins sericeus, Cosmo- 
polites sordidus) have been intercepted (although C. sordidus had 
already become established at Miami, Fla.), makes this appar- 
ently indigenous species of special interest and it remains to be 
seen whether or not it will, with the utilization of the Everglades, 
adopt an economic host plant. 



(Actual date of publication J^^ne 16, 1920} 



PEOC. BNT. SOC. WASH , VOL. 22 



PLATB 8 






METAMASIUS MOSIERI BARBER X 10 FLORIDA AND CUBA 



VOL. 22 OCTOBER 1920 No. 7 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS 

BURKE, H. E. SOME NOTES ON THE GENUS TRACHYKELE, WITH A DE- 
SCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES (BUPRESTIDAE, COLEOPTERA) 168 

COCKERELL, T. D. A. A NEW TRIGONALID FROM INDIA (HYM.) 191 

FISHER, W. S. A NEW GENUS AND SEVERAL NEW SPECIES OF CERAMBY- 

CIDAE (COL.) 153 

HEINRICH, CARL COLEOPHORA NOTES WITH DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW 

SPECIES (LEPID.) 159 

JACKSON, L. O. BUMBLEBEES OF DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA AND VICINITY 

(HYM., BREMUS) 162 

JONES, THOS. H. A PECULIARLY MARKED ADULT OF NEZARA VIRIDULA 

L. (HEMIP.) 171 

SCHAUS, W. NEW SPECIES OF NEOTROPICAL PYRAUSTINAE (LEPID.) 172 



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October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



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ORGANIZED MARCH 12, 1884. 

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OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1920. 

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President W. R. WALTON 

First Vice-President A. B. GAHAN 

Second Vice-President , A. G. BOVING 

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U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

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VOL. 22 OCTOBER 1920 No. 



A NEW GENUS AND SEVERAL NEW SPECIES OF CERAMBYCIDAE. 

(COL.) 

BY W. S. FISHER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

In working over the coleoptera received from the field men of 
the Branch of Forest Insects, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, dur- 
ing the past year, the following apparently new species of Cer- 
ambycidae were found. For one of these, a species from Ari- 
zona, the larva of which lives in the branches of Canotia, it was 
found necessary to erect a new genus. 

All types and specimens mentioned are deposited in the U. S. 
National Museum at Washington. 

Anoplocurius, new genus. 

Maxillary and labial palpi about sub-equal in length; last joint oblong 
sides nearly parallel, truncate at apex. Ligula membranous. Antennal 
tubercles not prominent, contiguous. Head transverse; eyes large, coarsely 
granulated, deeply emarginate. Antennae, of the male, one and two-thirds 
times as long as the body; of female, about sub-equal in length to the body; 
twelve-jointed. Prothorax longer than wide, cylindrical. Scutellum wider 
than long, rounded posteriorly. Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax, 
without eburneous spots; sides parallel; apices separately rounded. Pros- 
ternum very narrow between the coxae. Anterior coxal cavities strongly 
angulated, open behind. Intermediate coxal cavities angulated and closed 
externally. Femora moderately clavate, slightly flattened, not dentate be- 
neath. Tibiae slender, not carinate longitudinally, with two equal spines 
at the apex. First joint of posterior tarsi as long as the two following joints 
united. Body narrow, linear, somewhat flattened, first abdominal segment 
as long as the two following segments united. 

Genotype. Anoplocurius canotiae Fisher. 

The species for which this genus is founded has the general 
aspect of the genus Citrius and some of the small species of Ela- 
phidion. From the former it is easily distinguished by not having 
a tooth on the femur, and from both of these genera by having 
a twelve-jointed antennae. 

This new genus belongs to LeConte and Horn's tribe Ceramby- 
cini, and to Lacordaire's group Callidiopsid.es, but it seems to be 
one of the new discoveries which do not fit well in any of the 
proposed groups. 

153 



154 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

Anoplocurius canotiae, new species. 

Male. Unicolorous brown, shining. The sculpture of the head and pro- 
thorax consisting of intervening lines forming a fine network; surface sparsely 
clothed with long flying hairs. Prothorax with sides parallel to the posterior 
third then obliquely narrowed to the base. Antennae filiform, not carinate 
and without spines; first joint with the sculpture similar to the prothorax, 
one-half as long as the third, slightly clavate and arcuate; second joint very 
small, wider than long; third and following joints nearly equal in length; 
joints three to twelve finely punctate, rather densely pubescent, with some 
longer hairs on the inner side. Elytra about three times as long as the pro- 
thorax; sides parallel; coarsely but not densely punctate over entire sur- 
face, from each puncture arises a short white semi-erect hair. Underside of 
head in front, and posterior part of prosternum with irregular transverse 
striae. Metasternum and abdomen sparsely punctate, and sparsely clothed 
with long white recumbent hairs. First ventral abdominal segment with a 
large broad swelling on the median portion, of which the apical margin is 
clothed with a series of long erect hairs. Legs feebly pubescent with short 
hairs intermixed with longer erect ones. Hind femora extending to the mid- 
dle of the fourth ventral abdominal segment. 

Length 7 mm., width 1.5 mm. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the third antennal joint about 
one-half as long as the first and with a short spine at the apex; fourth joint 
three-fourths as long as the third; joints four to eleven gradually decreasing 
in length; joint twelve one-half as long as the eleventh. Hind femora extend- 
ing to the fourth ventral abdominal segment. First ventral abdominal seg- 
ment smooth at middle without any protuberance. 

Length 7 mm.; width 1.5 mm. 

Type Locality. Cotton City, Arizona. Elevation 1400 feet. 
Mr. Geo. Hofer, collector. 

Other Localities. Sabino Canyon, Arizona. 

Type. Cat. No. 22821, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Described from 25 specimens, eleven males and fourteen fe- 
males, recorded under Bureau of Entomology number, Hopk. U. 
S. 10087e. Specimens reared from material collected March 12, 
1919, by Mr. Geo. Hofer from dead branches of Canotia and sub- 
mitted with the following note: "Larvae removed from be- 
tween the bark and wood and from the heartwood of dead branches 
of an unknown bush, which occurs on the edge of a strip of desert 
near Cotton City." The plant has been identified by Dr. Paul 
Standley, Botanist of the Smithsonian Institution as Canotia 
holacantha Torrey. Another male specimen in the collection was 
collected August 31, 1919, by Geo. Hofer, at Sabino Canyon, 
Arizona, at light. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. J, OCT., 1920 155 

Callidium pseudotsugae, new species. 

Male. Oblong, dull black throughout above; beneath, legs and antennae 
shining black, with a faint bluish reflection; parallel; pubescence erect, black 
and bristling from the head and prothorax laterally, almost wanting and 
extremely short on the elytra. Head coarsely and confluently punctate, 
punctures coarser and more distinct between the eyes; median line finely 
impressed. Antennae as long as the body; first joint twice as thick as the 
following joints and two times as long as the second; joints one to four strongly 
incrassated at apex; second joint a little more than half as long as the third; 
tenth and eleventh joints sub-equal in length; last joint rather broadly 
rounded at apex, not appendiculate. Prothorax transverse, two-fifths wider 
than long, slightly wider than the elytra, widest at about the middle; sides 
strongly, evenly rounded, rather roundly converging towards apex, more 
rapidly converging and rounded from a little behind the middle to the very 
fainty subtubulate base; surface with the lateral parts very densely and 
deeply punctured and separated from the median impressed part, with coarse 
but very shallow punctures, by a well defined and abrupt line, which has a 
well marked sinus just behind the middle. Elytra three and one-half times 
as long as the prothorax; sides parallel, obtusely rounded at apices; surface 
alutaceous, coarsely irregularly punctured, margins of punctures indefinite, 
with minute setose punctures in their depth. Scutellum nude, very ob- 
tusely and broadly ogival; surface broadly concave. Prosternum densely 
and deeply punctured over entire surface, similar to the lateral part of pro- 
thorax. Beneath moderately punctured and sparsely clothed with long erect 
blackish hairs. Femora strongly swollen. Tibiae arcuate. 

Length 10-13 mm.; width 3.5-4.5 mm. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the antennae only two-thirds 
as long as the body. Prothorax as wide as the elytra with the median part 
not impressed and the entire surface uniformly punctured with coarse but 
very shallow punctures. Prosternum finely, sparsely and transversely punc- 
tato-rugose, shining. Femora and first antennal joint not as strongly swollen 
as in the male. 

Length 10-12 mm. ; width 3.5-4.5 mm. 

Type Locality. Wright, California. F. B. Herbert, collector. 

Other Localities. Big Basin, Santa Cruz Mountains, California. 
T. E. Snyder, collector; Santa Clara Co., Calif. (Coquillett) ; 
Oregon (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Type. Cat. No. 22S22, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Described from fifteen specimens. Nine males and two fe- 
males, recorded under Bureau of Entomology number, Hopk. 
U. S. 14483a and reared from material collected by Mr. F. B. 
Herbert in wood of Douglas fir (Psendotsuga taxifolid). Three 
males and one female recorded under Bureau of Entomology 
number, Hopk. U. S. 15190, collected June 13, 1917, by T. E. 



156 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

Snyder on freshly cut branches of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxi- 
folia). In the collection there is also a specimen labeled "Oregon, 
Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz," and another labeled "Santa Clara 
Co., Cal., Collection Coquillett." 

This species falls in the group where the antennae differs con- 
siderably in length in the sexes and having the line separating the 
median and lateral parts of the prothorax well marked. It is 
closely allied to antennatum Newm., but differs from that species 
by having the upper surface entirely black. 

Callidium sequarium, new species. 

Male. Oblong, black throughout above, shining, parallel, pubescence 
"erect, black and bristling from the head and prothorax laterally, almost 
wanting and very short on the elytra. Head coarsely and densely punctured 
over entire surface; median line slightly impressed in some specimens, absent 
in others. Antennae two-thirds as long as the body; first joint not quite 
two times as thick as the following joints; joints one to four strongly incras- 
sated at apex; second joint half as long as the third; joints ten and eleven 
about sub-equal in length ; last joint broadly rounded at apex, not appendicu- 
late. Prothorax not quite as transverse as in pseudotsiigae, narrower than 
the elytra, one-fourth wider than long; widest just in front of middle; sides 
strongly rounded, roundly converging towards apex, more rapidly converg- 
ing and rounded from about the middle to the base, which is not at all con- 
stricted or subtubulate; surface coarsely, deeply and closely punctate, the 
punctures becoming deeper and more rugose, although only a little less 
shining, at sides; the abrupt line separating the median and lateral areas 
scarcely traceable. Elytra three and one-half times as long as the prothorax; 
sides parallel, obtusely rounded at apices; surface very coarsely, deeply and 
densely punctate, the punctures distorted and without well defined mar- 
gins, the minute setose punctures in their depths not as well defined as in C. 
pseudotsugae. Scutellum broadly and obtusely ogival, surface coarsely punc- 
tate. Prosternum very coarsely and deeply punctured, with a transversely 
and obtusely angulate rugose area before the coxae, and another similar 
area along the anterior margin, the punctures distinctly separated and well 
defined. Beneath black without any bluish reflections, shining; surface mod- 
erately punctured and sparsely clothed with long semi-erect hairs. Femora 
strongly swollen. Tibiae arcuate. 

Length 11 mm.; width 3.5 mm. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the antennae only one-half as 
long as the body with the joints not quite as strongly swollen. Prothorax 
with the densely punctured lateral area more shining, the punctures finer, 
more confluent and less deep. Prosternum very finely, sparsely and trans- 
versely punctato-rugose, shining. Femora not as strongly swollen as in the 
male. Tibiae scarcely arcuate. 

Length 11-12 mm.; width 4-4.5 mm. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., I 920 1 "), 

Locality. Giant Forest Calif., F. C. Craighead, collector. 
Type. Cat. No. 22S23, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Described from seven specimens, two males and five females, 
recorded under Bureau of Entomology number, Hopk. U. S. 
10651p, and reared from material collected by Mr. F. C. Craig- 
head, June 29, 1918, under bark on fallen limbs of Big Tree (Se- 
quoia washingtonicino) . 

In general form this species resembles janthinum Lee., by hav- 
ing the antennae apparently differing but little sexually, and the 
median and lateral parts of the prothorax not separated by a 
distinct line. It differs from that species, however, by having 
the entire surface of a shining black color. 

Callidium juniperi, new species. 

Male. Form elongate, greenish cyaneous and strongly shining above; be- 
neath, legs and antennae piceous black, shining with a slight metallic reflec- 
tion; pubescence semi-erect, black and rather long on the head and pro- 
thorax, almost wanting and extremely short on the elytra. Head coarsely, 
deeply and confluently punctured over the entire surface; median line finely 
impressed between the antennal tubercles. Antennae three-fourths as long 
as the body; first joint not much thicker than the following joints; joints one 
to four strongly incrassated at apex; second joint about one-half as long as 
the third; tenth joint two-thirds as long as the eleventh, which is abruptly 
pointed at apex. Prothorax moderately transverse, about as wide as the 
elytra, one-half wider than long, widest at the middle; sides rather evenly 
and strongly rounded, a little more rapidly converging to the base, which is 
not subtubulate; surface with the punctures coarse, deep and close-set, be- 
coming more rugose though only a little less shining at the sides; the abrupt 
line separating the median and lateral areas not traceable. Scutellum broadly 
rounded at apex; surface broadly concave. Elytra nearly four times as long 
as the prothorax ; sides distinctly narrowing from base to the very broadly 
rounded apices; surface coarsely, deeply and densely punctate throughout, 
the punctures irregular and polygonally crowded, without well defined mar- 
gins and with minute setose punctures in their depth; intervals shining, 
nearly smooth, becoming a little more rugose towards the apex. Prosternum 
very coarsely and deeply punctured, with a transversely and obtusely angu- 
late rugose area before the coxae, and a narrow, nearly smooth area along 
the anterior margin. Femora more gradually swollen than in C. pseiidot- 
SHgae. Tibiae arcuate. 

Length 10 mm.; width 3.2 mm. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the antennae only a little more 
than one-half as long as the body, with the last joint appendiculate. Pro- 
thorax with the lateral areas more densely and finely punctate, the punc- 
tures more confluent and less dtep than in the male. Prosternum very 



158 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. J , OCT., 1920 

finely, sparsely and transversely punctato-rugose, shining. Femora less 
strongly swollen. 

Length 11 mm.; width 3.2 mm. 

Type Locality. Maxwell, New Mexico. D. J. Caffrey, col- 
lector. 

Type. Cat. No. 22824, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Described from five specimens, three males and two females, 
collected by D. J. Caffrey, July 21, 1916, under bark of Cedar 
(Juniperus sp.). 

Two of these paratypes, male and female, differ from the type in 
being much smaller, only measuring 7 mm. in length. This is prob- 
ably due to the lack of food, causing the larvae to pupae pre- 
maturely, which is often the case in the family Cerambycidae. 

This species belongs to the group, including the species which 
have the antennae and prothorax differing very little in the sexes. 
It can be easily distinguished from any of these species by its 
wedge-shaped form, the elytra being distinctly narrowed from 
base to apex. 

Ataxia arizonica, new species. 

Elongate, parallel, piceous black, sparsely clothed with recumbent whitish 
and brownish ochreous pubescence, tending to form irregular, indistinct lines 
on the elytra, with rather thick, semi-erect black setae arising from the elytral 
punctures. Head finely, densely punctate, with a few coarser and deeper 
scattered punctures intermixed, about as wide as long, feebly convex in front 
and moderately impressed between the antennal tubercles. Antennae nearly 
one and one-half times as long as the entire body (cf ), about as long as the 
body ( 9 ); first joint four-sevenths as long as the third, clavate; joints three 
and four sub-equal in length; joint five a little longer than four and sub- 
equal in length to the seventh, eighth and eleventh; ninth and tenth joints 
a little shorter than the eleventh; the joints very feebly annulated at base, 
densely pubescent, with fine, short, whitish and brownish hairs intermixed 
with long, sub-erect ones. Prothorax about as wide as long, feebly narrower 
at base than apex; sides slightly arcuate with a feeble tubercle at middle; 
surface densely punctate with a few larger punctures intermixed, pubescence 
dense, nearly concealing the surface sculpture, except an elongate space at 
the middle, which is denuded. Elytra three times as long as the prothorax 
and only a little wider than it at the base; humerals rounded; sides nearly 
parallel; apices sub- truncate; surface with rows of irregular, moderately coarse 
punctures, becoming coarser and more confused behind the scutellum. Scutel- 
lum triangular, rounded behind, pubescent. Beneath and legs densely clothed 
with white and ochreous pubescence. Front coxae angulated, closed behind, 
and moderately separated. 

Length 10-12.5 mm.; width 2.2-3 mm. 
Type Locality. Sabino Canyon, Arizona, Geo. Hofer, collector. 

Other Localities. San Simon, Arizona, Hubbard and Schwarz, 
collectors. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. J, OCT., 1 920 159 

Type. Cat. No. 22S25, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Described from ten specimens, four males and six females. 
Nine of these specimens were collected by Geo. Hofer at light 
between May 28 and August 10, and the other specimen was col- 
lected by Messrs. Hubbard and Schwarz, on July 5th. 

This species is allied to crypto, Say, but is easily distinguished 
from that species by being more parallel, pubescence more dis- 
tinctly variegated with white and ochreous hairs, and by having 
the antennae not distinctlv annulated. 



COLEOPHORA NOTES WITH DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW 

SPECIES fLEPID.). 

BY CARL HEINRICH, Bureau of Entomology. 

Coleophora occidentis Zeller. 

Dyar Cat. No. 6034. 

Zeller describes the larval case of occidentis as very similar to 
that of the European nigricella. This would indicate that it is 
a good species and should be removed from its present position 
as a synonym of pruniella Clem. The larval case of the latter 
as described by Miss Braun (Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist. XXI, No. 4, 
p. 157, 1914) is of quite a different structure, resembling that of 
leucochrysella much more than it does nigricella. 

Coleophora acamtopappi Busck. 

Busck. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 17, p. 87, 1915. 

Busck described this species from adults only. We "have since 
received two reared specimens from H. Jobbins-Pomeroy with 
larval cases. The larval case is very striking and the longest 
yet recorded from North America. It is white; cylindrical; 25 
to 2<S mm. long by 4 mm. thick; tapering slightly to posterior 
end, which is triangularly compressed; mouth deflecting to 45 
degrees. The larvae were taken feeding on Coreopsis species, 
Havana, 111., moths issuing in June. Busck's type was reared 
from Acamtopappus from Los Angeles Co., Calif. 

Coleophora astericola, n. sp. 

Labial palpi grayish fuscous streaked with white above and below; second 
joint tufted. Antennae white faintly annulated with pale gray-brown; basal 
joint slightly thickened with appressed, glossy gray-brown scales, not tufted. 
Face, head and thorax glossy, gray-brown with narrow borders of white 
above the. eyes and antennae and along the inner margins of the patagia. 
Fore wings dark grayish brown with two longitudinal white stripes, one on 
costa from base to middle, the other extending along the lower vein of tin- 
cell , and disappearing towards tornus; a few blackish scales scattered over 
the wing; cilia concolorous with wing, somewhat marked with white scales 



160 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

at tornus. Hind wings dark grayish brown; cilia concolorous. Abdomen 
pale glossy gray-brown. Legs white, longitudinally banded on outer sides 
with grayish fuscous. 

Alar Expanse. 13 mm. 
Locality. Boston, Mass. 
Food Plant. Aster multiflorus. 
Type. Cat. No. 22806, U. S. N. M. 

Described from a single female reared September 20, 1920, by 
August Busck, from larva taken feeding on Aster multiflorus. 
This species is nearest to C. infuscatella Clemens, but separable 
from it by having two, not four, longitudinal white stripes on the 
forewings. 

The larval case is grayish white, of silk, evenly and entirely 
covered with small particles of sand (possibly an accidental accre- 
tion from the rearing jar); cylindrical; slender and slightly taper- 
ing toward posterior end; 13 mm. long by about 2 mm. thick 
at the widest part just before middle; posterior end rounded and 
flatly compressed; mouth deflected to 45 degrees. 

Coleophora veroniaeella Chambers. 

Dyar Cat. No. 6051. 

Braun. Ent. News, Vol. 23, p. 163, 1912. 

This species was described by Chambers from larval cases taken 
on Vernonia. Miss Braun later reared and described the moths. 
During 1914 I found cases answering Chambers' description very 
abundantly on a species of swamp Helieanthus in a low, shaded, 
damp piece of woodland at Falls Church, Va. The moths reared 
from these proved to be Chambers' species. Larvae were taken 
feeding in May and adults issued June 24 to July 10. The near- 
est iron weed (Venonia) is about a mile distant but to date I have 
not found any larval cases on it. As there is no doubt as to the 
identity of the adults, both plants must be regarded as food 
plants. 
Coleophora tiliafoliella Clem. 

Dyar Cat. No. 6048. 

Kearfott. Can. Ent., Vol. 36, p. 324, 1904. 

Kearfott describes the moth reared from cases collected at 
Ottawa, Canada, as having white scaling on and below the costa 
of forewing. Specimens in U. S. N. M. (reared by Wm. Wild, 
from Gowanda, N. Y.) show no such white markings, which 
would indicate that there are two pistol case feeders on Tilia, 
or that the species is more variable than others in this genus. 
The cases, however, agree in every detail with Clemens' descrip- 
tion. To date I have not been able to locate Kearfott's specimen. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. ~, OCT., 1 920 161 

Coleophora atromarginata Braun. 

Braun. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 21, p. 166, 1914. 

Syn. C. currucipennella Walsingham (nee Zeller). Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
p. 430, 1882. 

Dyar Cat. No. 6014. 

This is our common oak-feeding pistol case bearer which Wal- 
singham and others have identified as the European C. curruci- 
pennella Zell. It is somewhat variable in size, ranging anywhere 
from 10.5 to 14.5 mm. Miss Braun's description was drawn 
from a unique and rather small specimen. The average size is 
about 13 mm. alar expanse. There are consistent differences 
both in larval cases and adult moths between our American 
species and the true curntcipennella. In the latter the flaps of 
the cases are as a rule larger and more delicate and the upper 
edge of the barrel is rougher, containing one or more projections. 
In the American species the barrel is smooth. In currucipennella 
the yellow stripes on the forewings of the moth are continuous 
from the base of the wings, while in atromarginata more than half 
the wing from the base is white without appreciable markings, 
the yellow stripes becoming indistinct only in the apical portion 
where they shade into a dark brown at the tip. The name cur- 
rucipennella should be dropped from our lists as this form does 
not occur in the United States. 

Coleophora atlantica, n. sp. 

Palpi white faintly streaked with golden brown above; second joint tufted. 
Antennae white faintly annulated beyond second joint with light golden 
brown; base covered above by large white projecting tuft; under side of tuft 
shaded with pale golden brown. Face, head and thorax silvery white. Fore 
wings silver white, lightly irrorated beyond middle with brownish scales; 
costal cilia white; cilia at apex pale, dull fuscous; dorsal cilia grayish golden. 
Hind wings lead gray, cilia concolorous with a somewhat more golden fuscous 
tinge on dorsum near apex. Abdomen white dusted with fuscous; anal 
tuft silvery white. Tips of tarsi faintly annulated with golden brown. 

Alar Expanse. 11-15 mm. 

Locality. Eastern U. S. (Type locality, Falls Church, Va.) 

Food Plant. Prunus serotina. 

Type. Cat. No. 22S05, U. S. N. M. 

Described from six reared and four collected specimens (males 
and females) from Falls Church, Va. (Heinrich reared, five speci- 
mens from Prunus serotina under Hopk. U. S. Nos. 11135a, 
12127a, and 13432a; June 7 to July 3), East Aurora, N. Y. (Wm. 
Wild, reared one specimen July 14), Washington. D. C. (August 
Busck, one specimen, July), Oak Station, Pa. (Fred. MarlofT, 
one specimen, July 1), Trenton, Ontario, Canada. (Evans, two 



162 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

specimens, June 21 and July 14). This is the species wrongly 
identified by Kearfott as C. pruniella and so listed in the New 
Jersey list. It is very close to C. sacramenta Heinrich. In fact, 
for a long time I thought that the California pest on cultivated 
plum might be our eastern wild cherry feeder that had been car- 
ried west on nursery stock. The cases of the two, however, are 
enough different to forbid us placing them under one name with- 
out more definite evidence. In the adult of atlantica the dark 
shadings on the under side of the antannal tuft and at the outer 
margin of the apical cilia of the forewings are paler than those of 
sacramenta . 

The larvae feed externally on the leaves of the wild cherry and 
during April and May their cases are quite abundant locally 
about Washington. The case is of the "pistol" type, black, with 
the flaps rather small and closely appressed; the mouth deflected 
to about 45 degrees and the posterior end evenly rounded giving 
the "pistol handle" a rather small and tightly curled appearance; 
length of case 6 to 8 mm. 



BUMBLEBEES OF DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA AND VICINITY. 

(Hym., Bremus.) 
BY L. O. JACKSON. 

The region covered by this paper is the same as that of several 
local lists on the fauna and flora of the District of Columbia and 
vicinity, being the area within a radius of fifteen miles from the 
Capitol. Great Falls and Mount Vernon, Va., are about the 
northern and southern, and Beltsville, Md., and Dunn-Loring, 
Va., the eastern and western limits, respectively. 

This list comprises records of several years collecting in this 
locality and contains a key for the separation of the species found 
here. Under the annotated list will be found the records of 
earliest and latest date of capture of each sex of the several 
species. In this connection the observations of another writer 
on one of the included species may be of interest. 

Frison 1 says that at Champaign, 111., auricomus queens began 
to fly about the 12th of May. Under artificial breeding condi- 
tions the first worker emerged July 20, with five more by July 25. 
Under more natural conditions the preceding year, a worker was 
found June 24, and "judging from the - - appearance of the 

worker, the worker had only recently appeared." In the last 
paper cited, the first male emerged July 22. With us, the earliest 
record for queens is April 6, with several for the end of April 
(28-30), and the first collected record for males is July 14. 

1 T. H. Prison. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., Vol. XI, 1918, p. 43. 

2 Ibid., Vol. X, 1917, p. 278. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., IQ2O Kio 

In determining the sex of bumblebees I have found the shape 
of the tarsal claws, first noted by E. T. Cresson, 1 to be very con- 
venient. The claws are bifid in both sexes, but in the females 
(queens and workers) the inner tooth is short, usually not more 
than half the length of the outer, though occasionally somewhat 
more, but always shorter than the outer. In the males, on the 
other hand, the outer and inner teeth are of equal length. It is 
as though, in the females, the claw had been cut from the inside, 
short of the apex, while in the males, it had been cut, split, rather, 
from the very tip. This character holds good for all species I 
have examined. Unfortunately there is no way known at pres- 
ent to distinguish workers from queens, save relative size, the 
workers always being smaller. But in some cases it is a question 
whether the specimen is a small queen or a large worker. 

This paper is based on specimens brought together by numerous 
collectors, in addition to the writer. The material is chiefly in 
the collections of the National Museum, the Biological Survey 
and the author. 

The species occurring in this vicinity may be separated by the 
following keys. 

Queens. 

1. Interaler band or black hair between the wings 7 

No interaler band 2 

2. Lower half of pleura black perplexus 

Pleura yellow to bases of legs '. . . 3 

3. Abdomen with more than half the second segment yellow 5 

Abdomen with not more than half the second segment yellow 4 

4. No yellow pile beyond the first segment impatiens 

Some yellow pile on second segment, never more than half. . . .bimaculatu* 

5. Malar space distinctly longer than it is wide at apex vagans 

Malar space not distinctly longer than it is wide at apex 6 

6. Ocelli large, placed well below supraorbital line, lateral ocelli nearer the 

eye margins than to each other separatus 

Ocelli small, near supraorbital line, lateral ocelli not nearer the eye 

margins than to each other affinis 

1 . Abdomen with first four dorsal segments yellow fervidus 

Not so colored 8 

8. First two dorsal abdominal segments yellow fraternus 

Usually with yellow pile on first three segments, first sometimes black. . .0 

9. Ocelli large, placed well below supraorbital line. uuricomus 

Ocelli small, placed near the supraorbital line peiinsylvanit-us 

Workers. 

1 . No interaler band 2 

1 Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Vol. II, 1863, p. 84. 



164 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., IQ2O 

Interaler band present, more or less distinct 6 

2. Pleura with lower half covered with dark pile perplexus 

Pleura covered with yellow pile to bases of legs 3 

3. Ocelli large, placed well below the supraorbital line, lateral ocelli nearer 

the margins of the eyes than to each other separatus 

Ocelli small, near supraorbital line, lateral ocelli not nearer margins of 
eyes than to each other 4 

4. Malar space wider at apex than long impatiens 

Malar space as long or longer than width at apex 5 

5. Hypopygium with median carina on apical portion, second segment yel- 

low vagans 

Hypopygium with no median carina, usually some black on second seg- 
ment bimaculatus 

6. Ocelli large, placed well below supraorbital line, lateral ocelli nearer the 

margins of the eyes than to each other 7 

Ocelli small, near supraorbital line, lateral ocelli not nearer eye margins 
than to each other 8 

7. Not more than first two dorsal abdominal segments with yellow pile 

fraternus 

Usually with yellow pile on first three segments, first segment sometimes 
entirely dark auricomus 

8. Second segment with brownish red pile affinis 

Second segment yellow 9 

9. Only first three segments with yellow pile pennsylvanicus 

First four segments with yellow pile fervidus 

Males. 

1. Eyes swollen, ocelli well below supraorbital line 2 

Eyes not swollen, ocelli on or near supraorbital line 4 

2. Malar space a mere line fraternus 

Malar space one-third as long as wide 3 

3. More than first two dorsal abdominal segments covered with yellow 

pile auricomus 

Not more than first two segments with yellow pile separatus 

4. Interaler band present 1 5 

No interaler band, at most a few black hairs on disk 7 

5. Third dorsal abdominal segment black affinis 

Third dorsal adbominal segment yellow 6 

1 Mr. J. C. Crawford tells me that some western specimens of pennsyl- 
vanicus have the interaler band almost totally lacking. Should such spec- 
imens be found here they may be readily distinguished from perplexus, where 
they would run in this key, by having yellow pile on first four segments of 
abdomen. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. J , OCT., 1920 Hi.") 

6. Apex of abdomen black; all tibiae black, except posterior pair on inside; 

never much black pile on scutellum fervidus 

Apex of abdomen usually with some ferruginous pile; some of tibiae usu- 
ally with more or less ferruginous hair; yellow pile of scutellum often 
with strong admixture of black hair pennsylvanicus 

7. First three dorsal abdominal segments yellow perplexus 

Some black pile on third dorsal abdominal segment \ . .8 

8. Only the first segment with yellow pile impaliens 

Second segment with more or less yellow pile 9 

9. Always some black pile on second segment bimaculatus 

Second segment entirely yellow vagans 

For complete descriptions of the following species the reader 

is referred to the "Bombidae of the New World," by Henry J. 
Franklin. 1 

Annotated List of Species. 
1. Bremus affinis (Cresson). 

This is one of the rare species in this region. The following 
are the only records I have after five years collecting : 

Queens, April 30, 1916 (Maryland, near Plummer Id., on flowers of Clechoma 
hederacea, H. L. Viereck; Virginia, near Plummer Id., Md., 
flowers of Mertensia virginica, L,. O. Jackson). 
June 28, 1917 (Beltsville, Md., on flowers of Xolisma ligustrina, 

L. O. Jackson). 

September 5, 1915 (Maryland, near Plummer Id., L. O. Jackson). 
Workers, July 1, 1915 (Plummer Id., Md., W. L. McAtee). 

2. Bremus bimaculatus (Cresson). 

A common species throughout the summer. The earliest and 
latest dates of the capture of the three sexes are as follows: 
Queens March 31, at Mt. Vernon, Va., on flowers of Salix searicea (W. L. 

McAtee) . 
July 16, at Dyke, Va., on flowers of Pontederia cordata (W. L. 

McAtee). 
Workers June 4, at Mt. Vernon, Va., on flowers of Diospyros virginiana (W. 

L. McAtee), and Beltsville, Md. 
Sept. 12, at Beltsville, Md. 
Males July 4, at Virginia near Plummer Id. (H. L. Viereck) . 

Aug. 1, at Mt. Vernon, Va. 

I have the following flower records for this species, but it must 
be remembered that this data is incomplete. Bumblebees are 
apt to visit almost any flower. 

Pontederia cordata Xolisma ligustrina 

Salix sericea Diospyros virginiana 

1 Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. 38. 



166 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

Bras sic a sp. Hydrophyllum sp. 

Azalea nudi flora 

3. Bremus impatiens (Cresson). 

Common throughout the summer. The workers of this species 
are extremely variable in size, the smallest bumblebee I have 
ever taken (8 mm.) belonging here. This species and vagans are 
perhaps the most abundant of local forms. 
Queens April 16, at Mt. Vernon, Va. (W. L. McAtee). 

May 28, at Dyke, Va. 
Workers June 30, at Eastern Branch, near Bennings, D. C. 

Oct. 11, at Spring Hill, Va. 
Males July 12, at Plummer Id., Md. 

Oct. 28, at Cabin John, Md. (R. C. Shannon). 

The queens of this species seem to disappear early in the year,, 
though there should be some out in the fall. The workers are 
very abundant from early July to late September. In October 
the males are practically the only representatives of the Bremidae 
to be found. October 24, 1915, at Chain Bridge, Va., I saw 
fully two dozen flying around a small group of asters. 

I have the following specific flower records, although this species 
feeds on almost every flower. 

Pontederia cordata Chrysopsis mariana 

Xolisma ligustrina 

4. Bremus perplexus (Cresson). 

No representatives of this species have been recorded from this 
locality, but on the chance that it might be picked up, it has 
been included in the keys. It has been taken to the south (Pen- 
nington Gap, Va.), although it is a northern form. If found it 
will probably be in the higher parts near Great Falls, Va. 

5. Bremus vagans (F. Smith). 

A common species from May to October. 
Queens April 28, on and near Plummer Id., Md. 

July 12 at Plummer Id., Md. 

Oct. 30, at Cabin John, Md. (R. C. Shannon). 
Worker June 9, at Beltsville, Md. 

Oct. 31, at Great Falls, Va. (R. A. Emmons). 
Male July 7, at Virginia, near Plummer Id., Md. 

Oct. 11, at Spring Hill, Va. 

The queens were abundant on April 28, and close collecting a 
trifle earlier would probably have shown them present. The 
questionable record is either a small queen or large worker, prob- 
ably the latter. The worker from Great Falls is the latest date 
I have taken bumblebees in this region. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. J, OCT., 1920 167 

Flowers record are: 

Pontederia cordatn Monarda fistulosa 

Brassica juncea Pentstemon hirsnta 

Mertensia virginica Arcthun miiin.t 

6. Bremus fervidus (Fabricius). 
A rather uncommon species here. 
Queens April 28, at Virginia, near Plummer Id., Md. 
May 19, at Great Falls, Va. (W. L. McAtee). 
Worker June 14, at Rives, Md. 

Aug. 29, at Woodridge, D. C. 

Male Sept. 23, at Hunting Creek, Va. (W. L. McAtee;. 
Oct. 12, at Plummer Id., Md. (A. K. Fisher). 

I have only two flower records for this species Mertensia virgin- 
and Koellia flexuosa. 



7. Bremus pennsylvanicus (De Geer). 
A common species all summer. 
Queens April 22, at Mt. Vernon, Va. (W. L. McAtee). 

June 19, at Bladensburg, Aid. 

Worker April 28, on Maryland shore near Plummer Id. 
June 14, at Rives, Md. 
Oct. 15, at Dyke, Va. (G. P. Van Eseltine). 
Male July 27, on Maryland shore near Plummer Id. 
Oct. 17, at Falls Church, Va. (J. Silver). 

The April 28th worker may be a small queen, but it is not im- 
possible that it is a worker. I have heard of a record for this 
species of March 10 for the queen, but have not been able to 
verify it. If true, April 28th is not too early for workers to 
appear. 

I have the following flower records : 

Prunus sp. Chrysopsis mariana 

Gentiana andrewsi Cirsium lanceolatum 

Mertensia virginica 

The gentian record is interesting as in order to get at the nec- 
tar the bee had to pry open the end of the flower and once in, 
back out. G. P. Van Eseltine, who collected the specimen, says 
it had worked on several blossoms before he took it, and had 
simply parted the corolla at the tip. 

8. Bremus auricomus (Robertson). 

This and the following species belong to the subgenus Bombias 
and are none of them common in this region. 
Queens April 6, at Plummer Id., Md. (W. L. McAtee). 
Sept. 10, on Maryland shore near Plummer Id. 
Worker July 24, at Four Mile Run. Va. 



168 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1 920 

Male July 14, at Lakeland, Md. (W. L. McAtee). 

I have only one record each for worker and male. 

9. Bremus fraternus (F .Smith). 

One worker from Colonial Beach, Va., is the only specimen of 
this species I have seen from near here. Mr. J. C. Crawford, for- 
merly of U. S. National Museum, has taken one specimen of this 
species near Bethesda, Md. If it breeds here regularly it is 
extremely local in distribution. 

10. Bremus separatus (Cresson). 

About as common as auricomus. 
Queens May 7, at Plummer Id., Md. 

.Sept. 16, near Glen Echo, Md. 
Worker June 8, at Cherry Hill, Va. (J. Silver). 

July 25, at Rosslyn, Va. (W. L. McAtee). 
Male July 25, at Great Falls, Va. (W. L. McAtee). 

Aug. 1, at Mt. Vernon, Va. 

Psithyrus laboriosus (Fabricius). 

Only one species of this genus occurs here. The female may 
be told by always having first two dorsal abdominal segments 
black, usually the entire abdomen is covered with black pile. 
The male has a rougher, more unkempt appearance than any male 
of Bremus found here, though perplexus males approach it. 

Females occur from May 17 to August 29, and the one male 
I have from this locality was taken July 28. 



SOME NOTES ON THE GENUS TRACHYKELE WITH A DESCRIPTION 
OF A NEW SPECIES (BUPRESTIDAE, COLEOPTERA). 

BY H. E. BURKE, Bureau of Entomology. 

Seventeen years ago Mr. E. A. Schwarz showed the writer the 
single specimen of Trachykele then in the United States National 
Museum and said: "Do not bring in the common things. Get 
the rare ones. Get the rare ones." Since that time over a hun- 
dred specimens of the four named species have passed through 
the hands of the writer and the Museum now has the most repre- 
sentative collection of Trachykele in the world. All from the 
deep impression made on the mind of a young collector by the 
inspiring words of Mr Schwarz. 

In April, 1919, Mr. R. D. Hartman, of the Los Gatos Forest 
Insect Laboratory, collected at Mt. St. Helena, Lake County, 
Calif., in the Sargent cypress (Cupressus sargentii) an adult of 
an apparently very distinct species. Larvae and infested wood 
were collected at the same time and on May 26 and May 29, 
respectively, two more adults of the same form emerged. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, XO. J, OCT., 1920 169 

The four named species of the genus fall into two groups : one 
with the beetles green and the impressed area on the dorsal plate 
of the prothorax of the larva broad, and the other with the beetles 
bronze and the impressed area on the dorsal plate of the larva 
narrow. The new species has the beetle bronze but otherwise 
more like the green species. Its general appearance is similar 
and the larva has the impressed area of the dorsal plate broad. 
Is it a sport of one of the present named species or is it a local 
surviving species of the genus which at one time may have con- 
tained a number of flourishing species? 

Taking the evidence as a whole, the writer is inclined to be- 
lieve that Trachykele is a vanishing genus. Many beetles of all 
of the species through some weakness fail to emerge from the 
wood. Sometimes fragments of many dead specimens are found 
in an old scar on one tree. This condition may explain the 
rarity of specimens in most collections. At least, it indicates to 
the writer that the species now existing are not very well fitted 
to present conditions and probably are slowly vanishing. 

The new species appears more closely related to blondeli Mars, 
than to any of the other species. It may be a sport of that 
species. Blondeli occurs in the same host within a hundred miles 
and at its closest point appears to vary considerably. Some 
specimens are entirely green while others have golden or coppery 
margins. In other localities all specimens are green. 

Trachykele hartmani, n. sp. 

Adult Holotype, Female. Large, stout, length 22 mm., width 8 mm., coarse 
elongate oval, widest about distal third of elytra; brownish bronze, elytra 
with a violet tinge and golden reflections, marked by black velvety depressed 
areas some of which tend to form three fasciae on each elytron and some 
smaller ones which tend to form rows along the suture; entire body beneath 
clothed with coarse whitish recumbent hairs and marked by large pits to 
and including the first abdominal sternum and by smaller pits beyond. Head 
marked by a short frontal ridge and clothed ventrally by the whitish hairs, 
eyes elongate oval and brownish; antennae reaching nearly to the caudal 
margin of the thorax, joints 1-4 rather round and long, 1st longest, joints 
5-11 more flattened and triangular. Prothorax, length 5 mm., width 7 mm., 
slightly wider at base than at apex, sides strongly angulate, caused by well 
developed lateral crests; disk with three anterior impressions and two large 
posterior ones, median anterior impression raised, terminating posteriorly in 
a smooth ridge which ends in a small pit close to the posterior margin, sur- 
face marked by large pits and some white hairs. Elytra slightly wider and 
three times as long as the prothorax, humeri rather prominent; sides slightly 
diverging for two-thirds of length, thence gradually narrowed; apex sub- 
truncate; disk rough, with numerous longitudinal and transverse ridges, sur- 



170 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

face pitted, without prominent hairs. Tibiae nearly straight, fifth ventral 
rounding. 

Allotype, Male. Length 16 mm., width 6'/2 mm., sides of elytra nearly 
parallel for two-thirds of length, thence gradually narrowed; fifth ventral 
truncate. 

Larva. Thorax broad, flattened, sub-quadrate, three segmented; abdomen 
slender, sub-cylindric, ten-segmented; texture smooth, shining; translucent 
whitish; pubescence sparse. Head, mostly retracted into prothorax, medium 
sub-orbicular, not strongly chitinized, mouth parts darker ; front well devel- 
oped, pits prominent, anterior frontal margin sinuate, anterior epistomal 
margin arcuate; clypeus sub-quadrangular, broader than long; labrum sub- 
cuniform, broader than long; antennae apparently three- jointed, basal joint 
large, 2nd long, cylindric distal margin fringed, 3rd very small, telescoped into 
the tip of the 2nd, bearing a long, lateral sub-distal bristle; mandibles broad, 
well developed, blackish, distinctly three-toothed; genae well developed, sub- 
quadrate, central margins darked anteriorly; gula narrow, darker anteriorly; 
mentum and sub-mentum fused, triangular; labium longer than broad, an- 
terior margin rounding, palpi sometimes faintly indicated; maxillae promi- 
nent, light colored, cardines large, irregular, much broader at base, stipes 
slightly clavate, shorter than cardo and darker, palpi about same length as 
stipes, two-jointed, 1st long and cylindrical, 2nd short and conical, lacinae 
about same length as first joint of palpus, flattened, declivent, inner margin 
setoes. Prothorax large, cordate; plates well developed, dull, rugulose; dorsal 
marked by an inverted Y of median grooves which has a large broad, diamond- 
shaped, reticulated depressed area surrounding its base, grooves and depressed 
area outlined by slightly larger rugosities; ventral marked by a broad median 
groove which has its anterior end surrounded by a broad reticulated depressed 
area, the whole forming a torch-like marking, and two small depressed areas, 
one on each side of the median groove about one-third of the distance from 
the posterior margin. Mesothorax narrower than prothorax, very short, 
bearing a large spiracle on each side near the anterior margin. Metathorax 
slightly broader than mesothorax and about twice as long. First abdominal 
segment united to metathorax, broadest anteriorly, shorter than following 
segments, without distinct lateral folds, spiracle on each side near anterior 
margin; segments 2-8 subcylindric, with distinct lateral folds, spiracle on 
each side dorsad of lateral fold, l / 4 distance from anterior margin; gth slightly 
narrower and shorter than preceding, broadest anteriorly, with trace of lateral 
fold; loth small, conical, divided posteriorly into two short, fleshy lobes. 

Habitat. Mt. St. Helena, Lake County, Calif. Described 
from two females, one male and a number of larvae collected by 
Mr. R. D. Hartman from the wood of the Sargent cypress (Cu- 
pressus sargentii Jepson). 

Type, Allotype and Type Larvae .Cat. No. 22804, U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 171 



A PECULIARLY MARKED ADULT OF NEZARA VIRIDULA L. (HEMEP.). 

BY THOS. H. JONES, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

While making a collection of adults of the southern green 
plant-bug (Nezara viridula L.) at Baton Rouge, La., August "2(\, 
1919, Mr. C. F. LaGrone took two abnormal individuals. Mr. 
LaGrone has called my attention to these individuals and, es- 
pecially since one shows such a marked difference in coloration 
from the typical green specimens of the species, I have thought 
it advisable to present the following note concerning them. 

Both individuals are females and were collected on beans. One, 
while generally of the normal green color, has light areas, so 
outlined as to give bilateral symmetry of markings, on the dorsal 
surface of the head, upon the pronotum, and upon the heme- 
lytra. These are indicated in Fig. 1. When the adult was 
alive these areas were white but in the mounted specimens took 
on a yellowish tinge. 




Fig. i Nezara viridula. 



A light colored area covers about one-half of the dorsal sur- 
face of the head and includes all that portion anterior to a V-- 
shaped line whose ends are opposite the middle of the inner mar- 
gins of the compound eyes, and whose middle is on the tylus 
somewhat anterior to the beginning of the sutures between it 



172 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

and the juga. Another light colored area occurs on the anterior 
portion of the pronotum, nearly one-half of which it covers. It 
includes all of the pronotum anterior to a wavy line whose ends 
originate just back of the lateral angles and which is slightly 
curved forward. On each hemelytron there is a light colored 
longitudinal band on the embolium. This is more pronounced 
near the base of the embolium and extends only about half the 
distance from the base to the membrane. The lateral margins 
of the ventral surface of the head and thorax are light in color 
and the connexivum is lighter than in normal green specimens. 

The other individual referred to has a malformed scutellum, 
the apex being abnormally small and distorted so that it ends in 
a sharp tip which is directed upward at an angle of about 45 
from the dorsal surface of the body. 

Both specimens have been placed in the United States National 
Museum. 



NEW SPECIES OF NEOTROPICAL PYRAUSTINAE (LEPID.). 

BY W. SCHAUS. 

In accordance with my practice, only one specimen is con- 
sidered as type and although there are often more specimens 
before me, I have not included them in the type series, basing 
the description on one specimen only. 

Neurophyseta durgalis, new species. 

Female. Body white, the abdomen with a dorsal brown spot near base, 
and broad segmental lines on terminal half. Wings white ; a marginal brown 
line interrupted by veins. Fore wings: an antemedial, almost medial fine 
yellow line, outangled on costa, incurved across cell, then vertical to inner 
margin; an incurved double black line on discocellular meeting in front; 
postmedial space to line irrorated with light brown, which extends to termen 
between veins 2 and 5; veins from cell brownish ochreous; postmedial line 
black, finely wavy and vertical to vein 4, then incurved to vein 3, below 
which it is obsolescent, preceded by a white spot between veins 5 and 6, 
and by fuscous shading between veins 5 and 3, followed closely by a brownish 
line which continues to inner margin. Hind wings: a postmedial dark brown 
line, fine from costa to vein 2, then broad to inner margin, followed by a 
yellowish parallel shade. Wings below with the markings less distinct. 

Expanse, 15 mm. 

Habitat. Volcan de Santa Maria, Guatemala. 
Type. Cat. No. 2,3519, U. S. N. M. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 173 

Neurophyseta tanamoaiis, new species. 

Male. Palpi white. Body above pale ochreous gray, the abdomen dor- 
sally slightly darker, legs white. Fore wings pale ochreous gray, the lines 
and cilia white; a medial line outangled to discocellular in front, inbent 
across cell and vertical to inner margin; postmedial line evenly outcurved 
from costa to vein 2, then slightly outcurved to inner margin. Hind wings 
white, the terminal half faintly suffused with ochreous gray; a dark point 
on termen before anal angle. Fore wings below with only the postmedial 
line. 

Expanse, 12 mm. 

Habitat. Tanamo, Cuba. 

Type. Cat. No. 23520, U. S. N. M. 

Neurophyseta volcanalis, new species. 

Male. Palpi, head, and thorax white. Abdomen above pale ochreous, 
underneath white. Fore wings with the apex produced, the termen slightly 
excised below it. Wings white, the lines fine, brown. Fore wings: a curved 
basal line; a yellowish antemedial outcurved shade; a medial line, outangled 
on median; discocellular denned by a straight line proximally, by an incurved 
line distally; a yellow streak on costa above discocellular, and a streak below 
vein 8 postmedially ; postmedial line curved from costa to vein 4, inbent to 
vein 2, and again inbent parallel with medial line to inner margin, followed 
by a yellowish shade, broad on costa, very indistinct below vein 4 ; a minutely- 
wavy marginal line followed by a yellow shade on termen. Hind wings: 
curved basal and antemedial lines; a double line at discocellular, the outer 
one extending towards costa; a postmedial line outcurved beyond cell, in- 
curved at vein 2, followed by a yellowish shade; a marginal line followed by 
a yellowish shade at apex. All the lines minutely wavy. Wings below white, 
the lines less distinct. 

Expanse, 12 mm. 

Habitat. Slopes of Popocatepetl, Mexico, between 8,000 and 
10,000 feet. 

Type. Cat. No. 23521, U. S. N. M. 

Neurophyseta albimarginalis, new species. 

Female. Palpi white, finely streaked above with fuscous. Head, collar, 
and thorax white ; a small pale ochreous shade on center of patagia. Abdomen 
above black with fine white segmental lines; anal segment white. Body 
below and legs white; fore tarsi with brown rings. Fore wings: base, costal, 
and outer margins white ; a vertical antemedial line brown on costa, otherwise 
black, slightly outcurved below cell, preceded below cell and on inner margin by 
a gray shade; postmedial line remote, outcurved and inbent to antemedial 
line on inner margin, followed by a gray shade from vein 4 to inner margin; 



174 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 22, NO. 7, OCT., 1920 

the space between the two lines brownish purple except the white costa; 
a white shade on discocellular; a white streak on submedian. Hind wings 
brownish purple; the base and inner margin narrowly white, the costal and 
outer margins broadly white; a curved antemedial black line; a black post- 
medial line only slightly curved followed by a broad dark shade to inner 
margin; the white on inner margin expanding between the two lines. Wings 
below white, the dark spaces of upper side showing as a grayish shade. 
Expanse, 20 mm. 

Habitat. Volcan de Santa Maria, Guatemala. 
Type. Cat. No. 23522, U. S. N. M. 

Psephis gomalis, new species. 

Male. Palpi white, the second and third joints ringed with pale brow T n. 
Head, collar, and thorax silvery gray. Abdomen above light brown with 
-ilvery segmental lines. Body below and legs whitish, the tarsi with brown 
rings. Wings silvery gray with darker gray irrorations below cells and on 
outer margins; a terminal brown line. Fore wings: a slightly outbent ante- 
medial brown line; a slight outcurved postmedial brown line; a fine dark 
streak on discocellular. Hind wings: a postmedial brown line to anal angle. 
Wings below more silvery; the lines as above but without the antemedial 
line on fore wing. 

Expanse, 12 mm. 

Habitat. Volcan de Santa Maria, Guatemala. 
Type. Cat. No. 23523, U. S. N. M. 

Homophysa pomonalis, new species. 

Female. Palpi, head, collar and thorax yellow; some white mottling on 
head. Abdomen above brown with white segmental lines; the basal seg- 
ment white, the anal segment yellow. Fore wings: basal third and costal 
margin yellow suffused with orange below cell to inner margin and on outer 
h